Loading...
11/01/2021 04.G. Resolution adopting the Pedestrian Master Plan • f4411 .( i rr 11 i�O enc u nrry 1 BUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDA STATEMENT Item No. 4.G. For Meeting of: November 1, 2021 ITEM TITLE: Resolution adopting the Pedestrian Master Plan SUBMITTED BY: Joan Davenport,AI CP, Community Development Director Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager Trevor Martin, Senior Planner(509) 575-6162 SUMMARY EXPLANATION: At the October 19, 2021 public hearing, Council heard a presentation from staff and the consultant, and received public testimony. The attached Resolution formally adopts the Pedestrian Master Plan as presented. The plan can be found here in color: https://www.yakimawa.gov/services/planning/pedestrian-master-plan/ ITEM BUDGETED: NA STRATEGIC PRIORITY: Neighborhood and Community Building APPROVED FOR SUBMITTAL BY THE CITY MANAGER RECOMMENDATION: Adopt Resolution ATTACHMENTS: Description Upload Date Type 1 Resolution 10/21/2021 Resolution ID Pedestrian Master Plan final 10/22/2021 Corer Memo 2 RESOLUTION NO. R-2021- A RESOLUTION adopting the City of Yakima Pedestrian Master Plan WHEREAS, the purpose of the Pedestrian Master Plan is to create a set of data and design guidelines that can be used to develop and guide future City policy and supplement our existing transportation documents; and WHEREAS, the Plan went through a public process which included public engagement through Community Stakeholders, public survey, interviews with local residents, meetings with the Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee, press releases, social media and other outreach efforts; and WHEREAS, on October 13, 2021, the Yakima Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee held a meeting to review the final changes to plan, and passed a motion to recommend approval of the plan; and WHEREAS, on October 19, 2021, the City of Yakima City Council held an open record public hearing to review the Pedestrian Master Plan, and receive public comment; and WHEREAS, the Yakima City Council, having considered the recommendation from the Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee, hereby finds and determines that approval of the Pedestrian Master Plan is in the best interest of the residents of the City of Yakima, now, therefore BE IT RESOLVED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF YAKIMA: The Yakima City Council hereby approves and adopts the Yakima Pedestrian Master Plan ADOPTED BY THE CITY COUNCIL this 1st day of November, 2021. ATTEST: Patricia Byers, Mayor Sonya Clear Tee, City Clerk i i .Vr r 1 1 Pr .114 • II n ' ) �. - . ) ' - ` tr AA '�kW .r.p i�T p �. ingiliar FALL 2029 Yakima , WA Pedestrian Master Plan `\' D aftCPlan Acknowledgements City Council City of Yakima Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory Committee Elena Macias Trevor Martin Distrktl Senbr Flanrer Neil McClure Chair Jason White Bill Preston Dictrkt2 City Engineer Phil Mattoon We Chair Patricia Byers ban Davenport Dictrict3, Mayor Community Devebpment Shirley Strader ` Director Kay Funk JenniferGindt Dictrict4 Joseph Calhoun - Banning Manager Will Hollingbery a Sonya Lund District 5 Ken Jones Brad Hill Paul Cook i Disrtrict6 T1 MI .r =-5 • Ea HollyCousens . r_ � . District 7,Ass'staM Mayor - 1 ;�' _ The Cityof Yab'ma would like to thank City Couci for allocating .. ,..,., the funding to develop the FLdestnrrnMa hn,sterp as HeN as the �'�� �. acyclic,and Fedesbian Advisory Committee for recognizing a need and advocating for the community Contents Appendices A 01 Design and Maintenance Guide Introduction B 02 Code and Policy Review Existing Conditions C 113 Existing Conditions and Needs Analysis Public Engagement D 04 Public Engagement Summary Recommendations E Network Identification 05 F Implementation Network Prioritization iv z a J a a' W 1- I) Q 2 Z a ce H LU W 0 W a a 2 a } Executive Summary YAKIMA PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN WALKING IN YAKIMA TODAY v The Yakima Pedestrian Master Plan is the city's framework for creating Today,only about 2% of workers in Yakima walk as their primary mode a safe, complete, and connected pedestrian network for people of all of transportation. However,based on public feedback throughout ages and abilities. It is the city's first pedestrian master plan and builds the plan, not only are residents interested in walking more if the on past planning efforts, including the Transportation Systems Plan network supports it, but many people walk daily for reasons other than (2017)and the ADA Transition Plan (2016).The Pedestrian Master Plan transportation--including recreation, health, and relaxation. outlines strategies,programs,policies, and network improvements that While approximately 50% of Yakima's roadways have a sidewalk on at can help Yakima become a more walkable city. least one side of the roadway, gaps in the network, narrow sidewalks, limited crossings,missing curb ramps, and other barriers limit the BENEFITS OF A PEDESTRIAN NETWORK utility of the network to support travel across the city. Major roadways typically have sidewalks on at least one side of the road along major Everyone is a pedestrian.A well-connected and robust pedestrian roadways and provide access to transit, commercial centers, and more. network supports people walking or using an assisted mobility device However, narrow sidewalks, fast moving traffic, and limited crossings in and around Yakima,providing not only more equitable access mean that major roadways are typically not comfortable places to walk. and opportunity to the city but also improving residents' quality of While neighborhood roadways often do not have sidewalks,these life. Improvements to the city's network of sidewalks, paths, roadway links provide lower-stress,more comfortable connections to local crossings, and curb ramps support not only increased access but also destinations, including parks and schools. Opportunities to improve provide numerous other benefits to both the city and its residents. the network include completing the sidewalk network,providing new Benefits include environmental, economic, health, and safety. and improved crossing opportunities, and providing wider sidewalks without barriers. In addition to evaluation of current walking conditions,this Plan also assesses network safety concerns. Crash data available at the time of this plan show the pedestrians are disproportionately represented in Yakima's most serious collisions. Despite representing only about 2%of all reported crashes between 2014 and 2019, pedestrians were involved in 28% of collisions resulting in a serious injury or fatality. vi Further analysis of pedestrian-invoked coIlaions suggests that Z coIrsbrs are often associated with major adevays, intersectbns, r a and !matins in the eastern area of the cdy.While safetydsta is just ccone input intound?rsbnding challenges to walking in Yakima today, it - - Pprovides irsght into possible solutbrs and focus areas. a ra I g PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT --------- — �., � _Lll _ _ _ — i o Thmughoutthe panning process,Yakima residents PARR invitedb a slam mote about howtheytrweltoday,theirirerest inwalking in f - 1l f the city,whatimprovementstheyvould life to see,and to provide _ --el_ . ! l a feedback on pan recommendations.Engagement methods included - bah online and in-personevents, including online surreys and input -- - maps as vellas in-person walking burs.Q detailed fist of engagement methods can be fount on page 21 of the pan. Thioughthese activities, participants indicated theyam interested in v:.. ,•st walking mom if the neMorksuppored it including widersidevalks, v , fi complee sklenella, improvs_d curb ramps,see rcrossings,mom lighting,shade and landscaping,ant navigatbn support. Inputechaed - •- . the findings of the sabtyanalysa,with many participants identifying -)Iiii, • saatyas aleyconcern. - I irs Participants aSo indicated the importance of connectingdestiratbrs h Ir ' and exp bring frneo cost,innovate solutors that can lead to quicker r. - IA r ' - - c. - RECOMMENDATIONS vii Network Typologies provide the framework for plan recommendations. Each typology also includes a series of recommendations or project Typologies are a tool that describe both the role of a corridor in the strategies to improve walking conditions along the corridor and at pedestrian network and recommended improvements that support intersections. Examples include completing the sidewalk network; that function.There are six typologies identified as part of this plan, installing high visibility crossings and other crossing controls; including: shortening crossing distances; implementing traffic calming; and • providing greater separation from travel lanes.The recommendations • Major Street Commercial outlined are intended to inform project design but may require • Downtown/Main Street Commercial additional site review as projects advance. • School/Park/Campus Area • Primary Connector Recommendations include: • Low-Density Connector 16 MILES • Residential Major Street Commercial Network typologies are influenced by surrounding land use patterns, roadway characteristics such as posted speed limits and number of 6 MILES travel lanes, sidewalk conditions, crossing conditions,and observed Downtown/Main Street challenges associated with the area. Commercial For example, Major Street Commercial corridors typically are located along arterial roadways with higher travel speeds and traffic volumes. 15 MILES Commercial land use is prominent in these locations, including School/Park/Campus Area shopping centers with large set backs from the roadway.While sidewalks are usually present along one side of the roadway, crossing 41 MILES opportunities are typically infrequent. Challenges in these areas include frequent driveway crossings, narrow sidewalks,obstructions in Primary Connector the path of travel, and limited separation between motor vehicles and people walking. 57 MILES Low-Density Connector viii WHERE DO WE START? PROGRAMS, POLICIES, AND IMPLEMENTATION While projects across the network are importantfor improving The Pedestrian Master Plan also identifies program opportunities that z pedestrian travel, limited resources mean that not all projects can be can support plan goals. Programs such as safe routes to school provide a implemented at once. Project prioritization helps us understand where education and encouragement for people interested in walking more, ix to start; it evaluates projects based on their consistency with plan goals while expanded outreach activities and community walks can help the 1- and objectives and identifies which projects may have the greatest City hear from more of Yakima's residents. Data collection programs 2 network impact. can enhance the City's understanding of both existing infrastructure a as well as the use of the network, and wayfinding systems can support - The prioritization process relies on data used in the planning (,-) process, including both data from the needs analysis as well as navigation for those walking in the city. o public engagement results. It also includes information from other city Finally,the Pedestrian Master Plan also identifies opportunities for ainitiatives,such as the ADA Transition Plan and city equity analysis. the City to advance plan recommendations.This includes integrating The result is aprioritized project list that can be used to develop an projects into the CIP and pursuinggrant but also encourages P j P P j 9 g, g a implementation plan, provide projects for inclusion in the City's Capitol staff to explore opportunities for improved maintenance procedures Improvement Program (CIP), or identify projects for grant applications. and rapid implementation project approaches. City staff are also The map on the next page shows the prioritized pedestrian network. encouraged to review internal procedures as well as codes and design standards to provide for consistency with the Pedestrian Master Plan. 1 PROJECT PRIORITIZATION • III I- 4 y Network ADA Connectivityf:Alkii Accessibility 10yi ' 1. I��. Safety 414 Equity _ �) a 1.OrttlAj'4K Tar Access to G Community- et • ..1 . Destinations Identified Need.n. 44,\„....` _ _it : - -%, . . . / CRY OF YAKIMA PEDESTRIAN r,. l`+ "' MASTER PLAN DR KR COED REM RAA N EENa RK LT- TA.�=\ PAflAr MUD NEWSMAN NETWORK Y .+w. �t y+ � n. XIDM MOOD �^ 5 4 Mfg- _ L - I EDnr PNMy CI 'J �`7a�� v IA l BACKGROUND " euoemDn L.7 Yu .. SY -� {11 fee . \ vamN.�aYand ANa � p llia `} , 1 —ammr.ma and vym 1 ‘ whirr watt 1 , A sdmis Y I d .. _ ! ? nbnmba,nt --�- 'CS. E ^ % ' i i t NNone rE // /, N Sagt�.� ..,m,a DanM'aa .� I r' r f I ..--"na w..tberw.xmr N.W W:LLW alta x z J d' W H z CC H W 0 W a 2 } 01 . Introduction Introduction 1 The objective of the Yakima Pedestrian Vaster Plan is to create a safe, complete, and • connected pedestrian network that supports travel for people of all aces and abilities. 0 This is the City's first Pedestrian Master Plan and serves as a complement to the Transportation Systems Plan,the ADA Transition Plan, and ongoing Safe Routes to School activities. The Plan details existing conditions, summarizes public engagement, characterizes Yakima's pedestrian network, presents roadway typologies and associated improvements, and identifies implementation priorities. Yakima residents and visitors are increasingly interested in walking as a safe and convenient mode of transportation to get to the places where they work, shop, learn, and play. Whether walking for enjoyment and recreation at popular destinations, like the Yakima Greenway, or walking to access bus stops and schools,the pedestrian network is a vital component of travel in Yakima. The recommendations included within this Pedestrian Master Plan were developed through stakeholder and community engagement, along with technical analysis of walking needs across the city. 2 WHAT'S IN THIS PLAN RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER PLANS Chapter 01,Intreducticn summaries the purpose of the Yakima Pievbus pens and current city policies and iegubatbns informed Pedestrian Master Flan. thedevebpment d the Fedestren Master Pbn.ThS Pen does rot z seekb replace prevbus pens but instead provides additbnal insight d Chapter 02,Existing Conditions+Needs Analysis,reviews existing intothe pedestrian nernorkspecdicaly.It S also inended to to a cc data,sumnnrkes echnbal analyses,and identifies opportunities br �' compementtoongoing Safe Roues b School activities focused on a the pedestrian network Yakirn s kcal roadways. f z Chapter 03,Public Engagement,reviews both taw and what we head This pen builds on recommendations devebped in the 2040 a from 1'aldma iesidents,staletiokleis,and visitors b guide the recom- Transportation System Pen(2017)and considers recommendations 8 mendatbns in this plan. horn the Bile Yakima Bicycle Master flan(2017].Other pens and a Chapter 04,Recommendations,defines the Pedestrian Network and documents that wee corsuled brthe aeatbn of this pen include xpresents a series of roadway typologies toguideimprosements over theCdyofYakirca QD0.Tansrtbn Pen[2010],theCiryofYaldrca QDA a time.These typologies respond b end use,roadway chaacterStics, Transition Pen Self-Evalratbn[2016],the Downtown Yakima Master and roue functbn.ThS chapter summaries both common challenges Pen,and theCityof Yakima Munbipal Code. and associated solutbrs that can helpYakima becomea more vmmc a..seamy,'ant,c y.Ar walloble accessiblecity. r - - I Implementation, P strategyforBIKE YAKIMA 1 . ' +g.. Chapter OS, outlines a rbnt¢aton ' pedestrian infrastructure impmvernents and amides infommtien al tlIIXaFNb4tlARgl sYANrit,VA$Ie:101 'be various staegies orappronches the city con tale b implement the ea. > plan overtime. l t �� ir. _ /tom,, ChapterO6,Design and MaintenanceGuide,outlinesfacilitydesign � � -.. _ y 7' and maintenance acnsideatbns tosupporttheCityofYakirca in j^ ; it selecting,implementing,and maintaining the pedestrian neMork over a time. lef �•i f.; {r,,� f • / 2040 �'' TRANSPORT, •I. SYSTEM PLA nL,Y� BENEFITS OF A PEDESTRIAN NETWORK 3 Everyone is a pedestrian. Residents and visitors walk to meet their Safety daily needs, improve their health,and connect with the community Identifying and filling network gaps in Yakima's sidewalks while and destinations.Awell-connected and robust pedestrian network .; promoting continued education and encouragement can reduce supports people walking or using an assisted mobility device in and o potential collisions between people walking and motor vehicles. around Yakima, providing not only equitable access and opportunity to the city but also improving the quality of life in the city. Elements of Well-designed roadways and active transportation facilities can the network include sidewalks,trails,curb ramps, road crossings, park improve safety for all roadway users through increased predictability and increased separation from motor vehicles. paths, and more to help people get around. Improvements to the network will allow for increased access to parks, Environmental schools, and workplaces.Walking provides an alternative to vehicular Increased walking can replace vehicle trips, reducing vehicle miles travel, promoting more active lifestyles, and in many cases, may serve traveled and vehicle emissions,and resulting in improved air quality. as a primary mode of transport. In addition,the benefits of walking are This not only improves the quality of life for those experiencing varied, including environmental, economic, and health benefits. Key respiratory conditions such as asthma, but also helps reduce Yakima's benefits include: carbon footprint. Health and Equity Quality of Life A well-connected pedestrian network provides safer and more All city residents are pedestrians at some point during their day.An comfortable ways to travel for people of all ages and abilities. improved pedestrian network in Yakima will provide more options Low-stress networks can expand access to schools,workplaces,and for city residents and visitors to safely walk where they want to go, parks connecting residents to economic, education, and recreational supporting an improved quality of life for residents who might have opportunities that may have been more difficult to access otherwise. otherwise been stuck in traffic. Improvements to the pedestrian Moreover, having a robust pedestrian network supports those who network will not only increase pedestrian comfort, but will also cannot drive or choose not to drive. Other benefits of walking include encourage more people to walk, especially for shorttrips. improved physical and mental well-being through reduced stress, reduced anxiety, and numerous benefits associated with higher levels of activity. For example,students who are active on their way to school The terms"pedestrian" and are more likely to show up ready to learn. "walking" used in this plan include • people who use mobility devices, such as wheelchairs,and people who travel on foot. 4 az J d' W H Q z a H LU W 0 W a a } 02 . Existing Conditions + Needs Analysis Community S Context ---\---\, Naches ...- The City of Yakima is the county seat of Ricer,_ --•.• Yakima County and the eleventh largest i. s_.-, _ • _ "� `�, city in the state of Washington. Located in ''r; �r1 -~'' .� ; the Yakima Valley,the city's economy has -.� `• t E� \. , L. + historically revolved around agriculture. 1-.�,1 1,- I Che';erley Park Memorial �. It is also known as a popular tourist -- kiii.x_- .+ •"�� morriiik.o.,:4t . a ima ko destination, particularly related to outdoor ! � Riv-r•-1 7s!lbet ' . �- •� k recreation and the historic downtown. r"' *� , Today, nearly 94,000 people live in `•' NNW Yakima. More than half of the population i.1,•1 is between the ages of 18 and 65; :- aa((��pp . i LP�rk �o e approximately 30%are under the age I•• !i. • - �•— ••-" wet Va of 18.The City also experiences high �� .- Co,montt R ,y rates of poverty,with more than 20%of .ark Kls 111•ark ; households below the federal poverty ;.-• 11 Eli a '; line. -_-4-.-.i--. -ca. . . .' 1-1 Yakima's population is also diverse. Nearly 1 _ , --1 — 1• 1 _.sti half of the population is Hispanic, and i I - j• ; t—• close to 40% of the population speak L L r ,._ Spanish at home Map 1:City of Yakima, Washington 6 TRANSPORTATION OVERVIEW EXISTING PEDESTRIAN NETWORK Yakima is connected to the rest of the state and region by Interstate Sidewalks 82, US Highway 12, and State Route 24.Within the city, a grid pattern Sidewalks are found along approximately 50%of Yakima's roadways. aemerges that is densest in the eastern parts of the city, including Nearly 100 miles of roads have complete sidewalks on both sides, 0_ Downtown, and gradually becomes less dense moving west. while an additional 80 miles have sidewalks on one side of the road w Twelve bus routes operated by Yakima Transit support travel in the city (Map 2).Sidewalks are most often present along major roadways,while 2 and the Greater Yakima area. Bus routes are located along many of the neighborhood roads are less likely to include sidewalks. In particular, a city's major roadways and help connect residents to the region. western areas of the city are less likely to have sidewalks along neighborhood roads. W The current transportation network supports a range of options for a people walking, biking,taking public transportation, and driving; Even when sidewalks do exist,there are significant gaps that limit however,the vast majority of Yakima's population rely on driving, as pedestrian travel. For example,areas outside homes or businesses shown in Figure 1. may have a grass or dirt path instead of a sidewalk. Gaps, no matter } how large, can impact pedestrian travel by forcing people to walk in the street, cross to the other side, or not complete their journey.This Walk Bike is especially important for people with disabilities and those who use ° 2% 1% mobility devices. Transit Work at Home 1% 3% Developer-based improvements are a major source of new sidewalks, as the City requires that new developments construct sidewalks on Other their internal streets and adjacent frontages. While this will continue to 1% be a large source of new sidewalks in the city, it may leave significant Carpool gaps along major roadways needed to access essential destinations. 