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06/15/2021 04F Resolution adopting the Yakima Housing Action Plan ti i..asxntntj kd g$Ag d 'P CJ\iiiiir!: x°'naa.x,,4n BUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDA STATEMENT Item No. 4.F. For Meeting of: June 15, 2021 ITEM TITLE: Resolution adopting the Yakima Housing Action Plan SUBMITTED BY: Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager, 509-575-6042 Joan Davenport,Al CP, Community Development Director SUMMARY EXPLANATION: At the June 1, 2021 Public Hearing, Council voted to approve the Housing Action Plan and directed staff to draft a Resolution consistent with Council action. The attached Resolution formally adopts the Housing Action Plan. ITEM BUDGETED: NA STRATEGIC PRIORITY: Neighborhood and Community Building APPROVED FOR SUBMITTAL BY THE CITY MANAGER RECOMMENDATION: Adopt Resolution ATTACHMENTS: Description Upload Date Type D esolution 1212021 Resolution exhibit A-Nc u in ction Ian 012/2021 exhibit 2 RESOLUTION NO. R-2021- A RESOLUTION approving the City of Yakima Housing Action Plan WHEREAS, The City of Yakima was awarded a grant from the Washington State Department of Commerce to develop a Housing Action Plan (hereafter 'Plan') compliant with House Bill 1923 (R-2019-118); and WHEREAS, the purpose of the Plan (Exhibit "A") is to create a set of concrete steps to meet local housing needs; and WHEREAS, the Plan went through a public process which included public engagement through a Technical Advisory Committee, public survey, interviews with local housing developers, meetings with the Community Integration Committee, press releases, social media and other outreach efforts; and WHEREAS, SEPA Environmental Review was completed with a Determination of Nonsignificance issued on April 8, 2021 (SEPA#007-20); and WHEREAS, on April 28, 2021, the Yakima Planning Commission held an open- record public hearing to consider the proposed Plan, hear testimony from the public, and provide a recommendation to the City Council; and WHEREAS, on May 6, 2021, the Yakima Planning Commission issued its written recommendation for approval of the proposed City of Yakima Housing Action Plan; and WHEREAS, at an Open Record Public Hearing on June 1, 2021 the Yakima City Council voted to approve the City of Yakima Housing Action Plan, consistent with the Planning Commission's recommendation; and WHEREAS, the City of Yakima has complied with the substantive, procedural, and notice requirements associated with SEPA, the Growth Management Act, and the Yakima Municipal Code for; and WHEREAS, the Yakima City Council finds that it is in the best interest of the City of Yakima, and its residents, to approve the City of Yakima Housing Action Plan; now, therefore, BE IT RESOLVED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF YAKIMA: Section 1. Incorporation of Recitals. The above recitals are hereby incorporated into this resolution. Section 2. Incorporation of the Planning Commission's Recommendation and Conditions of Approval. The Planning Commission's Recommendation is hereby adopted and ratified by the Yakima City Council as its decision and approval of the Plan 3 herein. A copy of the Recommendation is attached hereto as Exhibit "B" and fully incorporated herein by this reference. Section 3. Findings. The Yakima City Council adopts the findings of the Planning Commission as its own findings herein, and further finds that the requirements of the Washington State Department of Commerce Grant have been met. Section 4. Approval. The Yakima City Council, after reviewing all the evidence and the Yakima Planning Commission's Recommendation, hereby approves and adopts the City of Yakima Housing Action Plan. Section 5. Severability. If any section, subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause, or phrase of this resolution is declared invalid or unconstitutional for any reason, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this resolution. ADOPTED BY THE CITY COUNCIL this 15th day of June, 2021. ATTEST: Patricia Byers, Mayor Sonya Clear Tee, City Clerk 4 Exhibit "A" Housing Action Plan 5 Exhibit "B" DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Joan Davenport MCP,Director Sad AtittitiOat Plarann DW1,100 Joseph Calhoun,Manager Planntng 129 North Second Street 2sFloor,Yakima,WA 9S901 askolanningaaktrnawa.got wavw.yaktnangovtscrvices/plaiming YAKIMA PLANNING COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION TO THE YAKIMA CITY COUNCIL CITY OF YAKIMA HOUSING ACTION PLAN April 28,2021 WHEREAS, The City of Yakima was awarded a grant from the Washington State Department of Commerce to develop a Housing Action Plan(HAP)compliant with House Bill 1923 (R-2019-118);and WHEREAS,the purpose of the HAP is to create a set of concrete steps to meet local housing needs)and WHEREAS,the HAP process included public engagement through a Technical Advisory Committee,public survey,interviews with local housing developers,meetings with the Community Integration Committee,press releases social media,and other outreach efforts; and WHEREAS,SEPA Environmental review was completed with a Determination of No significance issued on April 8,2021 which was not appealed;and WHEREAS,On April 14,2021 the City of Yakima Planning Commission held a study session on the HAP;and WHEREAS,The Yakima Planning Commission held an open record public hearing on April 28,2021 to hear testimony from the public,consider the Housing Action Plan,and provide a recommendation to the Yakima City Council; Now therefore the Yakima City Planning Commission presents the following findings of fact,conclusions,and recommendation to the Yakima City Council: APPLICATION# SEPA#007-20 APPLICANT: City of Yakima Planning Division PROJECT LOCATION; City-Wide FINDINGS OF FACT 1. The Planning Commission adopts the findings of fact from the staff report and staff report supplement attached hereto as Exhibit A and Exhibit B,respectively. 2. In addition to the above listed Exhibits,the Planning Commission enters the following findings of fact based on testimony provided and subsequent discussion during the public hearing: 6 Public Testimony excerpt from the meeting minutes:; Brian Hedengren—1813 Mayhan Ave, Richland WA,but noted he was in the process of moving to the Yakima Valley!Question about available land—most of the undeveloped land is privately held.Are there ways to promote opening land for development?Calhoun answered that the primary way that undeveloped land is addressed is through strategy 1 Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. This strategy,: along with past updates to the zoning ordinance,will provide more opportunities for vacant lands to be developed.Question about agricultural use in city limits—farmland v&land for development. Calhoun answered that farmland in the city is allowed to remain in production.All currently farmed areas are zoned for some kind of use,whether residential, commercial or industrial. The farmland can continue as long as the property owner desires,and future projects will be dependent on the underlying zoning district. Corey Baldwin — 012304 1815 Dr, Snohomish, WA. Mr. Baldwin represents Shelter Resources, Inc,which is an affordable housing developer/operator.Recently purchased Englewood Gardens in Yakima, a senior housing community. Financing for affordable housing,is very competitive in WA. Wants to make sure that RFP's are timed with application cycles such as housing trust fund or housing finance commission: Most resources in recent years have gone to the Seattle area,the rest of the state needs an equitable share of resources. 3. YPC Discussion excerpt from the meeting minutes: Wallace closed the public testimony portion of the hearing and opened for commissioner testimony. Place stated she liked the proposed changes to the plan.She discussed the. sales tax portion of the RCW that goes to the vote of the people.Would like to encourage the City Council to put it on the ballot.Hughes-Mickel asked about land capacity.Calhoun explained that the HNA and 2040 comp plan identified that there is more than sufficient land capacity to meet the population projection and annual average housing goal of 295 dwelling units. Hughes-Mickel asked about criteria for determining priorities. Calhoun stated that priorities were ranked by the TAG and also based upon feedback received during the survey and other public engagement activities. The priorities will follow the priority 1,2,and 3 from a timing standpoint,but there are also short-,medium-and long- term timelines. There will be some overlap of priority 1, 2, and 3 strategies due to the timeframe in which to implement them. Rose discussed infrastructure, such as sewer,: water, and roads. Need to make sure that everyone who will be working with utility projects that the City watches how they are developed,and new ideas for financing,We do have a latecomer's agreement but it could be revisited.:Opportunities for public/private projects. Need to makes sure that fire code is considered for development such as tiny.. homes:Calhoun mentioned that the latecomers agreement is mentioned in strategy 2. and discusses updates.Also, related to setbacks, current processes go through a joint review and Codes provides comments related to setbacks and fire code considerations. Wallace:asked about the edits recommended in the staff report.Calhoun noted that those would be included in the YPC recommendation, CONCLUSIONS 1. The proposed Housing Action Plan is consistent with RCW 36 70A.600 and the requirements of our Department of Commerce Grant. 