14% The City of Yakima has prioritized Safe Routes to School, seeking to improve walking safety in the vicinity of school campuses. Currently, less than 30%of roadways within one-quarter mile of schools have Drive Alone complete sidewalks on both sides of the roadway, limiting access to 73% schools for those within close walking distance.The difficulty of walking or biking to school is further reinforced through the lack of crossing opportunities along major roadways that separate neighborhoods. Figure 1:Transportation to Work (ACS 2019 5-year Estimate) I CITY OFYAKI MA 7 PEDESTRIAN j� MASTER PLAN SOCWALK NRNVRK rrII \t y COMING BROWNIAN Winn 2 -1_ �•` --\..ter lb'Sulk y 1 � . a6wkmonitl. q — ai.nk en MA itiv �. R� LL ...\ \ tY.diirkedlak, ) I4. [ 1 I /IMMO.♦L r#� \ nr:t;L -.��a I •f . — uw.di�eke.dvely 6 r' l/L Jr 11 L kYntati 7L �� !Hitt....Yw�M.* \ \ BACKGROUND ! Q 1 I � A. 11rV o t� `,.m —. .t�. W �} �y { .k f1�- a�+S Y 1� I�^v „ }A • �ll �r�' in n� I� h fe E IllllbII!���lr t tl IY ^ ml. ,_1114 411 1LTii) FF s- Ii ...Ilia anta f I )' D _ .,, E Ig 1 S f' ^I 1 XYY ^— tYtlDfX IIII 'War Er 1 �l//IlllkJ u �Yr �W.Ir I Y / —9 Ill CoNav ri !Jr ._ . ,� t )-. ..r...mm :::. _ S." I - 0 alta Mop?Fxa,99.4>eis U.S.& S Trails and Off-Street Paths Pedestrian Crossing Opportunities Off-street paths and tails with in the city also support pedestrian travel In addition to sidewalks and trails,crossings ate a vielcomporentof tar both trarsporetbn and recreation purposes.The Yakima Greermay a complete and conneced pedestrian system.Marked ctossvalks, a blbws the Neches and Yakima Rivets,and includes connections b the hybrid beacons,talk signals,and other madvaytreatments that b: street reMorkat locatbrs such as Gordon Road N 6th Avenue,and enhance pedestrian safety ate especially important along major cc a' S.18th Avenue.lnadd'rbnto the Greermay,paths and trails through madvays Were highervolumes of talk and highertraielspeeds link N f pans provide recreatbn opportunities and vita lconnectbns separated opportunities to crass sekyand comfortably. z from motor vehicles.These condors enable recreatbrel opportunities a Today,des igratedcrossing Iccatbrs within thecityare bcated tar usdents; hovevec they are bcaed primarilyon the eastern and ui northern edges of the city and do not provide ulila yfor resbents who Drimariyat major iMersectbrts,irequentiy in conjunction with talk o signals.While traffic signals provide sate rcrossing opportunities, U.a are seekingbmalae connectbrts with in City beMeen resberces elements of the intersectbndesign,suchas permitted right tum on red f and places ofvork. orsbp bars bcated incbse pmximityto the crosswalk.significantly a -- - ,_, - - educing comfortand safetyofthe crossing.Additbnal marled • ,; c * crossvalks are bcated titmughoutthecity,frequently in close proximity ;,c _.-, , to schools. - ; :�. Runlet designated pedestrian crossings of major toads are ofkn far If- apart.This means thatto access a safer crossing opportunity. people 4,9 . 111i ,t'; walking often have b traielsigniticaMdistances b access a sake _ _ more comortaby crossing opportunity. r k.. �. rt r . `a5» Tie Yca oG ccoufr/*dcc 2Adcc ofpaVOxd6 fa wtspoexIbk jaw caries bcd cakc QWGW,x*,daOCS WAMM cacti bode*f hodoSotrtow YdisoG ccouy PEDESTRIAN NETWORK NEEDS ANALYSIS 9 This secton lakes a cbserbokatthe factors influencing pedestrian 5� tavelin Yakima.Extending beyond an assessmentofexating I� 1 , t a conditbns,the Needs Analysis seeks b understand cactus that affect 1 combrt,safety and demand br pedestrian>rate! in the City.Based on `f 7 thSanalysis,there issignifcantopportunitytoimprme thequalityand a . -y al saeryofYakim3s intrastrucareb betersupport people walking. - -adr,-s..• =� • ^fir'- up o � Neighborhood toads frequent&ptovide bverstress,more comfortable _- - & mutes forbcal trawl. Hantever,oonnectorc to majoriadvays ofen limitthe reach of the pedestrian neMork. Hghtatelspeeds, snow V ormissing sidewalks,and missing curb amps abng major toads do ko notsupportsafe and combrlabe tateIto destiratbns orbeMeen .. Ell neighborhoods.Further,limied ctossing opportunities require signdicantotrto4directbn travel b connect across major toads. 0 Safetydaashows that pedestransare d'sptoportbnataky represented in serious injuryorfaalcoll'sbns,and pedestrian-invoked coll'abns most often occuron major toads and at intersectbns.With many destinations boated abng major roads and nearineisectbns,there is signdicantopporwni yto support safer, more comfortable travel abng the pedestrian neMorkthio gh imptovedsklevalks, newctossing opportunities,and pedestrian priorityat intersectbrs. 10 Pedestrian Level of Traffic Stress (PLTS) PLTS evaluates roadway characteristics and existing pedestrian Results of the PLTS analysis are shown in Figure X. Many of Yakima's infrastructure to better understand perceived levels of comfort and major roadways are high stress due to high travel speeds and safety across the network. Posted speed limits,the width of roadways, incomplete sidewalk networks. Major roadways are often where and the location of sidewalks are key considerations of the PLTS. important destinations are located,including shopping centers, medical w These factors considered together are rated on a four-point scale. PLTS offices, schools, and bus stops.These roadways also provide the most 1 represents the highest level of comfort along a roadway and generally direct routes across town. For residents traveling on foot, it is access includes a complete sidewalk network, lower travel speeds, and to streets with complete and robust infrastructure will be critical for elements that provide greater space between the sidewalk and moving their walking journey. Further, local roadways provide low stress travel W vehicles. Conversely, PLTS 4 represents the highest stress roadways, opportunities within neighborhoods but are limited in their connections a often with no or limited sidewalks, high travel speeds, and wide streets. to many destinations.There is significant opportunity to improve 2 pedestrian routes through continued analysis of local routes and It is important to note that many factors can influence pedestrian development of new connections between neighborhood streets and } comfort but are not considered in this analysis. For example,this Y p major roadways. analysis does not directly consider roadway crossing quality, buffers and vegetation, or lighting. However, PLTS is a starting point for The majority of low stress (PLTS 1 or 2)streets are located in and network evaluation, allowing an assessment of a large area where around Downtown and on the east side of Yakima. In these areas, limited data is available. most streets are either PLTS 1 or 2 as the sidewalk network is more developed and traffic travels more slowly than it does along major east-west arterials that stretch across the city. 4 CITY OF VAKIMA r PEDESTRIAN I/ V ite MASTER PLAN w•.`.,, /' , otocn)toi LEVEL OF \, TVArn:sT91S(LTS) t LLYFLCf TrAfiC FaY STR —0.TSl:bxSRm re RTS -RTSS •A III`� Gr LLiP4LM rp • N + V rhL ' 'E:11I1'P1' �� BAC KG ROJ NN 6 L —R.Lr. 4 i Ma=al _+..IIr al `n lY, 1R Imr ass r Ns < sdoa. in C r o n Ii11ti1i 111 - I y(7 If V `ix�i,11I `* '� 1 . ,: f I 1 a J IR.. iitTivilzpu `` ror�ae.Me i III=_ air 1 i 111 udll r ,rtr.;o + ��.." r IL III k a t.Tro . Ruu1111 1 II �t 1 ••,�• �` ] / 91CR:. i11111R11111 plb. _ N py. _ •L 1R�,—mil faI .—, �� J '1 I !1 lu�mil imi111 �•••• 1 11CIrvTI III I�III11/1�1CIINRI11111 m1a111• / II u • ► ...- "4 .�IIII�F7IIIIII�IIII1 4, 7/U/.jam _����p pyaul 1iii { i L i 1 tirri all II 1 L� � '71 +f�- ; I • I I a l alta f1w1:9odaannbWd vlhc aces 12 Crossing Spacing Analysis Areas of bwstiess pedestrian streets across the city ale regularly . interrupted by higher-stress PLTS 3 orPLTS 4 loadNays. Highness z roadways that inerrupt avelabng otherwise bw-stress mutes can it limit a peisonsabilityto teachdestiratbns,or requite significant 1 U a q .. . a' outofdirectbn uaael bra person b find asaarcossing.To better n N • f understand crossing Iimiatbnsbr pedestrian trawl this analysis • ,1 z considers the distance between signalised inwrsectbns along mar ?OW ` „��,1 �• ,� cf +�� - g madvays. _ --"��.._ N ur _ o LL �- f As shown in Map 4,distances between train:sgnat are often greeter - _ .__ than one-half mile.ThS distance increaxs b ore mile or more in Ire western and southern extents of the city.While intersectinrc without �.. � " . . a talk signal are more frequentthese boons require pedesabrc �'S'i to navigae fast mowing talk and doss agreaernumberof lanes. • a —an. 24i2 — ThS increases exposure In motoreehiclas and potenrblforcollisbns. Imptoyed crossing opportunities may include implementatbn of more signalSd crossings, in:lading pedestrian-specific signals such as hybrid beacons. --- _. \ .. CITY OF YAKIMA z'' PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN �.,. \ oC:CANO OWrras Ca# 9GNAMQ IUMC1m59MGS O �ypIMnCNWIIMrNp ..y IN fell2li h o O — vtmIw. & O• O .` _&«IruYnl Mao 0 O INICCSIpup - - ,:— _Q �' •'� • +�"-0 9- e n , • A. pyre. W MI 'IOW > % `m %// sue+ 0- —'O— i o o \� O O CPrvmaalken " \ Ir O Q l ! •Elm pa. OOC _._ •nuaChu.0.,00 w .n �.. Aqt; ¢ ' A reoar dota • O-O 0 • . araiktielromNreCq o f Minn • - - ^ ^ - - ,, , I tI I ua5einr+°da5&p1mr. ‘S-urf it j � � - •a, . • C b `� J 8ita 14 Safety A review of the reported pedestrian-involved collisions between 2010 Further, pedestrians are disproportionately represented in Yakima's and 2019 in Yakima provides insight into where pedestrian safety most serious roadway collisions,including those that result in a fatality aconcerns may be the greatest. It is important to note that this analysis of serious injury. During this time period, pedestrian-involved collisions only includes data on reported collisions; pedestrian collisions are accounted for only 2% of all reported collisions. However, pedestrian- 111 often under-reported and does not account for near-misses or similar involved collisions account for 28%of all fatal or serious collisions. o a safety concerns. m z E Between 2010 and 2019,357 pedestrian-involved collisions occurred Win Yakima.While the number of collisions each year has varied, data Pedestrians W since 2016 indicates that it is not becoming safer for pedestrians on 2 010 represent a a Yakima's roads. The annual collision rate has been trending upward, 428% 2 of all crashes though not steeply,and the total number of pedestrian-involved a involved } collisions each year has remained relatively steady when compared to pedestrians of fatal or serious the total number of collisions on Yakima's roadways. Most pedestrian- injury crashes involved collisions result in an injury, and more than half occurred at an intersection, as shown in Table 1. While it is important to recognize that reported collisions do not fully describe the experience and safety of people walking, analysis of Table 1: Pedestrian Involved Collision Summary available data provide insight into locations and trends of collisions to — better understand the safety challenges of the network today. Map Collisions Resulting in an Injury _ 91% — 5 on the next page summarizes the locations of collisions during this Collisions Resulting in a Fatality 4% _ time period.The City of Yakima routinely monitors collision data for all Collisions Occurring at an Intersection 60% _ modes; more information about collisions for all modes can be found on Collisions involving a turning vehicle 38% the City's website.1 1 Vie wthe City's GIS web portalathttps.//gis.yakimawa.gov/apps/collisions/map.html CITY OF YAKIMA 15 l PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN SA kvoLALT56 k EN DEDEN%H MVOWEDODLL°°N9 1 l- m t O 01 I L .° a r f '` QQQ ea � aR u "cum"' O Oc ev Y'WUXto I 'lam' NMNitua mre i° 0 o s G 0 woe. ,� 1 0 O 0 0 0 o _ :* A7� wloom w t s 0 8 pp 'dme IL d Wen o sromu.b _ NAdINuw 0 • SSO OJ c i oirli90 o ,CbD Lip am °. is..,oae uMb —L_J V.N(0y 0 -c 0 0 0 _° ° °c l -- Qo r.= anrv.., 00 or i jDomlraur 0 _f— l J I�� �f s1� a., w:a.r.<sn. 4. b�vt914C alta . MwSAxbar mMw'mdObVkias 0)M208J 16 PEDESTRIAN DEMAND Understanding where people Nwntb trawl provides irsight inb where Where People lire: Higherdensities of popuatbn ale bcaed in and pedestrian infrastructure improvements may be most needed. In around Cbwnbwn Yakima,with burerdensitfes in the western aims of z addition to conside ring where specific destinatbns are bcaed,s uc h the city. it as schools or bus stops,it iaSo imporentto consiier•whele thereae ccWhere People Hbrk:The ea;em areas of Yakima have a higher b' clusters ofdestiretbrs that maysupportshortv.calking nips. a density of Jobs, including Yakima Merroriol Hospital and condors with f S roc dically,the poental tar pedestrian demand in Yakima i;e✓aluaed a hig h de rs ity of Mail destinatbns,inc luiin;Washington Avenue and a based on whe a people live,mirk pay,learn,s ho p,and access pub It Fal itvale Boulevard g trarsporrtbn.Each of these caegories represent places where Lu o people either sertorend their trips. Locators with more destinatbrs Where People Plw: Parlor and tails are imminent in the northern us a bcaedcbseytogethermay bete rs up port s hort pedestrian tri ps. and eastern areas of the cicc ry, ircluding WrdnerPark,Kinwnls Park M May6 depicts these results. Chestery Park and the Yakima Greenvale.Access to parks and trails are more limied in the wesem aims of the city. Where People Leora. Moe than 30 schools thioughoutYakima provide -- _- . access to educatbrel opportunities.Schools are most common ly _ bcaed within neighbodoods and ae bcated across the city.As discussed in the existing conditions review,many schoolscunently lacke e e e ^ compleesidenalks b sup portsadentuaveItoschooI. `t Where People Access ?toast' Bus stops are typically bcated abng " ' I' . n " it maprcondors across Yakima.These rouesoftencoincide with fedestran Priority Roues identified in the TSP. Kikropnfloppwl MwWVr0 6ci0} rial J..Acexa>•M nnVr(aace... 3'v}:efNR ccoviro rrboAsexbm Ss pads.aawe. CITY OF VAKIMA i ; PEDESTRIAN 17 ,.....\\ ` / MASTER PLAN 4 OLNSNOAKU'Sti ' DWINATKINS • • \• . Q tanm.xbdbs I � 4i - '..... � mz:mor 11 yVys •t am, a tt :l�'t ` • -• •. ♦ .• e :- ;I s0�,.• I Werth 7Tr tmuarottt l••..•. •(xuTtS.� '1tr�•t.; • ,T• r p.m. �S L� ::7 1 xwmxue :cv� ., .'�?4 . tom' S Q ..� ..Y p, l:: .ne.ml,.e: • • • . . . . . 0- -.... ... ..,.. ... e. - -f. .. . ,.a . n:••• ' Ee",^'- '/. xxtsrnrnt ' ':' .•1 ,Ix •• •; • _ • yj ucx ND Sr g E._ ... .. ...Y ..Y Nads i . Y _ t • z y .Wa t IS :Y a.'. - tat YAb. R xMVxnlo '� 2 • ?^ n I , ' et F HllnefA'YMf[ • E Y : _in � i r..aa.. IJY�QW I _evm t 1 Ml/.1_ r i ”Mi rgnb lk . , ._Q. . . . ._�..: ---] i " n �' J L .J Ls - L�ni v-1 r.a.e ®. alta t+maetwroNam$:e ; \ ..,. . _ \ .. %`It SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND SYSTEM GAPS .. a. - The &Sting Condkbns analysis indicate seteral opportunities for Yakimt pedestrian rework. lava i ' These consideratbns should guide project priorities moving formid in the Yakima Fedestran Pan process,in coadiretion with the results of the public engagement process. \ . i - - >1 The 2(WOTrarspotbtbnSysem Pan Fb s klentifed Priority Pedestrian ues should be fie bass I . M1 ..,t brrecommendatbns of this Flan. .rli -.• is , ' * i >1 Yakima re s sidentalareas pmvide for bver stress Uwe!compared b mein roadways across 1I Me city;opporwndas b imptote conneclbns actoss mapr toadways en increase network :` R ' _,pt -. .�. -cs • connectivity in the city. .. Qt >1 Pedestranaccess to schools may be a challenge in some areas,especially where residential reighbodoods have fewsidenella and high-stress toads witoutcomplee sklenelka act as `{{ L . _ d terriers. >1 Sidewalks are gererely incomplete in residential areas,while mar toadnays typically include sidewalks onat least ore side of the roadnay.New sidewalks should be considered abng • toues that ptovide connectors to transh,schools,empbyment and oomme¢alopportundies. _ _ >1 CollSbns occurred mostoftenabng mapr toadvays and during commue hou is.Impme safety \ and combrtabng maj rioadvays, including opportunities for prioStang pedestrian tiavel at intersectbns. >1 New and/or imptoved ctossing opportunities should be considered abng mein toadways; j I—Ti ' t ` ,\ fiS S particuarytrue inthevestem areas of the city whoe fie distance betseenciossing / I I I \ ` - \ opportunities S greatest. 19 1 U W Page Intentionally Left Blank o 20 z a J d' W H Q Z a H LU W 0 W a a } 03 . Public Engagement Public Engagement 21 Outreach activities provided opportunities for those who live, work, play, and learn in Yakima to share about their experience walking in The COVID-19 pandemic required a different approach for the city. While previous planning documentation and network data connecting with the public. In person events, including open Lza provide valuable insight into the existing conditions for walking in houses,tabling at local events,and interviews with people on Yakima, public input provides context based on the experiences of sidewalks were limited or restricted based on public health people traveling each day.Throughout the planning process, people recommendations during the course of this plan. were asked to share about what they like or don't like about walking in Yakima; how they would like to travel in the future; and what Engagement for the Pedestrian Master Plan instead included improvements they would like to see.This chapter provides a summary a variety of tools for gathering feedback from residents and of the opportunities for input and results from each activity. visitors.A virtual public meeting kicked off the plan; an online survey and interactive web map gathered feedback about Generally, participants shared a vision for improved safety and how people travel today and want to travel in the future;and connectivity. People walk often and for a variety of reasons—including virtual advisory group and stakeholder meetings provide for transportation as well as for enjoyment or exercise. However, an opportunity to gather focused input on key milestones improved sidewalks and crossings as well as greater separation from and topics. Despite these impacts,the results speak to the motor vehicles would encourage people to walk more and to more participants'desire to improve active travel opportunities in places. Public engagement results frequently align with the findings of the city today and in the future. the Needs Analysis and reflect the opportunity available to improve the pedestrian environment in Yakima. 22 OUTREACH TOOLS Online Input asked participants to share theft experience walking Table 2:Yakima Pedestrian Master Plan Public Outreach Activities through a brief survey and online input map. Participants identified z Engagement Type Number of Event Date(s) a barriers to travel,shared about how they travel today and would like to a Participants travel in the future, and where they travel most often.This information w Community 167 November 5,2020 1- provided insight into where people travel and what improvements will Q Survey#1 through January 10, 2021 < support people walking.A second survey asked participants to weigh z in on the proposed priorities for the plan. Both surveys were provided Interactive Public Input 20 November 5,2020 Map through January 10, 2021 E in English and Spanish. W Virtual Town Hall 5 November 5,2020 W AVirtual Town Hall introduced the planning process to Yakima Pedestrian Priorities 70 August 3,2021 through a residents and launched the first phase of public input. Participants had Survey August 23,2021 2 an opportunity to ask questions about the plan and learn how the input >- tools work. Community Walking Tours 9 August 12,2021 Community Walking Tours explored Yakima's sidewalks,creating an Community 86 August 2021 opportunity to discuss both existing conditions and plan recommenda- Survey#2 tions in real time with Yakima residents.Two hour-long tours traveled in and around Downtown and the Barge-Chestnut neighborhood. Participants shared information about what they liked on the street today,what would make them more comfortable walking, and other observations ranging from the characteristics of the adjoining roadway to the quality of the route between two destinations.These walking tours,despite being impacted by wildfire smoke, provide an opportunity to gather in person and respond to the themes, observations, and recommendations of the Pedestrian Master Plan. In additbn to the opportunities identified above,aseries of stalehobder 23 be Mews and aorlahops with the Bicycle and Fedestrian Advisory (I. Committee provided add itbnal irci;ht into the needs and possible �JI solutions brYakimas pedestrian rework. Sic Stakeholder Interviews included discussions with reptesentathes of 6 io es businesses, bcalsctools, partneragencies,and more to discuss ra y al the challenges and opporwnities these groups see brwalkirg in I- - - - _ k Yakima. Discussbn included examples ofwhats veII today and — �!'_ . ; C aorl opportunities forcolaboratbn both throughoutthe pan and into o implementatbn. • ,...lite, Advisory tommittee Workshops.The Bicycle and Pedestrian Advisory 9r 1 _-,. committee providedoversgMand inputthroughoutthe panning - process, ircluiing reviewof existing coediitbrs,feedba:I;brae Y g 'b•5pwoppaYiiSwl aoe Ccoma2 a TanoRYopw.Ydaceeol elements included in the design guide,and review and inputon tie aoa:Hca Saving 6Mimoinpawhow.,>mamvngm3JAaAoodtme90 Pedestrian Netvodcand rprit63tion crlela Fatgoaxenam9h (Dood Th aspmrQdincmaYxAybkaeoo2the P Po0.wimfhh Plan<itos bQq&am marmwo vies and oppxlve 'rs For riarowpa4 aA.-0)aes0,rt wads aaNra Se c eSar 4nit doy Table3:Yakirra Pedestrian Master Pan Stakeholder and Advisory "'- Group Meetings -?= I_t.a•-mentT •e Bvent Date iY - 1' t , t St eh,!der ht& ien: Fetrrrny9,2a21;Fetroay 12,2021 Jl EipW ai0 PeNstilr kdti»ry FeGwry10,2021;4pn114,2021; ' tVl CnnmitEe September 15,2021 WHAT WE HEARD Better access for the pedestrian network. Participants indicated a >> Connect Neighborhoods and Destinations. Network desire to more easily walk to parks,trails, and other recreational improvements must consider how people travel from facilities. neighborhoods to nearby destinations. Infrastructure » People Walk for Many Different Reasons. Many respondents improvements, including sidewalks and lighting, can signify indicated that they walk for health, exercise, relaxation, and connections between these areas, but information that helps enjoyment. people navigate and understand where they are traveling is also important. >> People Walk Often.With many different reasons for walking, more than 50% of respondents indicated that they walk several times a >> Explore Low-Cost Solutions. Not all solutions require significant week or more. investment in new infrastructure. Improved traffic signal timing and leading pedestrian intervals can help prioritize pedestrians at >> Complete,Connected Sidewalks and Crossings are Important. intersections and reduce wait time for those traveling on foot. People indicated they'd walk more if the network supported it. This includes complete and continuous sidewalks, curb ramps,and >> Be Innovative.There is interest in creative solutions for Yakima's marked crossings in good condition. roadways. Exploring opportunities to slow traffic on key pedestrian corridors, provide more crossing opportunities,and shorten » Safety is a Primary Concern. Exposure to motor vehicles limits crossing distances for pedestrians can help a route feel safer and how comfortable people feel walking. Many noted high travel be more appealing to people walking. speeds, failure to stop for pedestrians, and close proximity to traffic as barriers for walking. Improved lighting can also help increase visibility and security along walking routes. >> Sidewalks Should be Accessible for All Ages and Abilities. Sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings should support travel for people of all ages and abilities. • Help People Navigate. Many times, people may not choose to walk to a destination because they aren't sure how to get there. Tools including lighting and wayfinding help signal to people walking that they are on the correct route and can support confidence in theft choice to walk. Page Intentionally Left Blank 26 z a J d W H Q Z a H LU W 0 W a a } 04. Recommendations Recommendations 27 The recommendations included within the Yakima Pedestrian Master Plan detail a broad strategy to address Yakima's pedestrian needs today and into the future.The plan defines a Pedestrian Network,which outlines the priority routes for pedestrian improvements in the city. The network is based on the priority routes identified in the 2040 Transportation Systems Plan,with additional routes included based on the results of the Needs Analysis and Public Engagement. The Pedestrian Network reflects key corridors that provide access to schools,transit, parks, and other destinations. Improvements along these routes, such as improved crossings and lighting; new or widened sidewalks; and traffic calming implemented along these corridors and at intersections with local roads support the vision for a better connected, more comfortable pedestrian network that works for all residents. Further, Network Typologies provide insight into the context of each corridor and which improvements are best suited to achieve the goals of the plan. 28 NETWORK TYPOLOGIES The Pedestrian Network Typologies area tool that describes the role of a route in the network.They consider surrounding land use, adjacent roadway characteristics, sidewalk presence, and common challenges J 0_ pedestrians encounter while walking. Recommendations include: w The Pedestrian Network Typologies are also a framework for 2 identifying network improvements, including sidewalks, crossings, 16 MILES lighting, and more that can help improve both safety and comfort of Major Street Commercial I- travel along Yakima's roadways. a Based on the characteristics of the Pedestrian Network,Yakima has 6 MILES five distincttypologies: Downtown/Main Street 2Commercial } • Major Street Commercial, • Downtown/Main Street Commercial, 15 MILES • School/Park/Campus Area, Primary Connector, and School/Park/Ca mp us Area • Low-Density Connector. Although not identified as part of the Pedestrian Network, local 41 MILES roadways that support travel in and through neighborhoods are also vital components of the pedestrian network. Specifically,they help Primary Connector people connect from where they live to local destinations like schools and parks or destinations along major roadways, like bus stops and 57 MILES services. Specific considerations for each typology as well as local Low-Density Connector roadways are included in the pages that follow. i 2 Y' • ..A$ / , - CITY OF YAKIMA 29 _ I ( PEDESTRIAN '6 --:Ip j MASTER PLAN � r ` I { RKOM"p K5 IIHETMORKTYrOIOG1 t �% . J• / Moab/hd:Akn Runk . 1t ., � , e � nbpntrt Y J " L. v ' t a ,r L kiln ti c r ` k `: r� ,:. —ve..f.a..t.. I . { FT®� i c / % Yf f u, .....a. 5 �k \ CACKGEOIKM bnewt{ bar' \ \ s ` ` —ass. -�. _ 1„...:4,4::::7 �1 c1. — II € � �/���//rL. . F . I ��ITMin- 1_1 — tow. Ll CFCIF CJ I W alta 1 l ti- i .r.4. 1 a I : ..,\ ..,�, J ,, ill 1 Ltd 47fp d Rdetim0anap 7pdpyas Typology: Major Street Commercial 30 Mein St eetCommen:aldescrites auto-oriented commensal auras I with wide driveways, large parking bts,and building; set back tom z mdN • the aay. Large supermarkets, testaments,and•'big bar'stores `• ii a are often bcaed abng these corridors,making them essential b • a' be reached by pedestrians despite the nobble lack of pedestrian • .'t foriented facuhtes such as markedciossings, pedestrian access points, '" - and sidewalk butters. ., note.. . _ _ _ • ' CC .These mutes provide access to businesses, bus sbps,services,and, J �^ . in some bcatbns, esdences. - ' o a OBSERVED CHALLENGES - M Majo r Sbeet Co m me tc al ateas are not ge ne ial ly desig ned with pedestrians in mind,which can create conflicts teMeen people walking or tolling and peopb drMng.The blowing are common •4 issues and hazards that can occur. •< . _ - 11 • Likelihood of pedestrians reeding b cross a street whete no crossing exists; 1111/ . • Highvehicle speeds; -1 - -. - • Long crossingd'stances; f. � '-- - • Fresence ofobstructonson sidewalks(such as utility poles,et.); _ -- __ • Driveways are wide and frequent creating conflict acres at the . a entrenceskxits to co m mem ial ce nte is - K Table 4: Major Street Commercial Conditions Observed Land Use Functional Cass Sidevelk Context Cesianation Conditbns Crossing Conditions CanmedaLsane Arterial Usralypresrntonatleastore side of tie mat lAtrere hfequentlong costing dsbtres and egribant reSdetbl presentedevdlamaynotalugsbeuide enougt distance betneenaossings.Tjpiailyretesm talk uithoutolsadet a ADA-accessible sigrdsatmea intrsedors. RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 31 While these streets are generally designed with automobile travel Provide more frequent crossings,particularly near destinations that in mind, improvements can be made to provide adequate space for pedestrians will access. Crossings should be well-marked and visible people walking or rolling and to make crossings safer and more visible. to people driving; signals or other crossing controls (RRFB, PHB) The following recommendations identify opportunities for improvement should be considered. Reduce distance between crossings to limit out along Major Street Commercial corridors.Additional review is required of direction travel. on site to determine the best combination of improvements. More o Shorten crossing distances and/or provide refuge islands. Curb information on specific design improvements can be found in the extensions and/or median refuge islands can increase pedestrian Design Guide. o safety at crossings by shortening the crossing distance and reducing Close sidewalk gaps. Some areas may lack sidewalks altogether, and the amount of time they are within the vehicle right-of-way. others may have inconsistent quality. Complete the sidewalk network Upgrade signals to include pedestrian signal head with countdown to create a predictable path for pedestrians to travel. signal and leading pedestrian interval. Signal heads allow Increase distance between pedestrians and travel lanes.Sidewalks pedestrians to judge how much time they have to cross the street.A are often located immediately adjacent of the roadway and offer little leading pedestrian interval gives pedestrians a head start to improve protection from vehicle traffic. Where possible, increase distance from visibility and reduce potential for conflict with motor vehicles. the road by adding buffers.This can include landscaping, planting Advanced Stop Line.An advanced stop line provides additional boxes, bicycle lanes, and similar treatments. Increased vegetation may space between the stop line and crosswalks,increasing visibility of also support a more comfortable place to walk. pedestrian crossings and reducing encroachment on the pedestrian Remove obstructions from sidewalk. Obstacles such as utility poles, crossing. mailboxes, and overgrown landscaping can impede the safe travel of No Right on Red. No Right Turn on Red limits motor vehicle right pedestrians, especially those with mobility limitations. This is especially turning movements, reducing potential conflict with pedestrian important in locations with limited sidewalk widths. crossings. Upgrade facilities to be ADA-accessible.All users should be able Improve Lighting. Lighting both along sidewalks and at intersections to comfortably and safely use sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings. can increase comfort of travel along a route,increasing both visibility Upgrade or repair facilities that are not accessible. Improvements of the route for pedestrians traveling and visibility of pedestrians to should include those identified in the ADA Transition Plan. people driving. Typology: Downtown/Main Street 32 Commercial - Parts of Yakima designated Downtown/ Main Street Commercial are gm it i; a commercial or mixed-use areas where many businesses are located I. - k _`- ' 14. 0 - J l - \F within close proximity to each other, including essential services • ii-. , y w such as banks, libraries, and grocery stores. Compared with more - - auto-oriented streets, most businesses in Downtown/Main Street •... y r •'��- Commercial areas abut the sidewalk (rather than being set back), _ z - _ a and there may by wider sidewalks, buffers from the roadway, or - I- pedestrian-oriented amenities to encourage foot traffic. = W Q W • _ __ a OBSERVED CHALLENGES '- 2 a Downtown/ Main Street Commercial areas are generally designed } with the expectation of pedestrian traffic, and walking and rolling . . between destinations is often encouraged.At the same time,with . 1i �� multiple modes sharing the right-of-way, the following are common i , �p •'. issues and hazards that can occur: -'°" 4rI vn.tf y • Long crossing distances; r-- - 'r • Limited mid-block crossings to support pedestrian connectivity r between destinations (including bus stops, businesses, etc.); (� • Streets are often larger and support considerable vehicle traffic, creating the potential for collisions; • Sidewalk widths may not support demand Table 5: Major Street Commercial Conditions Observed Land Use Functional Class Sidewalk Context Designation Conditions Crossing Conditions Commercial,Mixed-Use Arterial, Collector Generally present on both sides of the street,with Crosswalks at signalized intersections,with some variable quality and width mid-block crossings RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 33 Expand Sidewalks.Along pedestrian corridors and particularly in While these streets are typically well-suited for pedestrian travel, locations with high pedestrian demand,expand sidewalks to facilitate improvements can be made to improve comfort and safety along travel, encourage access to adjacent businesses, and support the route. The following recommendations identify opportunities for streetscape amenities, signage,or similar. improvement along Downtown/Main Street Commercial corridors. Additional review is required on site to determine the best combination Wayfinding. Pedestrian wayfinding supports navigation for Yakima of improvements. More information on specific design improvements residents and visitors.A combination of directional signs,kiosks,and can be found in the Design Guide. maps can help people plan their journey, encourage travel by foot, and support navigation and exploration. It is also an opportunity to Upgrade all facilities to be ADA-accessible.All users should be able include community and/or district branding. to comfortably and safely use sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings. Upgrade or repair facilities that are not accessible. Improvements Expand crossing opportunities. Consider mid-block crossing should include those identified in the ADA Transition Plan. opportunities in areas with high pedestrian demand and/or a high concentration of destinations. Specifically consider opportunities to Prioritize pedestrian travel through traffic calming.Slow vehicle connect to key destinations or cultural attractions. speeds through street design elements, such as raise crossings or curb extensions, to prioritize people walking.Slower vehicle speeds mean Maintain pedestrian priority at major intersections. Prioritize pedestrians feel safer and are more visible when attempting to cross pedestrians at major road crossings to provide a continuous, the street. connected low-stress experience. Include pedestrian signal heads to communicate remaining time to cross and leading pedestrian intervals Shorten crossings and/or provide refuge islands. Reduce crossing to facilitate travel across the road. distances with curb extensions and median refuge islands.Shortened crossing distances prioritize pedestrian travel, help to calm traffic,and Convert crosswalks to continental-style crossings. Continental can provide space for streetscape amenities. crosswalk marking can improve visibility of crossings and improve vehicle yielding behavior. Consistent crosswalk markings provide Install streetscape amenities to encourage pedestrian use. Providing greater predictability and legibility of the urban environment for both amenities such as landscaping,shade structures, seating,trash pedestrians and motorists. receptacles, and drinking fountains can make Main Street districts more attractive to pedestrians. Remove path obstructions. Utility poles,light poles, and other objects frequently block travel or reduce the effective width of Consolidate driveways. Frequent driveways create more opportunities sidewalks.As projects are implemented,remove or relocate for conflict with people traveling on the sidewalk.Consolidate driveway obstructions to provide for a clear walking path with adequate width. entrances and exits along pedestrian corridors to prioritize pedestrian travel. Redirect entrances or exits to adjoining streets if feasible. Typology: School/Park/Campus Area 34 °fen a mix of civic, tesidentaLand some commetcal land use,these ±- __ areas ale home to essential destiratbrs,such as schools, parks, z seniorceners,community centers, hospitals,and Iibraries.School/ it Park/Campuscorridors ate Retro to used by people of alleges and . 4 cc abildas and should prbrke pedestrian improvements that support I , .. a saetyand comfortwhie trawling. I _. z a g OBSERVED CHALLENGES N W g Schools, parks,campuses and other importantdestinatbrs can be a bcaed on streets of varying width,speed,and talk volume.This - -` 1' f nears some may be re lathe ysafe forpedestran travel,while otters ' a can pose risks forpeople walking or rolling.Thefolbwing are common _ issues and hazards that can occurin areas of this type: - .. 11 • Fedestrans otvarying ages and abildas frequently present; 4 r. � - rr 1 t/ ... � • Highervolumes of vehicles may be accessing the samedestiratbr 4.T_ !!� r la atsimilartimes,creating potentialconi ia lictwith pedests; �yi�:. _�....•..� ��� ._+- _ _. • LimiedvS cr ibilityatossings; — _ • Sidewalk widths may rotsupportdemand Table 6: Major Street Commercial Conditions Observed Lard Use Functional Cass Sidewelk Context Designation Conditbns al Crossing Conditions Chic, Fasidentid,limitd Cdlecbr,Lod Sidevdksppidlyrre@ntonatlennore ade of fie Mxkedaossingsxe ofenlorated rex sdnds CammedS street.with vet tie vidm xd 4u ity and pxks.Ofenlorg dstdne betexat aossng oppoilmities RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 35 While schools, parks, and campuses can be located on many different Install traffic controls at critical crossings. Traffic controls, such types of streets,there are some common improvements that can as rectangular rapid flashing beacons (RRFBs)or pedestrian facilitate pedestrian access to these important destinations. The hybrid beacons (PHBs), can facilitate crossings of busier roadways, following recommendations identify opportunities for improvement increasing safety and comfort for pedestrians. Specifically consider along School/Park/Campus Area corridors.Additional review is implementation where identified school suggested routes intersect required on site to determine the best combination of improvements. with adjacent roadways. More information on specific design improvements can be found in Prioritize pedestrian travel through traffic calming. Include the Design Guide. design features such as curb extensions or raised crossings along Close sidewalk gaps. Some areas may lack sidewalks altogether, and pedestrian routes to prioritize people walking and encourage people others may have inconsistent quality. Complete the sidewalk network driving to slow down. Slower vehicle speeds mean pedestrians feel to create a predictable path for pedestrians to travel. Especially in safer and are more visible when attempting to cross the street. areas surrounding schools, parks, and other essential locations, Upgrade facilities to be ADA-accessible.All users should be able sidewalk should provide a complete, continuous route for travel for to comfortably and safely use sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings. people of all ages and abilities. Upgrade or repair facilities that are not accessible. Improvements Shorten crossings. Curb extensions and median refuge islands can should include those identified in the ADA Transition Plan. be used to shorten crossing distances,which is especially helpful Quick-Build Solutions. Especially on local roadways with limited where children and older adults will be crossing frequently.These right-of-way, consider interim solutions that can be implemented improvements increase pedestrian visibility at crosswalks and more quickly. Examples can include curb extensions created with prioritize pedestrian travel. paint and flexible bollards; dedication of right-of-way for pedestrian Install high-visibility crosswalks. Upgrading to high-visibility striped travel, delineated with curb or other physical barriers; or median crosswalks and supporting signage around schools and parks creates safety islands. greater awareness of crossing locations and increases visibility of Remove path obstructions. Utility poles, light poles, and other pedestrian crossing. objects frequently block travel or reduce passable space on Convert crosswalks to continental-style crossings. Converting sidewalks.As projects are implemented, remove or relocate crosswalks to the more visible marking patterns of a continental- obstructions to provide for a clear walking path with adequate width. style crosswalk can improve visibility of crossings and has been demonstrated to improve vehicle yielding behavior. Further, consistent crosswalk markings provide greater predictability and legibility of the urban environment for both pedestrians and motorists. Typology: Primary Connectors 36 Typielycollecbnoadvays,these roues provide con nectbns t .