7 2, Comments received during the public comment period and at the public hearing have been considered in the final recommendatton 3. SEPA Environmental Review was completed. MOTION It was moved and seconded:"Based on the testimony and evidence presented during this afternoon's public hearing,I move that the Planning Commission adopt the findings of fact and order that the draft housing action plan be forwarded to the Yakima City Council with a recommendation for approval."Motion carried unanimously. RECOMMENDATION TO CITY COUNCIL The Planning Commission of the City of Yakima,having received and considered all evidence and testimony presented at the public hearing,.and having received and reviewed the record herein,hereby recommends that the City Council of the City of Yakima APPROVE the proposed City of Yakima:Housing Action Plan. SIGNED this Le day of.May 2021.. By: f .-,. Lisa ailats,Vice-Chair Yakima Planning Commission 8 Exhibit"A" DLPIRf S4.Yt.rat(tp31011'N(7Y DEl rf d1PMML:V`T 40741 it‘‘ i0M11)6VellpOrL.Alt Ow Mrs ikt F'4011 1 tx 01) POne!mg 129Boob ng Street,21,Finer,vstem HA OHM kith Plennegirie tJm.,,,xgrt Xv.r.}aldin 4.e01,5.1n'A planning:. City of Yakima Planning Division Reciunmendation Housing Aetlen Ptan TO City of Yakima Planning Conssisssrn FROM: Joseph Calhoun,Planning Manager SUBJECT: Housing Alton Plan FOR MEETING OF. And 28,2021 FILENUMBER:: SEPA#007.20. Yakirse Planning Conanissien(YPC)consideration and public hearing of:a Housing ACGanPlan (HAP}. Pinckney;of:Frtrt. Background The HAP is funded t}voog tl $100,000 grant from the.Wasangkon State Department of Commerce.The City ofYakkna contracted with BERK aa:aw consultant far this process. FAt!!if9Pmental R6yIEw t l The City of Yakima issued a Oeterneiatipa of Nonsgniicance en April a,2021, Public Native end Relevant!load :: SHO Intreduehen to CityCauseil Decanter 5 2019 Needs Assessment Apra 2020 Polity:Evaivation October 2020. Survey Reacts December Hr 2020 Draft Strategy Charac;ensceon December 11,2020 Notice of Application and Public Hearing: April 8,2001 Legal Ad Apdt 8.2021. Draft HAP Ape,2021 Plan ObiacNVes The Housing Actioniverse'ssix obectieve are, 1 Encourage diverse housing development widen existing nsighbotreods:. 2,.Create and preserve affordable hornets 3;Create hemeowneienip opportunities for love end:moderate-income households 4 Supped housing options that meat the diverse needs of older adults: $.. the needs of those strtmeng ytfth heateessnsss, er Protect against Hlepetcament and poor housing coMgkma. RG O 2Haro)Anatvsis (2)Aaty planning pursuant to RCW'.°a$•?EA.04Q may adopts bowleg action plan as. described In this subsection The goal or any such housing plan must be to encourage conseonGn of addition ally fordable and market rate housing ins greater vaanety:of housing types and at pnnas that are aerreerible to x greater variety ofin/tonnes,meluding stretzEes.. ente Peel 9 aimed at the for-prof t:single-tamev home market,A housing action plan may utiles data compiled pursuant to ROW as t&(8 69D,The housing action plan should (a)quantify existing and projected housing needs for all income levels,Including extremely low-income households,veth dooumentationof housing end household. characteristics end cost-burdened households) Staff Response Satielted.Sea Introduction andDevaloping the.HAPChepters,add Appendix S—Housing Needs Assessment (b)Develop strategies to increase the supply of:housing,and varietyof housing types. needed to serve the housing needs identified in(a)of this subsection, Staff Response;Satisfied See Objectives and Strategies Chapter. (MAN Ine population and employment trends,vtth documentation of projections; Staff Response Satisfied See SechnloaiAnaysestn Developing the HAP Chapter.,end Addenda's—Housing Needs Assessment (d)Consider strategies to minimize dspiacoinent