-� beMeen neighborhoods,helping people access trarsitschook, _ z btsinesses,trails and other importantdestiratbns.Unlilebcal . - et residental streets,wtere traffic and speeds ate Ian,these sleets may " cc see mote vehicle travel(including buses), have higher posted speeds, . a and require dedkaed space for pedestrian travel. , e ' p . I a OBSERVED CHALLENGES "" N c Primary connecbrs form acritbal netwprkfordaiytdps in erns of _ us a both tiarsportatbn and recreatbn. Pedestrians stare these convenient ' 1- f routes with private vehicles,asv.ell as public bansporbtbn, making it imporbntto corsiderhaiv to male travelsafe and combrrable br i ' . people walking and rolling.The blbwing are common issues and _ __ _ J hazards that can occur in areas ofthS type: - — -- -- • Sidewalk ceps and ackof marked crossings limit pedestrian t, connectMty; Y . • where sdeNalks do e%6tobstructbns or mum sdevvalks limit . . i_ t a accessiblllry; _ • In many bcatbrs,residences ate bcaed abng the street and ''=- household driveways ate frequent • Destiratbns mayabo have demand for people traveling by motor '-- vehicle,creating potentelforcon1lttamong modes. Table 7: Major Street Commercial Conditions Obse nred yard Use Functional Cbss SCewelk Context Gas ianation Conditbns Crossing Conditions RAdentral Qndudng Cdlecbr,Lod Presencewresbystreetvttere presentq.nliyand Resenceand t)pe taybysteet Often bngdisonon Mdtr•famil4 vaddtisvaiable. bet eenaos*ng loafors. RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 37 Demand in these areas is likely to be lower than in important Wayfinding. Pedestrian wayfinding supports navigation for Yakima commercial or civic centers, but improving these routes is key to residents and visitors. Directional signs that provide insight into trip enabling pedestrians to access theft ultimate destinations.The lengths can help people plan their journey, encourage travel by foot, following recommendations identify opportunities for improvement and support navigation and exploration. Wayfinding may be used to along School/Park/Campus Area corridors.Additional review is help direct pedestrians to more comfortable local routes. required on site to determine the best combination of improvements. Improve pedestrian access to destinations. Many destinations are More information on specific design improvements can be found in also frequently accessed by people driving. Consider improvements the Design Guide. to reduce potential for conflict at driveways, and provide for Provide sidewalks on at least one side of the street.A continuous dedicated pedestrian access routes to destinations, particularly route should be available on at least one side of the street; when set back from the road. completing the sidewalk on both sides of the road is preferable. Upgrade facilities to be ADA-accessible.All users should be able Consider locations of bus stops, schools, major destinations, and to comfortably and safely use sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings. commonly-used routes to determine sidewalk location. Upgrade or repair facilities that are not accessible. Improvements Provide more frequent crossings,particularly near destinations that should include those identified in the ADA Transition Plan. pedestrians will access. Crossings should be well-marked and visible Remove path obstructions. Utility poles, light poles, and other to people driving; signals or other crossing controls (RRFB, PHB) objects frequently block travel or reduce passable space on should be considered where applicable. Reduce distance between sidewalks.As projects are implemented, remove or relocate crossings to limit out of direction travel. obstructions to provide for a clear walking path with adequate width. Install high-visibility crosswalks. Upgrading to high-visibility striped crosswalks and supporting signage around schools and parks creates greater awareness of crossing locations and increases visibility of pedestrian crossing. Prioritize pedestrian travel through traffic calming. Include design features such as curb extensions or raised crossings along pedestrian routes to prioritize people walking and encourage people driving to slow down. Slower vehicle speeds mean pedestrians feel safer and are more visible when attempting to cross the street. Typology: Low-Density Corridors .8 Abng low-density streets,the land use is rot primarily pedestrian- - _ - oriened,but these routes provide important oonnectbns to both jobs .+ z and pedestrian amenities,such as trails,greeways,and parls.These i Cr- it routes often travel throtghiMtatraloragricufural areas orabng - Li araus—_ 1 ixhighways.Whi�these streets arentdesigred principalyforpedestrian _ a movement providing asae and comfortable lirearconnectbn S + r— �+- I essential. `� z a 0 OBSERVED CHALLENGES y ) -�_ __ o c -- 0. Becausetheyare ustallydesigned for purposes other than active i f trensporatbn,bw-densitycorridors can pose challenges for I— -- pedestrians.The folbwing are common issues and hoards that can occur in areas of thls type: • Roues coincide wkhfreighttruck roues; 11.1 • Steets and crossings are rot at the pedestrian sole, resulting in bng crossing distances and significant distance teMeen crossing opportunities; • Roue isfrequenty rot conducive to pedestrian travel, including limied shade,fregwnt impediments to travel(railroad tracts, driveneys),a nd exposure o freight talk; • Ge ne rely d ilficu h to navigate without prior knowledge, particularly e access recreatbnaldestinatbns(is_tail heads, pedestrian con nectbns). Table 8: Low-Density Corridors Observed lard Use Functional Cass Sidewalk Context Designation Corditbns Crossing Conditions Light ldusial,hdastial, Cdlecbr,Araial Sidewalksare lirritstgapsin fienewmk arefrequent Makedaossngsatigralaedinersec€onsOther Agrio/Ural,Cpen Space where 9dewallsdoeust aossingloatonsare lirriad. RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 39 Include buffer between travel lanes and pedestrian facility.Along Recommended improvements focus on making pedestrians more low-density corridors,vehicle speeds can be high,truck traffic is visible and providing a comfortable,designated space for them to frequent, and people driving may not be expecting to encounter travel along Low Density Corridors.Additional review is required pedestrians. Installing a buffer between the roadway and the sidewalk on site to determine the best combination of improvements. More or path increases pedestrian safety and comfort. information on specific design improvements can be found in the Design Guide. Include vegetation and lighting along priority corridors. Lighting, shade,and landscaping can create a more inviting environment Provide sidewalks on at least one side of the street.A continuous o for walking and rolling. Lighting is particularly important to increase route should be available on at least one side of the street. Consider visibility and support safety along the corridor. locations of trailheads, other pedestrian routes, and commonly-used routes to determine sidewalk location. Wayfinding. Directional signs and other wayfinding support can help pedestrians navigate along low-density corridors and reach Consider shared use paths.A wide shared use path located along their destination efficiently.Since pedestrian travel along low-density one side of the roadway can provide a more comfortable location for corridors may not be as common,wayfinding can help support people people walking, offering greater separation from motor vehicle traffic. navigating the trails and parks by foot. Further, a shared use path can support people bicycling and support access to trails and other recreation destinations. Install crossings with high-visibility markings and appropriate signal at/near trailheads and other important locations. In areas where pedestrians will be crossing to access key destinations, ensure that crossings are made visible to people driving by using pavement markings and, as appropriate,flashing beacons or other additional design features. Use wayfinding to facilitate trail/park access. For pedestrians using these corridors to access trailheads and other recreational destinations, wayfinding signage can be instructive and encouraging. Typology: Local/Residential 40 Residentialstreets supportconnectbrs within neighborhoods and - adjacent majorcorridors.With low travel speeds and no marked center , z line,these roads provdia loner-stress roues br kcal destiratbns. it Although residential roadnays are not included as partof the _ a PedestranNecnork,improtementsabngNeMorkcorridorsshould 1 . r,�. _ aako consberthe connectbns to and from neighborhoods to provide a � f comp lee and connected neMork. I• ` z a 0 OBSERVED CHALLENGES 0 U. For mostof Yakima's residents,bcal residential roads are the points of - f access to thecitys road neMork.Theysupport people of all ages and abilities traelingbschook, recreating,or connectingmaprroutes. ,j The blbwing are common issues and hazards that canoccur in areas r„ of this type: � ' It r.- . • Limied sidewalks often resuk in peoplevalking inthe roadnay,with T ':• _ , : e' no designated space br pedestrian travel; SiV4( _ _ :P __ • This condition limits accessibilkyof the roue and may limitsafe and comforable trawl particularly in areas with relatey higher talk se — -- volumes; ` • Cade-sacs and similar street patters do not provide direct roues - _ t'-' and lirnitconnectiv'ny in manyareas; • Conrections b mapr roadways and routes along the Fedestran NeMork may be dilccukto navigate as road contextand available infrastructure changes. Table 9: Local/Residential Observed Land Use Functbnal Class Sidewalk Context Designation Conditbns Crossing Condkiorts Rimaily9ngle-family Loaf Sidemikspresence teresfirouioutthe dty. Qossngsae ypiallytnmaked;marked or 9grafzed residential aossngsmaybeatmlabe atmaja roads RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS 41 Prioritize pedestrian travel through traffic calming. Include design Recommended improvements reflect opportunities to improve features such as curb extensions or raised crossings along pedestrian connections with major roadways, support routes with higher routes to prioritize people walking and encourage people driving to pedestrian demand, and improve accessibility within neighborhoods. slow down.Slower vehicle speeds mean pedestrians feel safer and Specific opportunities to coordinate with the Safe Routes to School are more visible when attempting to cross the street. improvement program should be explored.Additional review is required on site to determine the best combination of improvements. Improve pedestrian access to destinations. Many destinations are More information on specific design improvements can be found in the also frequently accessed by people driving. Consider improvements Design Guide. to reduce potential for conflict at driveways, and provide for dedicated pedestrian access routes to destinations, particularly when set back Provide sidewalks on at least one side of the street.A continuous from the road.Special attention should be given to roads around route should be available on at least one side of the street; completing schools, as these roads support many pedestrians who may be the sidewalk on both sides of the road is preferable.Special younger and more inexperienced. consideration should be given to roadways within school zones. Improve shoulder conditions where possible. Remove vegetation Establish pedestrian connections. Pedestrian connection projects or other obstacles that limit pedestrian movement and visibility. can help make new connections that provide pedestrian access to Encourage residents to report shoulder conditions so that they can be schools,transit,jobs,and shopping, particularly in areas with low street rectified by the City. connectivity. These projects can achieved in public right-of-ways or through a public access easement from a private property owner. Upgrade facilities to be ADA-accessible.All users should be able Examples of such projects include pathways linking cul-de-sacs. to comfortably and safely use sidewalks, curb ramps, and crossings. Upgrade or repair facilities that are not accessible. Improvements Install high-visibility crosswalks. Upgrading to high-visibility striped should include those identified in the ADA Transition Plan. crosswalks and supporting signage around schools and parks creates greater awareness of crossing locations and increases visibility of Explore lower-cost solutions. Quick build or other interim solutions pedestrian crossing.Visibility should also be prioritized at crossings can support pedestrian safety and provide lower-cost options. Paint, where people driving may not notice pedestrians or where crashes concrete curbs, flexible delineators, and more can help Yakima have occurred. designate pedestrian space while also evaluating different treatments and building support for projects. 42 RECOMMENDED POLICIES AND PROGRAMS Programs refer to non-infrastructure efforts that support walking and Pedestrian Wayfinding use of other mobility options. Programs supplement infrastructure z Wayfinding is a system of signs that help people navigate the city a improvements by connecting residents with the information needed a confidently by providing information about preferred walking routes around. to try new ways to get They provide education about how 111 and travel times to common destinations.A comprehensive wayfinding 1- to navigate and select route options,safety tips for travel, or how to viia system will support not only visitors to Yakima but also support connect with other modes for a multimodal trip. Programs also provide < residents as they travel by foot around the city. Wayfinding systems z encouragement through a variety of activities, such as group walks, a can include a wide range of sign types, maps, and other markings to E incentive programs, or route planning assistance.Similarly, policies are 1- support travel. W tools that guide city action and priorities. They can include both internal 0 a procedures and external policies, such as Complete Streets. a Y Safe Routes to School — Education and Encouragement - . . } Safe Routes to School (SRTS) connect students with information about # ' • • +� a , L 4a :e+ how to travel to school safely by foot or by bike. SRTS programs aim y �` 1,�,, T: t to improve safety on the trip to school while also reducing congestion ill i ._,`-• f •_" } and improving air quality near schools.While often implemented ��•-'.'k fit..,. .:-.., 4 in conjunction with infrastructure improvements, education and i lilt,: ,y 4 encouragement elements can include events such as celebration of r _ ,0 i iliS , ,l . Walk and Bike to School Days, hosting walking school buses and bike — -- et rodeos, and teaching students how to walk and bike safety in their .. . neighborhoods. t•_- .16 . ___, -11 Safe Routes to School Programs,including Walking School Bus activities as shown above,pro vide education,encouragement,and other support to families and students as they travel to school by foot, by bike,or by carpool,Safe Routes to School Programs can help improve safety and reduce congestion near schools. 43 Expanded Outreach Data Collection The City should explore opportunities for expanded,more equitable A comprehensive data collection program will provide the city with public outreach.This includes not only more opportunities for input and information and tools necessary to better manage implementation, discussion, but also engagement completed in multiple languages, at maintenance, and evaluation of the pedestrian network. For selected I a variety of locations and times.Additional opportunities can include programs, collection should be done regularly.Two primary areas of closer partnership with community-based organizations and other data collection that should be explored and expanded include: groups that have long-standing and trusted relationships with the • Infrastructure Inventory:The City of Yakima should formulate community. a comprehensive database of pedestrian facilities to better Community Walks and Education Events track implementation progress and identify locations for new As Yakima works to improve the physical pedestrian infrastructure crosswalks, maintenance needs,or other project opportunities. in the city, promoting a culture of walking can happen through This program would expand on information available regarding community walks and other educational events. Community walks sidewalk presence and ramp status. This database should include can be organized throughout the year and demonstrate to community up-to-date information on signal locations, crosswalk locations members how walking can be a viable option of getting to key city and quality; sidewalk location, quality, and width; pedestrian destinations.Yakima should partner with local and regional groups to scale lighting location;traffic calming locations; and other relevant identify opportunities for new community events. facilities. The data plan should include considerations for regular updates to the data set and protocols for integrating new projects. • User Counts:A user count program tracks use of existing pedestrian facilities to better understand where pedestrian activity is greatest. Pedestrian counts can be accomplished through permanent automatic counters,temporary counters, or manual counters completed with the aid of local volunteers. Counts should be performed using consistent locations and methodology. 44 z a J . H W Q z a LUH W 0 W a a } 05 . Implementation Implementation 45 The following chapter outlines the implementation approach for the Pedestrian Master Plan.This approach identifies a prioritization framework to evaluate project priority and guide implementation over time,while remaining flexible to account for future changes in the city. It also outlines strategies for the City to consider, including internal policies and procedures,that will advance the objectives of I this plan. Specifically,the results of the prioritization analysis will help guide the City in identifying which roads and intersections have the greatest need for improvement,while the implementation strategies will help direct the City in implementing these projects.Strategies include internal procedures and coordination, such as coordination among ongoing projects and development of the annual CIP,to improved standards for infrastructure and development requirements. 46 Project Prioritization While the Pedestrian Master Plan recommends improvements across the pedestrian network, limited resources require an action plan that identifies CC 111 which projects may have the greatest impact.The prioritization process seeks to evaluate the pedestrian network based on which improvements and locations may provide the greatest benefit. The criteria captured in the prioritization framework are informed by the existing o conditions analysis and public feedback gathered throughout the planning a process. In particular, the criteria are established to: 2 » Align with local values and needs,as informed by this plan and previous planning efforts » Use readily-available data that can be easily measured » Create a process that can be repeated in the future to identify projects as the city changes Prioritization Strategy The prioritization strategy evaluates all segments within the Pedestrian Network to determine areas where improvements may have the greatest impact.The factors outlined in Table 10 below are all weighted equally; scores for each factor are then summed to identify the final priority score. Table 10: Prioritization Criteria Prioritization Factor What does it Measure How is it Measured? Network Connectivity Does the project close a gap in the network or • 5 Points: Segment connects on both ends to fill a gap in the existing network or extend the coverage of the network? fills a crossing gap where no other crossing exists within half-mile 47 • 3 Points:Segment extends existing sidewalk,connecting on only one end Safety Does the project provide an opportunity to address a • 4 points for segments with five or more collisions,plus 1 additional point where known safety issue based on collision history? there is a reported injury/fatality; • • 2 points for segments with two or more collisions, plus 1 additional point where there is a reported injury/fatality. • 1 point for segments with one collision,plus 1 additional point where there is a ti reported injury/fatality. School Proximity Does the project support connections to schools? • 5 points:Segment is within a quarter-mile of a school; • 3 points: Segment is within a half-mile of a school; • 1 point:Segment is within a mile of a school Proximity to Transit Does the project support connection to transit? • 5 points:Segment is within 500 feet of a bus stop; • 3 points: Segment is within a quarter-mile of a bus stop; • 1 point:Segment is within a half-mile of a bus stop Proximity to High-Demand Does the project support connection to other key • 5 points:Segment is located within a quarter-mile of three or more categories of Destinations destinations? destination.(Ex.school,community center,and park); • 3 points: Segment is located within a quarter-mile of two categories of destination; • 1 point:Segment is located within a quarter-mile of one destination ADA Accessibility Does the project provide an opportunity to improve • 5 points:Segment addresses identified ADA deficiency, based on available ramp identified deficiencies based on the ADA transition status data plan? Equity Does the project provide an opportunity to improve • 5 points:Segment is located within an area identified as low-to-moderate identified deficiencies in an identified focus area? income Community-Identified Need Network Connectivity • 5 points for segments/areas that were identified through community input activities 48 Prioritization Results Map 8 shows the results of the prioritization process.The highest priority segments are located in Downtown and locations throughout a w the central city, such as 24th Avenue between Englewood Avenue and ~n Nob Hill Boulevard; 32nd Avenue between Summitview Avenue and Tieton Drive; 32nd between Nob Hill Boulevard and Mead Avenue; Tieton Drive between 32nd and 24th;and Nob Hill Boulevard between 24th Avenue and 12th Avenue. V) W W Locations scoring as highest priority represent areas that scored a well on most or all criteria. For example, most roads in Downtown received full points based on safety; proximity to transit; and proximity } to commercial areas and parks. Outside of Downtown,the highest scoring segments include those that received scores for proximity to transit; proximity to high demand destinations; proximity to schools; and network connectivity. Areas in the western areas of the city as well as southern extents scored lowest. These areas—such as 80th Avenue,Tieton Drive west of 64th Avenue, and Coolidge Road—have more limited access to bus stops, parks, schools,and commercial areas;further,there were fewer reported collisions in these areas. A complete project table can be found beginning on page 50. • CITY OF YAKIMA PEDESTRIAN 0 ''' MASTER PLAN FDR KR COED D COMM N N EEwORK -. DRpRE6ED DEDE5TR41N NETWORK T�iM�f r iy R gin. MOW MOD 5. <• _ -J t si r _ '�„ BMW Pd I ;ruj n I 'J �_�`' — v I � s. BACKGROUNDParml !f\J euoOD�Dn h L^ r MI .. ro.'.? -ems .{v ' 4 `.,\ — v...a.l rola v.n. and Paha 110 tmivs :{ \ �_mma: Valli to \ moat1 , A man s: Y ANp:p.NlD < I t Y m p-1s I d .. _ ! ? nbnmbumt ---- • Me at ^ % i t frg NNOOT rE .. ... 4 S L , Amaewuw .� I r' r f I ..--"na w:.lb ewwr,xmr N.6.W:LLW alta {tyekStki 4P:Meiullwu.S Table 11: High-Priority Corridors Location From To Typology MAPLE ST S 7th St S 13th St School/Park/Campus Area 16TH AVE Fruitvale Blvd Cherry Ave Low-Density Corridors 50 NOB HILL BLVD S 40th St S 16th St Major Street Commercial 1ST ST HWY 12 E I St Major Street Commercial 24TH AVE Englewood Ave Nob Hill Blvd Primary Connectors it, CHERRY AVE N 16th Ave N 5th Ave Primary Connectors NOB HILL BLVD S 1st St S 18th St Major Street Commercial CC 1- 16TH AVE River Rd Fruitvale Blvd Low-Density Corridors o 2 YAKIMA AVE N 6th St N Fair Ave Low-Density Corridors z a FAIR AVE Spruce St Maple St School/Park/Campus Area W I St S N 6th Ave N 1st St Low-Density Corridors W PACIFIC AVE Fair Ave Nob Hill Blvd Low-Density Corridors a — < YAKIMA AVE S 12th Ave S 7th Ave Major Street Commercial a FAIR AVE Maple St Pacific Ave Primary Connectors } YAKIMA AVE S 7th Ave S 6th St Downtown/Main Street Commercial FAIR AVE Pacific Ave Mead Ave Low-Density Corridors 16TH AVE Arlington St Prasch Ave School/Park/Campus Area 1ST ST Lincoln Ave Walnut St Downtown/Main Street Commercial NOB HILL BLVD S 16th Ave S 12th Ave School/Park/Campus Area FRUITVALE BLVD N 40th Ave N 34th Ave Low-Density Corridors 12TH AVE Mead Ave Pierce St Primary Connectors 16TH AVE SummitviewAve Park Ln School/Park/Campus Area 16TH AVE Barge St Arlington St Primary Connectors 16TH AVE Cherry Ave Lincoln Ave Primary Connectors 18TH ST Nob Hill Blvd Pierce St Primary Connectors 3RD ST E St E Walnut St Downtown/Main Street Commercial 5TH AVE Willow St D St Primary Connectors 8TH ST Staffsgtpendleton Way Yakima Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial CHESTNUT AVE S 72nd Ave S 65th Ave Primary Connectors MAPLE ST S 3rd St S 7th St Primary Connectors PACIFIC AVE S 6th St Fair Ave Primary Connectors Table 11: High-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology RACE ST S 9th St S 15th St Low-Density Corridors SUMMITVIEWAVE N 16th Ave W Walnut St Downtown/Main Street Commercial WASHINGTON AVE S 3rd Ave S 1st St Low-Density Corridors S1 3RD AVE Lincoln Ave Walnut St Downtown/Main Street Commercial 5TH AVE D St Walnut St Downtown/Main Street Commercial YAKIMA AVE N 24th Ave S 12th Ave Primary Connectors 1ST ST 1St Lincoln Ave Major Street Commercial 12TH AVE/CHESTNUT AVE Yakima Ave S 11th Ave Primary Connectors 11TH AVE/STEWART ST Tieton Dr S 10th Ave Primary Connectors �, 16TH AVE Prasch Ave Pierce St Primary Connectors o 3RD AVE Pierce St Valley Mall Blvd Low-Density Corridors 40TH AVE Tieton Dr Arlington St School/Park/Campus Area BEECH ST S 13th St Chalmers St Low-Density Corridors LINCOLN AVE N 24th Ave N 16th Ave Major Street Commercial TIETON DR S 13th Ave S 11th Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial TIETON DR S 19th Ave S 13th Ave Primary Connectors TIETON DR S 36th Ave S 24th Ave Primary Connectors NOB HILL BLVD S 12th Ave Rock Ave Major Street Commercial 6TH ST 1St A St Primary Connectors 15TH ST Beech St Race St Low-Density Corridors 32ND AVE Arlington St Mead Ave Primary Connectors 3RD ST Walnut St Pacific Ave Major Street Commercial 3RD ST I Pacific Ave Arlington St Low-Density Corridors 4TH ST E N St E 1 St Primary Connectors 6TH AVE Gordon Rd Hathaway St Low-Density Corridors CASTLEVALE RD Powerhouse Rd Fruitvale Blvd Primary Connectors FRUITVALE BLVD River Rd N 21st Ave Low-Density Corridors G St N 1st St N 8th St Primary Connectors HATHAWAY ST N 16th Ave N 6th Ave School/Park/Campus Area 1St N 4th St N 6th St Primary Connectors LINCOLN AVE Lewis Ave Pierce Ave Primary Connectors Table 11: High-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology LINCOLN AVE Pierce Ave Front St Low-Density Corridors MARTIN LUTHER KING BLVD Naches Ave Fair Ave Primary Connectors 52 MARTIN LUTHER KING BLVD Pierce Ave Front St Low-Density Corridors WALNUT ST Front St S 3rd St Downtown/Main Street Commercial YAKIMA AVE Fair Ave S 18th St Low-Density Corridors a MEAD AVE Fair Ave S 18th St Low-Density Corridors J UNION ST/CHESTNUT AVE/10TH Walnut St Terrace Heights Way Primary Connectors CC 1- MARTIN LUTHER KING BLVD Front St Naches Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial o a 2 LINCOLN AVE Front St Naches Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial z a 13TH ST Maple St Beech St Low-Density Corridors E W 20TH/BONNIE DOONE AVE/19TH Tieton Dr Mead Ave Primary Connectors Cl 32ND AVE Englewood Ave Webster Ave Primary Connectors a a 40TH AVE North of Chestnut Ave Walnut St Primary Connectors a 72ND AVE Chestnut Ave Tieton Dr Major Street Commercial >- FAIR AVE Chestnut Ave Spruce St Primary Connectors 1St Buwalda Ln N 3rd St School/Park/Campus Area PACIFIC AVE S 3rd st S 6th St Low-Density Corridors SUMMITVIEWAVE N 69th Ave N 65th Ave Primary Connectors TIETON DR S 50th Ave S 44th Ave Primary Connectors WASHINGTON AVE S 24th Ave Cornell Ave Low-Density Corridors MAIN ST/1ST ST Mead Ave Washington St Major Street Commercial MEAD AVE S 20th Ave S 3rd Ave Primary Connectors 3RD AVE Division St Pierce St Primary Connectors 6TH ST Pacific Ave Arlington St Primary Connectors 6TH ST Chestnut Ave Maple St Primary Connectors 16TH AVE Pierce St Washington Ave Low-Density Corridors 13TH AVE Tieton Dr Arlington St School/Park/Campus Area 6TH ST Arlington St Nob Hill Blvd Major Street Commercial CHALMERS RD Riverside St Beech St Low-Density Corridors FRUITVALE BLVD N 16th Ave N 6th Ave Major Street Commercial LOGAN AVE S 24th Ave S 20th Ave Primary Connectors Table 11: High-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology NOB HILL BLVD S 18th ST S 24th St Low-Density Corridors RACE ST S 6th St S 9th St School/Park/Campus Area RIVER RD N 40th Ave N 34th Ave School/Park/Campus Area 53 1ST ST Walnut Ave Mead Ave Major Street Commercial ENGLEWOOD AVE N 40th Ave N 19th Ave Primary Connectors FRONT ST I St Martin Luther King Jr Blvd Low-Density Corridors _11TH AVE Chestnut Ave Walnut St Primary Connectors 16TH AVE Monroe Ave Summitview Ave Primary Connectors 3RD ST E I St E F St Primary Connectors 65TH AVE SummitviewAve Chestnut Ave School/Park/Campus Area o 72ND AVE Gregory PI Zier Rd Primary Connectors ARLINGTON ST S 6th St S 9th St School/Park/Campus Area ARLINGTON ST S 9th St S Fair Ave Primary Connectors CHESTNUT AVE S 56th Ave S 50th Ave School/Park/Campus Area G St Front St N 1st St Low-Density Corridors I St N 3rd St N 4th St Primary Connectors I St N 1st St Buwalda Ln Primary Connectors PINE ST S 8th Ave S 5th Ave School/Park/Campus Area _RIVER RD Fruitvale Blvd N 16th Ave Low-Density Corridors SUMMITVIEWAVE Park Ave S 16th Ave School/Park/Campus Area TIETON DR S 11th ST S 7th Ave Primary Connectors _WALNUT ST S 5th Ave S 3rd Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial WALNUT ST S 3rd St S 6th St Primary Connectors WALNUT ST S 6th St Union St Primary Connectors WALNUT ST S 7th Ave S 5th Ave School/Park/Campus Area 5TH AVE/FRUITVALE BLVD I St Willow St Low-Density Corridors 8TH ST G St A St Primary Connectors LINCOLN AVE/FAIR AVE Naches Ave Fair Ave Primary Connectors Table 12: Medium-Priority Corridors Location From To Typology 16TH/LINCOLN AVE Monroe Ave Lewis Ave School/Park/Campus Area 40TH AVE Arlington St Nob Hill Blvd Major Street Commercial 54 40TH AVE/TIETON DR Walnut St S 36th Ave Major Street Commercial 44TH AVE Tieton Dr Nob Hill Blvd School/Park/Campus Area 65TH AVE Chestnut Ave Tieton Dr Primary Connectors a ARLINGTON AVE 1 S 16th Ave S 13th Ave School/Park/Campus Area LINCOLN AVE N 30th Ave N 24th Ave School/Park/Campus Area CC 1-o POWERHOUSE RD/34TH AVE Englewood Ave Englewood Ave Low-Density Corridors a 2 TIE TON DR S 44th Ave S 40th Ave School/Park/Campus Area z a ENGLEWOOD AVE N 66th Ave N 40th Ave Primary Connectors W 10TH AVE Stewart St Washington Ave Primary Connectors W 44TH AVE/WALNUT ST/45TH AVE SummitviewAve Tieton Dr Primary Connectors a < 12TH AVE Pierce St Washington Ave School/Park/Campus Area a 14TH ST Mead Ave Washington Ave Low-Density Corridors } 18TH ST/RAINIER Washington Ave Rudkin Rd Major Street Commercial 34TH AVE Fruitvale Blvd Castlevale Rd Low-Density Corridors 3RD ST E F St E St School/Park/Campus Area 3RD AVE D St Lincoln Ave Primary Connectors 66TH AVE Englewood Summitview Primary Connectors DIVISION ST/5TH AVE Tieton Dr S 3rd Ave Low-Density Corridors FAIR AVE Lincoln Ave Chestnut Ave Low-Density Corridors NOB HILL BLVD Rock Ave S 1st St Low-Density Corridors POWERHOUSE RD N 40th Ave N 34th Ave School/Park/Campus Area POWERHOUSE RD/40TH AVE Naches Heights Rd Fruitvale Blvd Low-Density Corridors 16TH AVE Naches River River Rd Low-Density Corridors FRUITVALE BLVD N 21stAve N 16th Ave Major Street Commercial 16TH AVE/VALLEY MALL Washington Ave S 3rd Ave Low-Density Corridors POWERHOUSE CANAL TRAIL Englewood Ave Lincoln Ave School/Park/Campus Area 28TH AVE Summitview Ave Chestnut Ave Primary Connectors 34TH AVE Castlevale Rd Powerhouse Rd Primary Connectors 40TH AVE River Rd Lincoln Ave School/Park/Campus Area Table 12: Medium-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology 48TH AVE Carol Ave Washington Ave School/Park/Campus Area 48TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Carol Ave Primary Connectors CHESTNUT AVE N 65th Ave S 60th Ave School/Park/Campus Area 55 MEAD AVE Voelker Ave Fair Ave Low-Density Corridors SUMMITVIEW AVE N 65th Ave N 60th Ave Low-Density Corridors TIETON DR S 72nd Ave S 56th Ave Primary Connectors VALLEY MALL S 3rd Ave 1-82 Low-Density Corridors WASHINGTON AVE S 1st St E of S 14th ST Major Street Commercial RIVER RD N 16th Ave N 6th Ave Low Density Corridors �, MEAD AVE S 3rd Ave Voelker Ave Primary Connectors o CHESTNUT AVE S 50th Ave S 24th Ave Primary Connectors 18TH ST/RIVERSIDE ST Yakima Ave Chalmers St Low-Density Corridors 24TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Clinton Way Major Street Commercial R ST Freeway Lake Rd E R St Low-Density Corridors VIOLA AVE/44TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd S 40th Ave Primary Connectors WASHINGTON AVE E of S 14th St S 18th St School/Park/Campus Area LINCOLN AVE N 66th Ave Bitterroot Way Primary Connectors NOB HILL BLVD S 64th Ave S 40th Ave Low-Density Corridors 11TH AVE Walnut St Tieton Dr Downtown/Main Street Commercial 3RD AVE Walnut St Pine St Major Street Commercial 40TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Logan Ave Primary Connectors 44TH AVE Englewood Ave Lincoln Ave School/Park/Campus Area 4TH ST E R St E N St Low-Density Corridors 56TH AVE Haven Way North of Chestnut Ave Major Street Commercial 56TH AVE N of Chestnut Ave Tieton Dr School/Park/Campus Area 5TH AVE Walnut St Tieton Dr School/Park/Campus Area 64TH AVE Tieton Dr Washington Ave Low-Density Corridors 6TH ST Staffsgtpendleton Way Chestnut Ave Downtown/Main Street Commercial 6TH ST Maple St Pacific Ave Primary Connectors 72ND AVE Nob Hill Blvd Gregory PI Major Street Commercial 72ND AVE Summitview Ave Chestnut Ave Primary Connectors Table 12: Medium-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology 80TH Congdon Canal Nob Hill Blvd Low-Density Corridors 88TH Sum mitview Ave W Chestnut Ave School/Park/Campus Area 56 CHESTNUT AVE S 60th Ave S 56th Ave Primary Connectors PIERCE ST/7TH Lincoln Ave Martin Luther King Jr Primary Connectors PINE ST S 11th Ave S 8th Ave Primary Connectors a J SUMMITVIEW AVE N 56th Ave N 44th Ave Low-Density Corridors WALNUT ST S 11th Ave S 7th Ave School/Park/Campus Area CC up H WASHINGTON AVE Cornell Ave S 3rd Ave School/Park/Campus Area a m 19TH Yakima Ave Tieton Dr School/Park/Campus Area z a 44TH Uplands Way SummitviewAve Primary Connectors W 72ND Midvale Rd Nob Hill Blvd School/Park/Campus Area 72ND Tieton Dr Midvale Rd Primary Connectors eL a LINCOLN AVE N 40th Ave N 30th Ave Primary Connectors 2 a MEAD AVE S 32nd Ave S 29th Ave School/Park/Campus Area r MEAD AVE S 29th Ave S 24th Ave Primary Connectors NOB HILL BLVD S 72nd Ave S 64th Ave Major Street Commercial NOB HILL BLVD S 76th Ave S 72nd Ave School/Park/Campus Area SUMMITVIEWAVE N 60th Ave N 56th Ave Major Street Commercial TIETON DR S 24th Ave S 19th Ave School/Park/Campus Area LINCOLN AVE Bitterroot Way N 40th Ave School/Park/Campus Area COTTAGE/TERRY/71ST S 75th Ave S 64th Ave Primary Connectors 16TH AVE Valley Mall Blvd Ahtanum Rd Low-Density Corridors 24TH AVE Viola Ave Mead Ave Primary Connectors 24TH AVE Mead Ave Washington Ave Low-Density Corridors 72ND AVE Washington Ave Coolidge Rd Low-Density Corridors 88TH AVE W Chestnut Ave Tieton Dr Low-Density Corridors AHTANUM RD S 16th Ave 5th St Low-Density Corridors TIETON DR S 7th Ave S 5th Ave School/Park/Campus Area 24TH AVE Clinton Way Viola Ave School/Park/Campus Area 40TH AVE Logan Ave Washington Ave Low-Density Corridors 56TH AVE Tieton Dr Arlington St Primary Connectors Table 12: Medium-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology 6TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Viola Ave Primary Connectors 72ND AVE Spokane St Washington Ave Primary Connectors ENGLEWOOD AVE N 19th Ave N 16th Ave Low-Density Corridors S7 SUMMITVIEW AVE N 44th Ave N 38th Ave Major Street Commercial SUMMITVIEW AVE S 96th Ave S 88th Ave Low-Density Corridors TIETON DR 1 S 76th Ave S 72nd Ave Major Street Commercial VIOLA AVE S 16th Ave S 6th Ave Primary Connectors i VIOLA AVE S 4th Ave S 3rd Ave Primary Connectors WALNUT ST .S 2nd Ave S Front St Low Density Corridors 1 ,--, ZIER RD S 75th Ave S 72nd Ave Primary Connectors o SUMMITVIEW AVE N 96th Ave N 69th Ave Low-Density Corridors WASHINGTON AVE S 72nd Ave S 64th Ave Low-Density Corridors SUMMITVIEW AVE N 37th Ave Park Ave Primary Connectors Table 13: Low-Priority Corridors Location From To Typology 18TH ST Pierce St Washington Ave School/Park/Campus Area 56TH AVE Englewood Ave Haven Way Primary Connectors 53 32ND AVE Webster Ave Arlington Ave School/Park/Campus Area 3RD AVE Pine St Division St Low-Density Corridors 44TH AVE Congdon Canal Englewood Ave Primary Connectors it, 75TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Westbrook Loop Primary Connectors 80TH AVE Poplarview Way Congdon Canal Low-Density Corridors CC 1- TIETON DR S 56th Ave S 50th Ave Major Street Commercial o 2 96TH AVE Summitview Ave Tieton Dr Low-Density Corridors z — a AHTANUM RD S 62nd Ave S 16th Ave Low-Density Corridors W 40TH AVE Lincoln Ave SummitviewAve Primary Connectors W 96TH AVE Tieton Dr Wide Hollow Rd Low-Density Corridors a — < NOB HILL BLVD S 80th Ave S 76th Ave Low-Density Corridors a 96TH AVE Wide Hollow Rd Zier Rd Low-Density Corridors } AHTANUM RD 4th St 3rd St School/Park/Campus Area AHTANUM RD 3rd St Main St Primary Connectors AHTANUM RD 5th St 4th St Primary Connectors ZIER RD S 88th Ave West of Conover Dr Low-Density Corridors 80TH AVE Nob Hill Blvd Wide Hollow Rd Low-Density Corridors 64TH AVE Washington Ave Ahtanum Rd Low-Density Corridors 6TH AVE Logan Ave Mead Ave Primary Connectors 75TH AVE Plath Ave Zier Rd School/Park/Campus Area ENGLEWOOD AVE/LINCOLN AVE/POPLAR N 80th Ave N 66th Ave Low-Density Corridors TIETON DR S 98th Ave S 80th Ave Low-Density Corridors VIOLA/6TH AVE Logan Ave S 3rd Ave School/Park/Campus Area ZIER RD S 96th Ave S 88th Ave School/Park/Campus Area WASHINGTON AVE S 64th Ave S 24th Ave Low-Density Corridors 44TH AVE Viola Ave Wide Hollow Creek School/Park/Campus Area FECHTER RD/CONESTOGA BLVD Surrey Ln Castlevale Rd Primary Connectors GORDON RD Gordon Rd Gordon Rd Low-Density Corridors 40TH AVE SummitviewAve North of Chestnut Ave Major Street Commercial Table 13: Low-Priority Corridors (cont.) Location From To Typology 80TH AVE Wide Hollow Rd Plath Ave School/Park/Campus Area 80TH AVE Plath Ave Zier Rd Low-Density Corridors CASTLEVALE RD Fetcher Rd N 40th Ave Major Street Commercial 59 ZIER RD West of Conover Dr Conover Dr School/Park/Campus Area TIETON DR S 80th Ave S 76th Ave Low-Density Corridors COOLIDGE RD S 96th Ave S 72nd Ave Low Density Corridors • 66TH AVE Scenic Dr Englewood Ave Low-Density Corridors WIDE HOLLOW RD S 96th St S 80th St Low-Density Corridors OCCIDENTAL RD West of S 96th Ave S 80th Ave Low-Density Corridors 96TH AVE Coolidge Rd Occidental Rd Low-Density Corridors o AHTANUM RD Draper Rd S 62nd Ave Low-Density Corridors 80TH AVE Coolidge Rd Occidental Rd Low-Density Corridors 60 WHAT'S NEXT? The results of the prioritization strategy provide insight into locations Grant Funding. Consistent with Capital Projects, the City should in the city where improvements may have the greatest benefit. While pursue available grant opportunities. Resources such as the ait does not specifically outline the order in which projects should be Washington Traffic Safety Commission,Transportation Improvement completed or restrict the extent or length of a project, it does serve as Board, and the Recreation and Conservation Office, among others, 1- a tool to better understand and guide opportunities for improving the have annual grant opportunities that can support the planning, design, pedestrian network in Yakima. and construction of projects in Yakima. See the next section, Funding a With limited resources to implement this network, it's important for the Sources,for more information on funding and grant options. W City to consider the range of options available for improving sidewalks, Staff Trainings Interdepartmental and internal staff training offers an W implementing the ADA transition plan, enhancing crossings,and opportunity to promote a shared understanding of active transportation a improving safety.The following are opportunities available to the City needs, City policy, and preferred practice across City staff.Additional Y to advance this vision: training could be included that provides guidance from the } Development Review. Installation of sidewalks and ramps is frequently American Association of Transportation Officials(AASHTO), National completed by developers, and as Yakima grows,will continue to Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO), Federal Highway remain an important tool in expanding the network.A comprehensive Administration (FHWA), and others to support city staff as Yakima seeks review and update of existing development standards and code,as to support a pedestrian network that meets the needs of users of all described on page 61, can better align the infrastructure completed by ages and abilities. developers with the Pedestrian Master Plan vision. Maintenance Routine maintenance of the city's pedestrian network Further, development review should specifically consider the recom can prolong the life of surface materials, increase the utility of the mendations of the Pedestrian Master Plan to better align and identify system, and encourage use.Sidewalks and other pedestrian facilities opportunities to coordinate among ongoing improvements. should be cleared of debris,kept free of obstructions, and clearly marked. For trails, maintaining access points,trail surfaces, and Capital Projects. Include the projects and priorities of the Pedestrian crossings are important components of a well-functioning and effective Master Plan in the annual Capital Improvement Plan (CIP). Identify system that supports trips of all types. The City should establish a additional opportunities for coordination among projects in the CIP routine maintenance program that includes not only opportunities to that both advance the Pedestrian Master Plan and the transportation address more acute issues in the network but also works to preserve components of the ADA Transition Plan. what the city already has. 61 City Code, Facility Standards,and Development Requirements. Active Transportation Network Coordination.Consider opportunities The City of Yakima should evaluate existing facility standards to better to coordinate with improvements to the bicycle,trail, and off-street path reflect the guidance included as part of this plan, best practices, network.As projects are implemented to advance the Bicycle Master and the City's Complete Streets policy.The Complete Streets policy Plan, the Comprehensive Plan, and the Transportation System Plan,the provides a foundation for expanding the transportation options City of Yakima should explore opportunities to provide enhancements available to Yakima residents, and a comprehensive update to to the pedestrian network. This may include improved crossings, new codes, standards,and procedures can help advance the vision of the and improved access to trails and paths, and other improvements that Complete Streets policy. Updates should include not only standard support a complete, connected, and accessible active transportation details for sidewalks, curb ramps, and crosswalks but should also network. consider requirements associated with development. This review should be completed with relevant departments and provide a comprehensive update to the City's existing practice. Quick Build Infrastructure.A quick build project approach can support Yakima's vision for a more walkable city while also providing solutions that are lower cost, quicker to install, and provide an immediate benefit to the community. Quick build projects rely on familiar materials to establish space for people walking and support a complete and connected network. Examples may include painted curb extensions with flexible delineators or other barriers;concrete curbs to designate walking space; planters or other barriers to create a buffer between the sidewalk and adjacent travel lanes' and more.A quick build approach also provides the City with an opportunity to gather feedback about different treatment types, build community support for pedestrian and streetscape improvements, and find the solutions that work the best for Yakima. 