of low-income residents resulting from. redevelopment Staff Response Satisfied See Appendix E-Displacement RiskAmalyss and several priority strategies.. (a)Review and evaluate they current housing element adopted pursuant to ROW TSB 7QA.d7d,including an evaluation of success in attaining planned housing types and unite achievement of goals and policies and implementation of the schedule of programs and: actions;: Staff Response Satisfied See Appendix C-Policyand Regulatory Review ()Provide for perticipetion and input from community rrenibers,community groups, local builders local realms,nonprofit housing advocates,and local religious groups,and Staff Response Satisfied,See Conimunty Input section LtDeveloping the NAP Chapter and Appendix A—Commit Engagement, (g)include a:schedule of programs and actions to inarlementthe recommendations of the housing action plan. Staff Response Sattisited.See Objectives and:Strategies Implementation end Mondonng Chapters puled°Comment Prior ta developing this repent,the following moth comments were received t)Lee Murdock provided comment on April 22,2021 which are included In the packet, The comment letter includes several questions and comments some of which are included in the:edits section below.. Edits:from PublicReviewDraft The foilow,ng edits era proposedto be made to the Pubis Review/Planning Commission Recommended Pratt:Note,this does:not inehde formatting errors which setibe corrected the Final Craft presented to Council t.: Page 1 fMmducfion. [age 2. 10 Addeinnal language an the relationShO Who OPP ra eine r Piens The Housing Action Plan is a rive-year strategy that supports and guides oity actions and existing long-range planning.Including the 2024 update of the City of YakIMa's 2040 Comprehenswe Plan.The IdAPis.10,:smOd to itiettleMedt and Intone dodurnedt‘ t wen but not ti Cler of Yaks re Soucy Studs analusee • 2) ofVhJ2gahenerre Ns 20 • ousel ad r• Use Elernente • CjYokiQ9jggfi202a1s-201g • dggima Qourtrr 5-Year Pico to Address Hornolerdngss 2019-2024 • Yakima Cows,/Farstworkes deualog Actlret Plan 20102216 • PSge 3:Devetisping the HAP Developing the HAP The Housing Action Pies was developed between March 2023 and February 20202021 The HAP benefited from the expertise and guidance of a Technical Advisory Committee(TACO interviews with stakeholders;and a ieerrimunitysmda survey(which captured S31 responses) a Pegs 11:Objectives and Strategies Objectives sad Etrategies re-ordered for consistency with Page Six objectives were identified for the HAP based on a synthesis of the findings of the technical analyses and stakeholder and oomrritinity engagement A ' - fatearea&Mak Ettcotirace reverse Poesy doe moot ' ' e bberhon Montabilles Create and preserve affordable homes O.Homeownership;Create homeownership opportunities for low-and moderate-income households a Order Adult Options:Support gouging Options that meet the diverse needs of older adults, E.Stability.Address the needs of those snuggling with hondglessness. F.Anti-Displacement:Protest against displacement and poor housing conditions 4. Page XI Objectives end Strategies Add dare ying text an CitylPattner Lead. C Lead' o Stallesses wheat o Ce 0 Identified as .....eattboirnptwnartflther is tail 0 Sneed lo a Irisanon s isiOn env nIt4 ieW etc r bon ' sae Plan 2040 and anegg aids:Ion or cid I fo i swami ro d enfdrormand.May grennedbans erase revi tr structures sts Partner e d.Ptier mare Sas P r laureate ad bed dm-rd sane of Jo t *knees oath Ca au o s ourstable.It is antic led that les01 n able to Peirdteleattnestfead snared ids in the HAP ashen soak=suction dor Cent fertebta, co etas 9 a thee r . Page 3 11 5 Page IS:Strategy I.Update city regu/ations to remove Centers to innovative housing typed Add:Uanfiang text arid additional examples: 1 Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. [Description Most housing in the City of Yakima issmgle-family(65%of all housing inventory)or multifamily of three or:more units(22%of all housing inventory).Supporting innovative housing types and arrangements will more fully meet the needs and preferences of Yekirns's community members.For example,community engagement revealed that many Yakima residents seek ntuldgenerationat d nr re gitordeble housing opportunities that these types of innovative housing can facilitate.There are a rode variety of housing types that help reduce housing costs end fit into a small-town character Each is defused below. •. tiny Homes ore