62 PROJECT FEASIBILITY AND COST The Network Typologies presented in the previous chapter identify a • Coordination Among Agencies: Projects that require coordination series of improvements for each context, supporting travel both along among multiple agencies, such as county or state departments, may aand across the roadway based on the function of the roadway and require additional time and staff resources to complete. 0_ its surrounding context. It is important to note that while these series • Available Right-of-Way: Many corridors in Yakima have a 1- of improvements work together to advance the vision for a more a constrained right-of-way,with minimal space available between walkable Yakima,the application of specific solutions for each location the curb and the adjacent property line.Acquiring or re-allocating z should be determined through the project scoping and design phases right-of-way increases project costs and requires additional I- of implementation.This approach will allow the City to consider the resources for coordination. W unique factors that influence both the need for an improvement as well • Location Characteristics:Characteristics of the project location a as its feasibility. will influence which improvements are applicable. Factors such as roadway speed and volume, relationship to other elements such as The Design and Maintenance Guide(see Appendix A)provides driveways or intersections, and more must be considered as specific >- information about pedestrian infrastructure improvements to support improvements are selected along the corridor. the City as projects advance to implementation.The Guide includes details about the typical application of solutions, material selection and maintenance, design parameters, and additional considerations that In addition to items influencing feasibility, a number of factors also influence implementation. Further it also acknowledges that a number influence the total cost of implementation. Project costs must account of factors will influence the feasibility of specific solutions for each for not only the materials needed for a project,but also the design location. and construction, right-of-way acquisition, stormwater improvements, and more.The Design and Maintenance Guide(Appendix A) Considerations for project feasibility provide insight into which projects includes approximate costs for the materials associated with different may take additional time and/or more resources to complete. This improvements;however, it should be noted that this represents only information influences which projects can be completed in the near one component of the overall project cost. These variables should be term;which projects may require additional planning and coordination; accounted for when incorporating projects into the city's CIP,when and which projects will require specific funding strategies to implement. pursuing funding opportunities,and when exploring opportunities for Examples of key factors to consider at the planning stage include: coordination among projects. FUNDING SOURCES 63 Table 12 summarizes common funding mechanisms that can be used to advance implementation of the Pedestrian Network. It includes a variety of sources and partners that align with the goals and objectives of the Pedestrian Master Plan.The City should explore opportunities to apply for available funds to advance the Pedestrian master Plan. Further,the City should coordinate with the Yakima Valley Council of Governments and •I other project partners to identify opportunities to advance the objectives of this plan. Table 14: Example Funding Programs and Grant Opportunities Source name :;.sociated Agency Description - o Washington Wildlife& Washington State The WWRP Trails category provides grants to acquire,develop,or renovate non-motorized public recreation Recreation Program- Recreation and pedestrian or bicycle trails that provide connections to neighborhoods,communities,or regional trails.The next Recreation,Trails Category Conservation Office funding cycle will open in 2022.Note:Trails funded in this category cannot be part of a street or roadway,such as a sidewalk or unprotected road shoulder. Recreation Trails Program Washington State Administered through RCO,this grant program assistance for projects that maintain trails, develop links to Recreation and recreation trails,and provide educational programming related to trail safety and environmental protection.The Conservation Office next funding cycle will open in 2022. Safe Routes to School WSDOT,Federal A call for projects is opened in even numbered years for projects that improve safety and mobility for children Program by enabling and encouraging them to walk and bicycle to school. Projects within 2 miles of a primary,middle, or high school may qualify.The next funding cycle will open in 2022. Pedestrian and Bicycle WSDOT A call for projects is opened in even numbered years for projects that improve the transportation system and Safety Program enhance safety and mobility for people who walk or bike. The next funding cycle will open in 2022. Transportation Alternatives Administered by WSDOT The Federal Transportation Alternatives Program provides funding for programs and projects defined as Program transportation alternatives,including on-and off-road pedestrian and bicycle facilities,infrastructure projects for improving non-driver access to public transportation and improved mobility,community improvement activities and environmental remediation; recreational trail program projects;and safe routes to school projects. Surface Transportation Block Administered by WSDOT The Federal Surface Transportation Block Grant Program provides flexible financial support to local agencies. Grant Program (STBG) Projects eligible for STP funding include highway and bridge construction and repair;transit capital projects; bicycle,pedestrian, and recreational trails; and construction of ferryboats and terminals. 64 Source name Associated Agency Description Commute Trip Reduction State(administered by The Commute Trip Reduction Program focuses on improving air quality,reducing traffic congestion, and Program WSDOT) decreasing fuel consumption through employer-based programs that encourage alternatives to driving alone to work.Local governments are required to develop and implement plans to reduce single occupancy vehicle a commute travel to large work sites and dense employment centers in congested urban areas.Technical assistance is available to qualifying communities. Community Economic Washington State Community Economic Revitalization Board is a state board focused on economic development through job a Revitalization Board(CERB) Department of Commerce creation in partnership with local governments.The Board has the authority to finance public infrastructure improvements that encourage new private business development and expansion.In addition to funding W construction projects,CERB provides limited funding for studies that evaluate high-priority economic W development projects. a Complete Streets Program Transportation The Complete Streets Grant Program funds local government arterial retrofits to improve safe access for all users: RCW 47.04.320 Improvement Board pedestrians, bicyclists,motorists,public transportation users,and truck drivers.Applying agencies must have an } adopted Complete Street ordinance.Grant applicants must be nominated by an approved party.The next funding cycle is anticipated in 2023. Urban Arterial Program Transportation The Urban Arterial Program funds projects that enhance arterial safety,support growth and development, Improvement Board improve mobility and physical condition. TIB also rates projects on sustainability and constructability. The program requires sidewalk on both sides of the streets and funds bike lanes when consistent with a local transportation plan.Applications are typically accepted annually. Urban Sidewalk Program Transportation The Urban Sidewalk Program establishes highly connected pedestrian networks in downtowns and activity Improvement Board centers.The program constructs and replaces sidewalks to improve pedestrian safety,create system continuity, link pedestrian generators,extend the system and complete gaps.The intent of each project must be transpor- tation-related,not recreational,and the project must be on a federally classified route.Applications are typically accepted annually. School Walk Route Washington Traffic Safety The School Walk Route Improvement Project grant is available for projects that enhance safety near schools in Improvement Project grant Commission Washington.Examples of projects include school walk area maps and walk route plans;quick build or pop-up traffic calming for school zones;encouragement activities; and some signage for school zones,including RRFBs and PHBs.A call for applications is typically released in the fall of each year. Source name Associated Agency Description 65 Community Development Federal (HUD), Certain projects supporting transportation and streetscape improvements may be eligible for CDBG funding. Block Grants Administered by Projects must principally benefit low-and-moderate income populations.The next funding cycle will be available Washington State in 2022. Department of Commerce Highway Safety Improvement Administered by WSDOT Funding is available for projects that address spot location or systemic safety issues based on a submitted Local Program Road Safety Plan. This program seeks to address fatal and serious injury crashes and systemic safety needs on City streets.The next funding cycle is anticipated in Fall 2021. Rebuilding American US DOT Formerly TIGER/BUILD,this discretionary grant program provides funding for projects that have significant local Infrastructure with or regional impacts. Projects are evaluated based on criteria such as safety,environmental sustainability, quality Sustainability and Equity of life,economic competitiveness,state of good repair,innovation,and partnership. (RAISE) ,-.. ,1.-.A. .. k.,4, • i • A- k ..' i• * - ' -' dk. 111 ini •7 'VP , -•• .... , 4..5 14' 4.::l'i .A ',-,,,•,,, - ''' "•'.•••to -'''t !*--).4 - 1 '- •At -' - •,. ti. $ • •. %, A'P , .,•,. Ix ii . ,. ,i ,....'-'• 0 Jr - , •• .- . •- • - ,r-*0 it , A , AP - ••• '1'-'.1:11. • .• .q 4,,. , . r ...! _...-.. ...t .._ .. .• . •t‘ . :7 - •A . . I A ..—..... . h. , ;AI.. - -.::....,•-•' _ -... -• • ', _ . • • h. r---_ * • . 4• ,.,_______ , - • 0 '4 i ,,, 1111 , •- 4", Ag$11 .`•11-77:r.' : . .. " -..-'• ----- ,.," I jig I i.--J.- , • • . , — :,: - -.. - ... .• ,041,te ' ..#44. t'' d •,,, ffil!Vigil . ,. • :._aspii„ ,, ,,,1 •• ,• , 1 ' . .. - - - _ - • ---- ...... -- . . _ -. 411.11111%-711.mion...._"111.1111M - -... .°41111.1141/100._ --'-'-•••-.................................... '"41141111b1 FALL 2021 Append • A • • Design and Maintenance Guide Yakima, WA Pedestrian Master Plan , •.%11111/' •/ Draft Plan alta Contents 01 02 Introduction p.01 Pedestrian Toolbox p. 08 Overview Pedestrian Facilities Sidewalk Zones Context Pedestrian Lanes Guidance Basis Crossing Improvements Design Needs of Pedestrians Marked Crosswalks Curb Ramps Corner Radii Median Refuge Islands Pedestrian Signals Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon (RRFB) Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB) Pedestrian Signalization Improvements Pedestrian Signal Head Signal Timing Leading Pedestrian Intervals Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) Other Traffic Control Measures Advanced Stop Lines No Right Turn on Red Speed Management iv z a J d d' W I- V Q M Z a CC H Ui W 0 w a a 2 Q } 01 . I ntrod uction Overview r This toolbox presents cuidance for local planners, engineers, and advocates to improve the walkability of Yakima and create more comfortable streets for pedestrians of all ages and abilities. Planners and project designers should refer to these guidelines in developing the infrastructure projects recommended by this plan, but they are not a substitute for thorough project-by-project evaluation by a licensed practitioner upon implementation. Context 2 This Pedestrian Toolbox has been developed Supporting active modes gives users Pedestrian design guidelines in this document to assist the City of Yakima in the selection important transportation choices,whether it meet or exceed the minimums set by current and design of pedestrian facilities.The is to make trips entirely by walking or cycling, accessibility standards. designs featured in this Toolbox work to or to access public transit.Often in urban or Traffic control devices, signs, pavement a promote pedestrian comfort. This chapter suburban areas,walking and cycling are the markings used and identified in this document CC 111 presents current planning, engineering, fastest and most efficient ways to perform conform to the latest 2009 edition of the and design resources and approaches to short trips. "Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices" implement pedestrian enhancements. (MUTCD). Convenient non-motorized travel provides many benefits, including reduced traffic Whenever possible and appropriate,the WHAT, WHY, WHERE, WHEN AND congestion, user savings, road and parking National Association of City Transportation W a HOW? facility savings, economic development, and a Officials (NACTO)'s guidance is recommended 2 healthier environment. where applicable. Future roadway planning, engineering, design } and construction will continue to strive for a Compatible design does more than help balanced transportation system that includes those who already walk. It encourages greater a seamless, accessible pedestrian network use of non-motorized transportation and and encourages pedestrian travel wherever makes the street safer for everyone. possible. The design recommendations in this There are many reasons to integrate document are for use on Yakima roadways. pedestrian facilities into typical roadway Projects must not only be planned for theft development policy.The goal of a physical aspects as facilities serving specific transportation system is to better meet transportation objectives;they must also the needs of people-whether in vehicles, consider effects on the aesthetic, social, bicyclists or pedestrians-and to provide economic and environmental values, needs, access to goods, services, and activities. constraints and opportunities in a larger community setting. This is commonly known as Complete Streets Design, and should be employed when determining which standard is applicable in each scenario. Guidance Basis The sections that follow serve as an inventory The National WASHINGTON GUIDANCE 3 of pedestrian design treatments and provide if_. _ _ Association of City Transportation Officials' Washington State guidelines for their development.These (NACTO)Urban ila-a.= " Department of treatments and design guidelines are - _ Bikeway Design Guide J Transportation o important because they represent the tools (2012)and Urban (WSDOT)has endorsed k, for creating a pedestrian-friendly, accessible — _ Street Design Guide �i.e the NACTO Urban o (2013)are collections Street Design Guide, community. The guidelines do not include all _ _II of nationally recognized .. __ but has also provided Priviondesign elements that need to be considered • - . street street design standards, the 1997 Pedestrian o for each treatment and are not a substitution and offers guidance lw` >7 Facilities Guidebook on the current state of for pedestrian for consultation of relevant local,state, and the practice designs. a �_—`_= design guidance federal guidance/standards.Any projects on state highways under design should be under the care of a outside of cities. professional engineer prior to implementation. The following guidelines are incorporated in this Design Guide. The Federal Highway Administration's rSmall Town and Rural Multimodal Networks mall Town Report(2016)offers and Rural ces and i NATIONAL GUIDANCE dtlwokdal to help help small towns The Federal Highway and rural communities Manual on uniform support safe, Traffic Control Devices Administration's u pp '°°"""^° Manual on Uniform —^— accessible,comfortable, Traffic Control Devices and active travel for (MUTCD)defines the people of all ages and standards used by road abilities. It connects I I. Io. ,.a 'I managers nationwide existing guidance to I a a,. I to install and maintain rural practice and includes examples of �o-iibi my� L traffic control devices n® 6JPL on all public streets, peer communities. 0 highways, bikeways, and private roads open to public traffic. Design Needs of Pedestrians TYPES OF PEDESTRIANS Pedestrians have a variety of characteristics development. Older adults walk more slowly and the transportation network should and may require assistive devices for walking accommodate a variety of needs, abilities, stability, sight,and hearing. and possible impairments.Age is one DISABLED PEDESTRIAN DESIGN major factor that affects pedestrians' CONSIDERATIONS physical characteristics,walking speed, and environmental perception. Children have The table below summarizes common lower eye height and may walk slower than physical and cognitive impairments, adults. They also perceive the environment how they affect personal mobility, and differently at various stages of their cognitive recommendations for improved pedestrian friendly design. Disabled Pedestrian Design Considerations Impairment Effect on Mobility Design Solution Physical Impairment Difficulty propelling over uneven or soft surfaces. Firm,stable surfaces and structures,including ramps or beveled edges. Necessitating Wheelchair and Cross-slopes cause wheelchairs to veer downhill or Cross-slopes of less than two percent. Scooter Use tip sideways. Require wider path of travel. Sufficient width and maneuvering space. Physical Impairment Difficulty negotiating steep grades and cross slopes; Cross-slopes of less than two percent. Necessitating Walking decreased stability and tripping hazard. Smooth,non-slippery travel surface. Aid Use Slower walking speed and reduced endurance; Longer pedestrian signal cycles,shorter crossing distances,median refuges, reduced ability to react. and street furniture. Hearing Impairment Less able to detect oncoming hazards at locations Longer pedestrian signal cycles,clear sight distances,highly visible with limited sight lines(e.g.driveways,angled pedestrian signals and markings. intersections, channelized right turn lanes) and complex intersections. Vision Impairment Limited perception of path ahead and obstacles; Accessible text(larger print and raised text),accessible pedestrian signals reliance on memory; reliance on non-visual indicators (APS),guide strips and detectable warning surfaces,safety barriers,and (e.g.sound and texture). lighting. Cognitive Impairment Varies greatly.Can affect ability to perceive, Signs with pictures,universal symbols,and colors,rather than text. recognize,understand,interpret,and respond to information. Pedestrian Characteristics by Age 5 Age Characteristics 0-4 Learning to walk • Requires constant adult supervision Eyi Level Developing peripheral vision and depth 4'6:-5'10" perception (1.3 ri-1.7 m) 5-8 Increasing independence,but still requires supervision Poor depth perception 9-13 Susceptible to"darting out"in roadways v r Insufficient judgment Sense of invulnerability 14-18 Improved awareness of traffic environment ( Insufficient judgment 19-40 Active,aware of traffic environment 41-65 Slowing of reflexes r r 65+ Difficulty crossing street Shoulders 1'10"(0.5 m) Vision loss Walking Difficulty hearing vehicles approaching from 2'6"(0.75m) behind Minimum Accessible Width* 3'(0.9 m) Preferred Operating Space Source:AASHTO. Guide for the Planning,Design, and 5'(1.5 m) Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, Exhibit 2-1.2004. *At point of contact 6 DESIGN NEEDS OF RUNNERS DESIGN NEEDS OF STROLLERS Running is an important recreation and fitness Strollers are wheeled devices pushed by activity commonly performed on shared use pedestrians to transport babies or small paths. Many runners prefer softer surfaces children.Stroller models vary greatly in theft 0_ (such as rubber, bare earth or crushed rock) design and capacity.Some strollers are ce 1- to reduce impact. Runners can change designed to accommodate a single child, a their speed and direction frequently. If high others can carry 3 or more. Design needs of m z volumes are expected, controlled interaction strollers depend on the wheel size, geometry a E or separation of different types of users and ability of the adult who is pushing the W should be considered. stroller. 