small dwelling units on a fotmdatlen or on a carriage with wheels with between 150.400 square feet of habitable floor area.They are affordable compared veth. traditional site bulk homes.They may be located on their own.lot,serve as an accessory dwelling unit or be located in a:village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park: Their small else and cottage:like nature make them compatible in single-family areas on their own lot or as an accessory dwelling unit They may offer temporary or long-term housing for seasonal workers such as in a manufactured home or RV park. Senate via(Sbl 5353 passed in May 2019.legally Permitted tiny housesas:Permanent dwellings in Washington State(as a result,the State building Council adopted international Residential Code standards that apply to tiny houses,effective in. November 2020.SS 5383 also expanded ROW58.17 040(5)of the subdivision statute. to allowthe creation oftiny house villages such as through a binding site plan and stops. cities Corn prohibiting tiny houses in manufactured/mobile home parks.House (NB) 1065,passed in 2018,also allows.local Jurisdictions to remove:.minrmum:unit size limitations on detached houses • Mierohomeaare small dwellings In a multifamily style.There are two types- Congregate. housing'sleeping rooms"are often at the 140.200 square-foot range and may include:.... private bathrooms end kitchenettes Shared factitive Include kitchens,gathering areas: and other common amenitiesfor residents. I A9n it efficiency dwelling unit(SEnu)le a very snail studio apartment including a complete kitchen and bathroom.Typically,the units will betas small as 220 square feet of total floor spate,as compared to 300 squate. feet for the smallest typical conventional studio apartments:,Miorohones are more affordable apartment units,and could be located In contnercal.,mixed-use,and high density multifamily zones •: Modular homes are atruotures that are bolt offsite,then transported toe permanent site: They differ from manufactured:or mobile homes in that modular harries are constructed to meet the same state,regional,nr total building codes as site-bulls homes,white manufactured homes adhere to national HUD code standards: Page 4 12 •,,,;,_Co-op housing is a form of shared housing in which a cooperative corporation owns housing,and residents own stank shares in the corporation and participate in governance of the coaperative.10 Shared property,usually including a common house. is part of what defiles this type of housing These spaces allow residents to gather for shared meals;-acdvities,and celebrations as well as the collaborative work required to :care forth¢spates:. • EdIa notatt n Sines aNn rim din ;made*paern foemud t aeitaf oiaWong 9 t%sr nod r onaroof jv heach ttanotation kengr@n SouthernwJr[ft�ai ie 6tY3ce And pthine V ThC dial n of toename i 5hRs)Ar CA a single fa tYM rgs(Sianon in ernes aonearsnce ant an intoner layout doscgned around nonerrart areas with separate: ... am* for tn¢d rnu a,.. Other related dwelingunittypes include cottages—a olusterof small:dwelling units;generally. less than 1,200 square feet,around a:oomrron open space—and zero Inc development, which allows a zero or minimal setback normally required within a particular zone thus promoting efficient use of buildable land Zero-Iot line development is common with townhouse developments and mayalso be designed as an attached single-family home The City of Yakima has made several changes recently to encourage the above housing types:. Tiny houses on an individual lot are wnentlyy treated the same as a regular single-family home. The City has spa updated its definition of multifamily development to include any residential use where three or more dwellings are on the same lot This can he Satiny homes,a duplex and a tiny home,or other combinations A new trenufautured home can be placed anywhere a single- rankly home can locate,consistent wtth state law,However,process and level of review for these housing types can be improved,For example,to build a tiny home on a newamallet single lot(smatter than the city'a current mailmen lot size requirement of 6 000 SF)one must go through a Planned Development process.Streamlining and simplifying the review process for smaller housing types:can further support encourage these housing types. Gaps Addressed,Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 205 as annually through. 