0 aRunner Dimensions Strollers commonly have small pivoting 2 Preferred Operating Space front wheels for easy maneuverability, but 5'(1.5 m) these wheels may limit their use on unpaved Stroller Dimensions surfaces or rough pavement. Curb ramps are Shoulders valuable to these users. Lateral overturning is 1'10" 0.5 m) one main safety concern for stroller users. ,.0, i II, a / Sweep Width 3'6"(1.5 m) Physical Length Sweep Width 5'(1.5 m) r 4.3'(1.3 m) DESIGN NEEDS OF WHEELCHAIR Wheelchair User Design Considerations 7 USERS Effect on Mobility Design Solution As the American population ages, the age demographics in Yakima may also shift, and Difficulty propelling over uneven or soft surfaces. Firm,stable surfaces and structures, including ramps • o the number of people using mobility assistive or beveled edges. devices (such as manual wheelchairs, Cross-slopes cause wheelchairs to veer Cross-slopes of less than two percent. k' downhill. ti powered wheelchairs)will increase. Require wider path of travel. Sufficient width and maneuvering space. o Manual wheelchairs are self-propelled devices. Users propel themselves using push Wheelchair User Dimensions rims attached to the rear wheels. Braking is Eye Height 3'�" �♦ done through resisting wheel movement with the hands or arm. Alternatively, a second individual can control the wheelchair using Handle 2'4" handles attached to the back of the chair. (0.9 m) Power wheelchairs use battery power to Armrest move the wheelchair.The size and weight - 2'5" (0.75 n�) of power wheelchairs limit their ability to negotiate obstacles without a ramp.Various - control units are available that enable users to control the wheelchair movement, based on their ability(e.g.,joystick control, breath ' controlled,etc). Physical Width ' Physical Width Maneuvering around a turn requires 2'6"(0.75 m) 2'2"(0.7 m) additional space for wheelchair devices. ' Minimum Operating Width Minimum Operating Width Providing adequate space for 180 degree 3'(0.9 m) 3'(0.9 m) turns at appropriate locations is an important i i I Minimum to Make a 180 Degree Turn element of accessible design. Minimum Width of Accessway* 5'(1.5 m) 4'(1.2m) I I Minimum to Make a 180 Degree Turn 5'(1.5 m) *Provide 5'x 5'passing zone every 200'if travel way width is less than 5 feet. 8 Z a J d W I- Q i z a H Ui W 0 w a a } 02 . Pedestrian Toolbox Pedestrian Facilities Sidewalk Zones Sidewalks are the most fundamental element T- of the walking network,as they provide an Suburban Sidewalk A I • 717-1111 1area for pedestrian travel separated from �.)p , , I ,I � 1vehicle traffic. Providing adequate and • 'fir ` 11 ` _ R .M accessible facilities can lead to increased �" i— _ numbers of people walking, improved ,�1 — - 1` ;" v al 1 "•:. accessibility, and the creation of social space. • 1 1 1 ',!.:r:._ r , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 1 J. Sidewalk In Residential Areas _ t:. • ' -411rIt. . `r l , 1p ' . ' NW ill llllll"I' 1 ,-t ir-` +,tom ,i 1 I 1 • I I 1 1 Enhancement Zone Buffer Zone Pedestrian Through Frontage Zone Zone The enhancement The buffer zone,also The through zone The frontage zone allows zone may add called the furnishing is the area intended pedestrians a comfortable additional space to or landscaping zone, for pedestrian travel. "shy" distance from the building the pedestrian realm buffers pedestrians from This zone should fronts,fencing,walls and in the form of curb the adjacent roadway, be entirely free of vertical landscaping.It provides extensions,parklets, and is also the area permanent and opportunities for window shopping, bicycle corrals or where elements such as temporary objects. to place signs,planters,or chairs. other features. The street trees,signal poles, enhancement zone signs, and other street Wide through zones may occupy a parking furniture are properly are needed in lane or shoulder,but located. downtown areas or should not block bike where pedestrian lanes. flows are high. 10 TYPICAL APPLICATION MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE APPROXIMATE COST • Wider sidewalks should be installed near Sidewalks are typically constructed out Cost of standard sidewalks range from schools, at transit stops, in downtown of concrete and are separated from the about$6-10 per square foot for concrete z areas, or anywhere high concentrations of roadway by a curb or gutter and sometimes sidewalk. This cost can increase with 0_ pedestrians exist. a landscaped boulevard. Less expensive additional right-of-way acquisition or addition ce • At transit stops, an 8 ft by 5 ft clear space walkways constructed of asphalt, crushed of landscaping, lighting or other aesthetic vi a is required for accessible passenger stone, or other stabilized surfaces may be features.As an interim measure, an asphalt z boarding/alighting at the front door location appropriate. Ensure accessibility and properly concrete path can be placed until such time per ADA requirements. maintain all surfaces regularly.Surfaces must that a standard sidewalk can be built. The 1— W Sidewalks should be continuous on both be firm, stable, and slip resistant. Colored, cost of asphalt path can be less than half the asides of urban commercial streets, and patterned, or stamped concrete can add cost of a standard sidewalk. a should be required in areas of moderate distinctive visual appeal. residential density(1-4 dwelling units per } acre). • When retrofitting gaps in the sidewalk network, locations near transit stops, schools, parks, public buildings, and other areas with high concentrations of pedestrians should be the highest priority. Street Classification Parking Lane/ Buffer Zone Pedestrian Frontage Enhancement Zone Through Zone Zone* Local Streets Varies 4-6 ft 5 ft 1 -2 ft Downtown and Pedestrian Varies 4-6 ft 12 ft 2-10 ft Priority Areas Arterials and Collectors Varies 4-6 ft 6-8 ft 1 -5 ft '*'Indicates ideal frontage zone space.Actual frontage zone is contingent upon the City's development code and required set backs Pedestrian Lanes A pedestrian lane is a low-cost alternative ©Pedestrian lanes should be marked with • Pedestrian lanes should meet accessibility jj to a separated path or sidewalk that may be �jthe appropriate pavement legend markings requirements to the greatestextent appropriate on roads with moderate speeds in white color, positioned laterally in the possible, including having cross-slopes and volumes.The lane provides a space for center of the lane(MUTCD,2009, p.415). less than 2%and detectable warnings in o Pedestrian Warning Sign(W11-2) paired with appropriate locations, o pedestrians to walk and separated from motor d o vehicle traffic by roadway striping. an"ON ROADWAY" legend sub plaque �' may be used to indicate to drivers to APPROXIMATE COST TYPICAL APPLICATION expect pedestrians within the paved road surface. • $10 -$15 per linear foot dependent on ii • As an affordable alternative to a sidewalk, bollard and stencil placement. N In some suburban and rural communities, 0 Vehicles need to be able to traverse the v • sidewalks may not be the appropriate roadway without encroaching into the Approximate cost reflects estimated pedestrian facility choice,due to right of pedestrian lane.The minimum clear width material cost; does not reflect full cost of way constraints,storm water infrastructure, would be 18 feet in low volume and speed installation. economic impacts, or other reasons. scenarios and 20-22 feet minimum typical. • On streets with low to moderate volumes and low to moderate speeds. • Works best inside more built up areas, such r ,� r / as near commercial areas. / • Preferred application is on roadways with = a motor vehicle volume(ADT) under 2,000 and a motor vehicle operating speed under 25 mph.The range for potential application extends to roadways with 6,000 ADT and 30 mph. pi �. \\VIIHiji& 4Ak,0. i��DESIGN FEATURES -�*i a l Pedestrian lane width of 8 feet is preferred,��==// 5 foot minimum. A A pedestrian lane must be separated from 1.7 RO DWAY the adjacent travel lanes with some form of40,1 yyy lane delineation, such as a 6"-8"white line or a double 4"white line.A marked buffer may also be used to provide additional separation. Crossing Improvements Marked Crosswalks 12 Marked crosswalks raise awareness to DESIGN FEATURES motorists that they must stop for pedestrians • The crosswalk should be located to align These type of markings should also be used and encourages pedestrians to cross at as closely as possible with the through where vulnerable pedestrians are expected, a designated locations. Installing crosswalks pedestrian zone of the sidewalk corridor. including crossings near schools. Continental J alone will not necessarily make crossings • Transverse markings are the most basic crosswalk marking also requires less on going 1- safer,particularly on higher speed multi-lane crosswalk marking type, but may wear maintenance and lasts longer than other a roadways. faster as every vehicle drives over the 2 marking techniques. z markings. a Marked crosswalks across the uncontrolled E • Continental markings provide improved MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE 1- leg of unsignalized intersections should follow visibilityand can be located outside of W The effectiveness of marked crossings o the design guidance of marked crosswalks at a vehicle wheel paths. depends entirely on their visibility; maintaining mid-block locations.See Marked Crosswalks a • Local climate can present unique marked crossings should be a high priority. at Mid Block for more guidance. challenges for pavement markings due Thermoplastic markings offer increased } TYPICAL APPLICATION to extreme heat/cold, snow plows,and durability when compared to conventional de-icing techniques. paint.' At signalized intersections, all crosswalks p should be marked.Atunsignalized FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS APPROXIMATE COST intersections, crosswalks may be marked Continental crosswalk markings should be used at crossings with high pedestrian • Traditional paint-$9/linear foot. under the following conditions: g g use, particularly where the crossing is not • Thermoplastic Sib/linear foot. • At an intersection within a school zone or controlled by signals or stop signs, such as a • Total cost varies by crosswalk length, on a walking route, and at parks,libraries, design,and context e.local street crossing of a multi-lane arterial. g g.,solid, standard, or community centers. continental, dashed, zebra, or ladder). • At a complex intersection, to orient _ pedestrians in finding theft way across. ___ —� ...._., -`- s r • At an offset intersection, to showoflik 1��, {' °_ pedestrians the preferred route across ,,' --- x r _ iiirie traffic with the least exposure to vehicular _ - _ traffic and traffic conflicts. -� `.► � ' ` • At an intersection with visibility constraints, 4,�./ to position pedestrians where they can `+�` f best be seen by oncoming traffic. R Ix �;;, Mid-Block Crosswalks An effective pedestrian crossing at an • 12,000ADT or greater on four-lane roads FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS 13 uncontrolled location consists of a marked without a raised median or pedestrian Uncontrolled crossings of multi-lane roadways crosswalk, appropriate pavement markings, refuge island with over 15,000 ADT may be possible with warningsignage,and other treatments to • 15,000 ADT or greater on four-lane roads, g na g features such as sufficient crossing gaps ,� slow or stop traffic such as curb extensions, with a raised median or pedestrian refuge in vehicular traffic(more than 60 per hour), ti median refuges, beacons, hybrid beacons, island median refuges, or beacons,and good sight and signals. Designing crossings at mid-block DESIGN FEATURES distance. locations depends on an evaluation of • Detectable warning strips are required to motor vehicle traffic volumes,sight distance, help visually impaired pedestrians identify On roadways with low to moderate traffic pedestrian traffic volumes, land use patterns, the edge of the street and are required volumes(<12,000 ADT, and posted speeds o vehicle speed,and road type and width. through ADA at or below 30mph.) and posted speeds at or • Advance stop lines should be placed below 30 mph, a raised crosswalk may be the TYPICAL APPLICATION 20-50 feet in advance of multi lane most appropriate crossing design to improve • Locations where mid-block crossings uncontrolled mid-block crossings pedestrian visibility and safety. should be considered include: • Crosswalk markings legally establish • Longblocks(longer 600with APPROXIMATE COST { g ft.) mid-block pedestrian crossing destinations on both sides of the street • $55,000-Minimal installation (2 beacons, • Pedestrian and stop warning signage 2 poles) • Locations with heavy pedestrian traffic, (W11-2 and R1-5C)should be installed at •such as schools,shopping centers, and the crossing to alert drivers of the potential $280,000 Multi lane overhead shared use path crossings presence of pedestrians in the roadway • Approximate cost reflects estimated • At transit stops,where transit riders must material cost; does not reflect full cost of cross the street on one leg of their journey nstallation. • Marked crosswalks at mid-block locations / MM1 ���,, should not be installed without additional ir t t�, I `'•�'! ; crossing enhancements when the speed limit of the roadway is greater than . —`I' • ` ;, 40 MPH and the roadways has either �� ;, Q j q ®(„ ofthe following volume and physical ' Ilk,, I o characteristics: I , .1. . When space is available,a median refuge island may P 9 improve user safety by providing pedestrians space to cross one side of the street at a time.See Median Refuge AM; 1 Islands for more guidance. Curb Ramps 14 DESIGN FEATURES Curb ramps are the design elements that ADA 1990).All newly constructed and altered The level landing atthe top of a ramp allow all users to make the transition from the roadway projects must include compliant should be at least 4 feet long and at least a street to the sidewalk.A sidewalk without curb ramps. In addition, existing facilities the same width as the ramp itself.The ix slope of the ramp should be compliant to ix w curb ramp can be useless to someone in a must be upgraded to current standards when current standards. wheelchair,forcing them back to a driveway appropriate. a • If the top landing is within the sidewalk 2 and out into the street for access.There are z The edge of an ADA compliant curb ramp or corner area where someone in a a number of factors to be considered in the E should be marked with a detectable warning wheelchair may have to change direction, wthe landing design and placement of curb ramps, surface(also known as truncated domes) must be a minimum of 4' 0" 0 TYPICAL APPLICATION to alert people with visual impairments to long (in the direction of the ramp run)and at in ix changes in the pedestrian environment. least as wide as the ramp,although a width Curb ramps must be installed at allof 5'-0" is preferred. a intersections and midblock locations where Visual contrast between the raised tactile } pedestrian crossings exist,as mandated by device and the surrounding infrastructure is federal legislation(1973 Rehabilitation Act and important so that the change is readily evident to partially sighted pedestrians. Diagonal ramps shout include a C� ramps should be located so that ey do not project clear space of at least 48"x 4"within .;'!!!Jill into vehicular traffic lanes,parking spaces, or parking the crosswalk for user maneuverability access aisles. Three configurations are illustrated below. ,_ riA t.... / _ Parallel Curb Ramp yy wail.-__,, .W� Pr � • itIP"- \\ ----: ks, N.,... ,-., ' 11MalP Diagonal Curb Ramp �- Perpendicular AWi Curb Ramps g .—.i.j <4' (Recommended) (Crosswalk spacing not to scale.For illustration purposes only) FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE 15 Where feasible, separate directional curb Curb radii need to be considered when It is critical that the interface between a ramps for each crosswalk at an intersection designing directional ramps. While curb ramps curb ramp and the street be maintained should beprovided rather than havinga adequately.As halt street sections can oo o are needed for use on all types of streets,theP single ramp at a corner for both crosswalks. highest priority locations are in downtown develop vertical differentials where concrete I~ Although diagonal curb ramps might be less areas and on streets near transit stops, meets asphalt at the for_.t c:f the ramp,which expensive,they orient pedestrians directly schools, parks, medical facilities, shopping can catch the front wheels of a wheelchair. into the center of the intersection,which areas. APPROXIMATE COST r" can be challenging for wheelchair users cv o and pedestrians with visual impairments. The cost is approximately$5,000-$10,000 Diagonal curb ramp configurations are not per curb ramp, depending on drainage recommended. and right-of-way.Approximate cost reflects estimated material cost; does not reflect full cost of installation. , . rr '-'14111%,...- --=----- - ..-- -- ..7-7:7 :,,f, .. .,''' ' •0;4.— - •'. - i • ., . . .- .1._.- , .., . ---", iz Not recommended:Diagonal curb ramp configuration. Recommended:Curb extension with bidirectional curb ramps for crossing in both directions. Curb Radii 16 DESIGN FEATURES The size of a curb's radius can have a Corners have two critical dimensions which z significant impact on pedestrian comfort must be considered together. aand safety. A smaller curb radius provides • The physical radius controls the pedestrian ix w more pedestrian area at the corner,allows experience. amore flexibility in the placement of curb • The effective radius is the widest turning 2 ramps, results in a shorter crossing distance arc thata vehicle can take through the z and requires vehicles to slow more on the corner and is larger than the physical I- intersection approach. During the design radius. o phase,the chosen radius should be the FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS a smallest possible for the circumstances and Several factors govern the choice of curb 2 consider the effective radius in any design radius in any given location.These include the r vehicle turning modeling. desired pedestrian area of the corner,traffic MIME TYPICAL APPLICATION turning movements,street classifications, ® The curb radius may be as small as 3 ft design vehicle turning radius, intersection 1 where there are no turning movements, or 5 geometry,and whether there is on street vs— (''� _3' parking or a bike lane(or both) between the eN—� -ick' , ft where there are turning movements and •."G adequate street width. On-street parking and travel lane and the curb, c' bike lanes create a larger effective turning The city should review its policies surrounding I I ' I it radius and can therefore allow a smaller curb accommodating large design and control • ...... radius. vehicles at corners and explore techniques such as allowing large vehicles to take up multiple receiving lanes to complete their turn or begin their turn by straddling two approach lanes. Mountable corners or medians may also allow infrequent large vehicles to III . complete their turns without necessitating U longer pedestrian crossings and larger Recommended:Bidirectional curb ramps intersections than needed. for crossing in both directions. Median Refuge Islands FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS 17 Median refuge islands are located at the • The island should be at least6' wide • This treatment may be combined with mid-point of a marked crossing and help between travel lanes and at least 20' long Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacons (RRFBimprove safety by increasing visibility and (40' minimum preferred). inform y. See treatment description for moreo allowing pedestrians to cross one direction of • Provide double centerline marking, nformation, tio traffic at a time, reflectors,and "KEEP RIGHT" signage in MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE the island on streets with posted speeds Refuge islands may require frequent Refuge islands minimize pedestrian exposure above 25 mph. maintenance of road debris. Trees and ii 0, at mid-block crossings by shortening the DESIGN FEATURES plantings in a landscaped median must be a crossing distance and increasing the number maintained so as not to impair and of available gaps for crossing. • Cut-through median refuge islands are p y preferred over curb ramps to better should be no higher than 1 foot 6 inches. Median refuge islands can also be configured accommodate wheel chairs users. APPROXIMATE COST as an off-set crossing.This requires • Pedestrian warning signage should be $10,000pedestrians to change their direction of travel placed at the crossing.Advanced warning of existingmedian $20,000,depending on presence of med is and length of new median. while in the median-to face on-coming signage should also be considered where desired pedestrian area of the corner,traffic vehicles- before crossing. Here, pedestrians site obstructions may be present on the turning movements, street classifications, are more likely to see, and establish eye approach. design vehicle turning radius, intersection contact with on-coming motorists before geometry, and whether there is on-street stepping into the roadway. parking or a bike lane(or both) between the TYPICAL APPLICATION travel lane and the curb. • Refuge islands can be applied on any roadway with a left turn center lane or \ �\,�.� --median that is at least 6' wide. Cut-through median refuge islands are �` �� 1 , • Islands are appropriate at signalized or preferred over curb ramps to better '; "'� �� unsignalized crosswalks. accommodate wheel chairs users. ��\ �F; • The refuge island must be accessible, �' preferably with an at grade passage A , �• through the island rather than ramps and .�� me _- landings. 1 W11-2, L W16-7P Pedestrian Signals Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon (RRFB) 18 Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons (RRFB) post-mounted). See FHWA Interim Approval installations show little to no decrease in are a type of active warning beacon used at 21 for more information. yielding behavior over time. unsignalized crossings.They are designed to • Beacons may be installed as side mounted See FHWA Interim Approval 21(IA 21)for more Z or in overhead installations. information on RRFBs. a increase driver compliance on multi lane or a high-volume roadways. FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS Et TYPICAL APPLICATION Rectangular rapid flash beacons elicit the MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE 4 highest increase in compliance of all the RRFBs should be regularly maintained to Z • Guidance for marked/unsignalized ensure that all lights and detection hardware a crossings applies. amber warning beacon enhancement options. g Et are functional. 0 • RRFBs should not be used at crosswalks A Florida study of the effectiveness of W controlled by YIELD signs, STOP signs, going from a no-beacon arrangement to APPROXIMATE COST a EL Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons(HAWKs), or a two-beacon RRFB installation increased • $15,000 for two RRFBs traffic control signals. yielding from 18percent to 81percent.A Y Y g • Approximate cost reflects estimated } • RRFBs should initiate operation based on four-beacon arrangement raised compliance material cost;does not reflect full user actuation and should cease operation to 88%.Additional studies of long term cost of installation. at a predetermined time after the user actuation or,with passive detection, after the user clears the crosswalk. it'',I, J ,. \ • Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons(RRFB) `,41 f i,�#,�`ii dramatically increase compliance over '��1� 1 Mai conventional warning beacons. i ! I DESIGN FEATURES Providing secondary installations ofRRF , je, i • RRFBs are typically activated by on median islands improves driver yieldi Allr' r I 1 pedestrians manually with a push button, or behavior -ON107 - 'dd11 V1 can be actuated automatically with passive it _ , '� F 2 detection systems. '� ,' 1 H 8 1r ` , • Providing secondary installations of RRFBs -.RIK a '.i N. on median islands improves conspicuity Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons(RRFB) ` 1 , and driver stopping behavior. dramatically increase compliance over ' • Must be used in conjunction with conventional warning beacons W11-2, S1-1,or W11-15,(and W16-7P if / I 1 Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (PHB) Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons (PHB)or • If installed within a signal system, signal • Each crossing, regardless of traffic speed 19 High-Intensity Activated Crosswalks(HAWK) engineers should evaluate the need for or volume, requires review to identify are used to improve non motorized crossings the hybrid beacon to be coordinated with sight lines, potential impacts on traffic of major streets.A hybrid beacon consists other signals. progression,timing with adjacent signals, o of a signal head with two red lenses over a • Parking and other sight obstructions capacity, and safety. o single yellow lens on the major street, and a should be prohibited for at least 100 feet • The installation of hybrid beacons I~ pedestrian signal head for the crosswalk, in advance of and at Ieast20 feet beyond should also include public education and the marked crosswalk to provide adequate enforcement campaigns to ensure proper Hybrid beacons are only used at marked sight distance. use and compliance. mid-block crossings or unsignalized • Crossings with a median refuge and no MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE o intersections. They are activated with a more than two lanes in each direction may PHBs are subject to the same maintenance pedestrian pushbutton at each end. If a utilize side mounted beacons for reduced needs and requirements as standard traffic median refuge island is used at the crossing, cost and complexity. signals. Signing and striping need to be another pedestrian pushbutton can be FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS maintained to help users understand any located on the island to create a two-stage • Hybrid beacon are normally activated by unfamiliar traffic control. crossing. push buttons, but may also be triggered TYPICAL APPLICATION by infrared, microwave,or video detectors. APPROXIMATE COST If not on-demand,the maximum delay • $60,000 -$130,000,depending on • Suitable for arterial streets where speeds for activation of the signal should be two complexity and overhead vs side mounted are above 30-45 mph and there are three minutes,with minimum crossing times configuration. or more lanes of traffic (or two lanes with a determined by the width of the street, but a • Approximate cost reflects estimated median refuge). much shorter delay is strongly preferred. material cost;does not reflect full cost of • Where off-street bicycle facilities installation. intersect major streets without signalized intersections. • At intersections or midblock crossings all 1 4" f where there are high pedestrian volumes. - ' J - •\ •;'o ••a►\�._„ ,"� • DESIGN FEATURES !� \ • Hybrid beacons may be installed without It meeting traffic signal control warrants Ite"—' Ids; based on engineering judgement if r 8, roadway speed and volumes are excessive a' 1 _ for comfortable pedestrian crossings. / 1 vi' Pedestrian Signalization Improvements Pedestrian Signal Heads 20 TYPICAL APPLICATION DESIGN FEATURES APPROXIMATE COST Pedestrian signal heads indicate to Countdown pedestrian signals are particularly Adjusting signal timing is relatively pedestrians when to cross at a signalized valuable for pedestrians,as they indicate inexpensive, as it requires only a few hours awhether a pedestrian has time to cross the of staff time to accomplish. New signal a crosswalk. Pedestrian signal indications are w recommended at all traffic signals except street before the signal phase ends. equipment ranges from $20,000 to $140,000. where pedestrian crossing is prohibited by MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE 2 signage. It is important to perform ongoing z maintenance of traffic control equipment. E Countdown pedestrian signals should be 1- Consider semi-annual inspections of w retrofitted at existing signals with older controller and signal equipment, intersection o style pedestrian signals and on any new g a hardware,and detectors. a installation.Countdown signals have a crash reduction factor of between 25 and 52% in a varied studies'. 1...."1"."4".17 I Fno. ii 7---—4 . 0, ______,,---- , , , ill owl Wr iiiiiillAF iiiiali Ilk A. AI w 1- \----: 1111kWiti I , Signal Timing TYPICAL APPLICATION 21 Adequate pedestrian crossing time is a sufficient pedestrian crossing time for a single critical element of the walking environment at stage crossing may be an issue. Pedestrian g. s, signalized intersections. The length of a signal refuge areas should be offset if possible for r :;P; phase with parallel pedestrian movements two-stage crossings so that it is clear which } E° should provide sufficient time for a pedestrian pedestrian signals pedestrians should obey. to safely cross the adjacent street. The MUTCD requires a walking speed of 3.5 ft per MATERIALS AND MAINTENANCE • second. It is important to perform ongoing o maintenance of traffic control equipment. At crossings where older pedestrians or Consider semi-annual inspections of pedestrians with disabilities are expected, controller and signal equipment, intersection crossing speeds as low as 3 ft per second hardware, and detectors. should be assumed.Such locations can have crossing time extensions through microwave APPROXIMATE COST detectors or timed at 3 ft per second for all Adjusting signal timing is relatively pedestrian crossings. Special pedestrian inexpensive, as it requires only a few hours phases can be used to provide greater of staff time to accomplish. New signal visibility or more crossing time for pedestrians equipment ranges from $20,000 to$140,000. at certain intersections. Large pedestrian crossing distances can be broken up with median refuge islands.A pedestrian push-button must be provided on the median to create a two-stage pedestrian crossing if the pedestrian phase is actuated. This ensures that pedestrians are not stranded on the median, and is especially applicable on large, multi-lane roadways with high vehicle volumes,where providing Leading Pedestrian Intervals {LPI} 22 TYPICAL APPLICATION FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS Leading Pedestrian Intervals LPI)are used The pedestrian interval is initiated 3-10 APS may be on "recall"or be actuated on an to reduce right turn and permissive left seconds, in advance of the concurrent green as-needed basis through pedestrian push a with the potential for permissive right and buttons. turn vehicle and pedestrian conflicts. By ix providing pedestrians a "head start" into the left turn conflicts. The LPI gives pedestrians LU a headstart making them more visible, and APPROXIMATE COST 1- intersection to gain positioning and visibility. a reducing crossing exposure time.Accessible Adjusting signal timing is relatively a DESIGN FEATURES Pedestrian Signals(APS)should be inexpensive, as it requires only a few hours of E implemented with an LPI. staff time to accomplish. 1— Lu 0 Lu a a 2 1 f , , , , 1, .., \,..: „...-..v_. , .).-4.1 .,.. t,l,t , ' .. --i- . ith ONLY '\ two- Q � 'i '. ! 11 o .i� 4. i// ya,,.Tjy/ tiMr "r' .�( _ _ ilk i 'AP f`-' ��i�,C' mr _ _ : ' http://www.cmicleannghouse.orghndex.cfm Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) TYPICAL APPLICATION APPROXIMATE COST 23 Pedestrian-vehicle conflicts can occur when • Confirmation lights and vibrotactile Adjusting signal timing is relatively drivers performing turning movements feedback assist pedestrians with hearing inexpensive, as it requires only a few hours across the crosswalk do not see or yield impairments of staff time to accomplish. New signal o to pedestrians who have the right-of-way. • Low mounting height and positioning at the equipment ranges from $20,000 to $140,000. �o Pedestrians may also arrive at an intersection curb ramp landing allow easy access for 1 late, or may not have any indication of pedestrians in wheelchairs or other mobility y how much time they have to safely cross assisted devices. the intersection. Pedestrian traffic signal • APS pushbuttons should be well signed o enhancements can be made to provide and within reach and operable from a flat pedestrians with a head start or extend surface for pedestrians in wheelchairs the walk time to allow them to safely and and with visual disabilities. They should comfortably cross the street. be conveniently placed in the area where • ® START CROSSING pedestrians wait to cross. watch For Vehicles DESIGN FEATURES FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS - -. a DDN'T START • Consider the use of a LeadingPedestrian =®'— Finish croesing The provision of APS is not currently a An' If Started Interval(LPI)to provide additional traffic- requirement; however,the draft Public DON r CROSS protected crossing time to pedestrians. Rights of Way Accessibility Guidelines from _ © \ • Accessible Pedestrian Signals(APS) 2011 require APS at all new and altered PUSH BUTTON 1 provide crossing assistance to pedestrians signals. It is recommended that APS be TO CROSS with a variety of disabilities. installed as a standard in Yakima. 1T .I • Audible locator tones,tactile arrows • In areas with very heavy pedestrian traffic, - aligned with the crossing,voice information consider an all-pedestrian signal phase about when to cross and confirmation to give pedestrians free passage in the , beeps assist people with vision intersection when all motor vehicle traffic ,; impairments. movement;are stopped. • Large buttons that can be operated with • At locations with very high pedestrian a closed fist and require low effort assist volumes,such as downtown, an exclusive r - people with a variety of physical disabilities. pedestrian signal phase with a diagonal crossing called a "Pedestrian Scramble" can be provided to reduce vehicle turning conflicts. Other Traffic Control Measures Advanced stop Lines 24 TYPICAL APPLICATION DESIGN FEATURES Advance stop lines increase pedestrian Wide stop lines are recommended to comfort and safety by stopping motor vehicles provide increased visibility further in advance of multi-lane approaches • Parking should be prohibited in the area to marked crosswalks, providing drivers a between the stop line and the crosswalk. w better line of sight of pedestrians, and giving inner lane motor vehicle traffic time to stop for APPROXIMATE COST a pedestrians. • $100-$500 dependent on whether paint W GENERAL or thermoplastic is used. • Install advance stop lines prior to any • Approximate cost reflects estimated marked crosswalk. material cost; does not reflect full cost of 2 installation. • Provide advance stop lines in each } direction of vehicular travel. • UNCONTROLLED CROSSINGS • A"Stop Here for Pedestrians" (R1-5b) sign must accompany, and be in the same location as, the advance stop bar on multi-lane approaches. The sign should be placed 20 to 50 feet in advance of the nearest crosswalk. No Right Turn on Red TYPICAL APPLICATION DESIGN FEATURES 25 Restricting the ability of vehicles to turn right There are a range of treatments which can be APPROXIMATE COST turn on red in certain circumstances can see instituted ranging from: Varies depending on approach (sign, signal, improvements in pedestrian safety where • Static signs only(will likely not be very blankout sign, or all three)and if restriction is o right turning vehicles may come in conflict effective) needed on all intersection approaches. i~ with pedestrians. Restricting Right Turns • Red right arrow signal heads. May still not - on Red (RTOR)should be considered in the achieve high compliance if Right Turn on following scenarios: Red restrictions are not commonplace. • Poor sight distance between vehicles • Blankout signs which illuminate during o and pedestrians.An unusual number of the prohibition (the most effective if high pedestrian conflicts with turns on red compliance is needed). (compared to turns on green). FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS • An exclusive pedestrian phase Restricting RTOR can be a condition: • A leading pedestrian interval • At all times (resulting in a decrease in intersection capacity) • In effect when pedestrians are present only • In effect during certain times of day Speed Management - Vertical Elements 26 TYPICAL APPLICATION Motor vehicle speeds affect the frequency • Speed lumps or cushions have gaps a wider wheel base than passenger cars, z at which automobiles pass pedestrians as to accommodate the wheel tracks of speed lumps/cushions allow them to pass a well as the severity of crashes that can occur. emergency vehicles. unimpeded while slowing most other traffic. ix Slower motor vehicle speeds greatly improve • Speed tables are longer than speed humps Alternatively, speed tables are recommended 1- pedestrians' comfort on a street. Slower and flat-topped. Raised crosswalks are because they cannot be straddled by a truck, 2 vehicular speeds also improve motorists' speed tables that are marked and signed decreasing the risk of bottoming out. Traffic z a ability to see and react to pedestrians by for a pedestrian crossing, calming can also deter motorists from driving 1- reducing the distance needed to stop in any • For all vertical traffic calming,slopes should on a street. Monitor vehicle volumes on osituation. not exceed 1:10 or be less steep than 1:25. adjacent streets to determine whether traffic LU a Tapers should be no greaterthan 1:6 to calming results in inappropriate volumes. Vertical speed control measures are reduce the risk of bicyclists losing their 2 Traffic calming can be implemented on a trial composed of slight rises in the pavement,on balance.The vertical lip should be no more } basis. which motorists must reduce speed to cross. than a 1/4" high. • Vertical speed management is APPROXIMATE COST recommended on Neighborhood FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS • $25- $50 per linear foot for speed hump Greenways where 85th percentile speeds Emergency vehicle response times should depending on design and width. exceed 22 MPH. be considered where vertical deflection is • Approximate cost reflects estimated • Other select locations where speeding is a used. Because emergency vehicles have material cost; does not reflectfull cost of concern for pedestrian safety, such as near installation. schools or pedestrian priority districts. DESIGN FEATURES 0 Speed humps are raised areas usually Aso! F .,1.47t, =_ r placed in a series across both travel 1 , lanes.A 14' long hump reduces impacts /� to emergency vehicles. Speed humps can E w �� 9 y P ;: ';: be challenging for bicyclists,gaps can be Air provided in the center or by the curb for ' „. ,x, bicyclists and to improve drainage. Speed III humps can also be offset to accommodate /` j "s r. emergency vehicles. '- ; -4 Speed Management - Horizontal Elements TYPICAL APPLICATION DESIGN FEATURES 27 Horizontal deflection is a form of speed • Neighborhood streets should have a Median islands in the center of the roadway management utilizing design elements maximum posted speed of 25 mph,with create a pinchpoint for vehicles and offer intended to reduce the speed of motor an ideal speed of 20 mph. Use horizontal shorter crossing distances for pedestrianso deflection to maintain an 85th percentile when used with a marked crossing. o vehicle traffic closer to walking and bicycling travel speeds.They also speed below 20 mph(25 mph maximum}. effectively discourage motorists from Roadways with average speeds above this 0 Pinchpoints are curb extensions placed using neighborhood streets as cut through limit should be considered for horizontal on either side of the road. They restrict i deflection measures. motorists from operating at high speeds corridors. Constricting the roadways space, on local streets by visually and physically No forces drivers to slow down, and maneuver • Maintain a minimum clear width of 14 feet with a constricted length of at least 20 feet narrowing the roadway.An effective more carefully. Such measures may reduce configuration narrows the roadway to a in the direction of travel. the design speed of a street, and can be used single lane so only one vehicle traveling • in conjunction with reduced speed limits and To provide a comfortable walking in either direction can proceed at a time. environment, bring traffic volumes down vertical deflection elements to reinforce the to 1,500 cars per day(4,000 cars per day When placed at intersections, pinchpoints expectation of lowered speeds. are known as chokers or neckdowns. They maximum). Roadways with daily volumes above this limit should be considered for reduce curb radii and further lower motor vehicle speeds. horizontal deflection measures. ..." 1 /....P.:-- . - '44k- i , _ . ' 1I, r it,. 28 O Traffic circles are raised or delineated FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS APPROXIMATE COST islands placed at intersections that reduce • Horizontal speed management elements • Varies depending on design/landscaping vehicle speeds by narrowing turning radii also provide opportunities for planting requirements. z and the travel lane.Traffic circles can also street trees,vegetation,and other a g • Each element may range from $1,500 a include a paved apron to accommodate stormwater management installations. the turning radii of larger vehicles like fire $25,000. In addition to the aesthetic benefits of • Approximate cost reflects estimated co trucks or school buses.Traffic circles can landscaping,street trees narrow a driver's p g' material cost;does not reflect full cost of be landscaped but must be maintained to visual field and creates a consistent a preserve sightlines. nstallation. rhythm and canopy along the street,which a 1— provides a unified character and facilitates oO Chicanes are a series of raised or place recognition. delineated curb extensions,edge islands, • Horizontal deflection elements should or parking bays on alternating sides of be designed to minimize impacts to a a street forming an"S" shaped curb, streetsweepers and allow for regular which reduce vehicle speeds by requiring maintenance.Vegetation should be motorists to shift laterally through narrowed regularly trimmed to maintain visibility and travel lanes while preserving sightlines. attractiveness. 0 Pinch points,also called chokers,are curb extensions or edge islands at midblock ,; locations which narrows the road for a short O -� distance,forcing all motorists to merge into r,, � ` ti. a single lane. l p 4t r , v. Y • u j. .'w tH