2040::Housing like tiny homes and nodular housing is often less expensive to develop than traditional,single-faintly hones These cost savings could help encourage and facifitate,the: development of more housing that carts a be more attainable for households with lower Incomes.This housing IS often also more suitable for small households,for whom Yakima. currently has a Shortage of housing options Cooperative housing can provide a more affordable opportunity for homeownership than traditional single-family homeownershpi Yakima,like many communities in Washington,also has a shortage of farnworker housing:Innovative housing.. type.:can provide far rworkersvith high-quality housing that meets local codas,but at a tower cost to:developers. Considerations Additional options to encourage tiny homes,micro housing,cottage hones,.. roglii -generation h:..: Ned others:include: Allowing for Cliff pcninotdontely options`...: e ' oral tdf one dhrSusi t •. Clensityhnassing and review process.Consenter allowing a higher number of units than typical for the Zone,due to th8-sialler borne size or vale tanec„k,ggpt odes era Pages 13 present.Some density increase is essential because the units are swear and:usually. more expensive to build on a cost/square feet basis.Consider applying a maxi mumfloor area ratio limit or en across the board allowed density for tiny houses,for iratenco one... tiny house per square foot of lot area Condor reduceti:dovetcomont standardg such an lot cgveregnand setbacks tr ti ne.ationw twos. • Design elements Provide design standards in a manner similar to cottage housing. clusters:Consider providing design standards for both union open Spaces and. semiprivate open spates for individual c Permit construction of a shared community building to provide a space for gathering and sharing roofs. :Play close attention to how parking can/should be integrated with s4k'#erfnncreaecd. danekv. Example Communities . Cohousing Haystack Heights in Spokane is an utergenerational village that is dose to. downtown.with clustered townhouses and flab to niaxlrntse efficiency,interaction,and green space.Designed to include 32 units spreadout among four buildings the development tickides spaces to share skills andfaciltties, h. Page 22'Strategy&tneentivtre landlords to improve the quality and maintenance of housing. Add addltianat(engage regarding the landlord fnidgaton fund: EXeregieCearereefraret Through its low-income weathenaation program Pacific Pow partners with local agencies to provide free wsathengstion seine es to income•qualifyhng homeowners and renters thing in single:-family homes;:mobiie homes or apartments.Based on the home's needs,a variety of measures can be installed to 7owar etechk bilk whet keeping hones comfortable. The Colorado Landlord Incentive ProgranorLandlords Opening Doors program offers. participating landlords'.reanbursementfor short-term vacancies and minor unt repairs when they rent units to a tow-income renter with a housing voucher.To beelgible,a landlord must participate th the Landlord Recruitment Carnoaign.The threshold fors repairs is up to WOO and not more than$a,w: "(r.2013 the W ! M a$ to Landlord I. deo t #PC1w:43 ai 6691effective t roved hello van or dozenth/ om;addo'decent to wq k dti t sntnrecelen .... t ignon,ins ono rem titres q s pep ter required g)g zi n to 14. ' rc d:mracrstanra,r,g ma es taue 7: Page za Strategy 70.Add more permanent suppertrvahausmrg,. Add ctanfytng language on potential partners:. Considerations Communities are almost never able to provide permanent supportive housing for all households that need it need outstrips supply,and many individuals who need:. permanent supportive housing wit not receive the service.Coordination is also key to sin`aes:. The City should coordinate with the local Ltd a,e,»r-provtders,developers harmlessness 'Page 6:: 14 services to ensure that any pienstorperirwnent SUPeortve housing:are con. oath:the county toe plan for homelessness Services. Exeir+ple Programs^:Yakima Neighborhood Health Services offers permanent,suppative housing though a program called Master tease.The program is based on relationships with. Mcel landlords who lease wen the program to house those experiencing homelossness:::Once Mused,clients racei✓e regular case managementirorn pained staff who aURPUti the deltic-gat derabonanakied Sp hour ..path:to self-sumciency.Through the recentlyconpieted Rhonda D.Haiti Resource Oentef,(ROH), Yakima Nephborhodd Health Services also offers temporary and peaty nevi evppndlye:housing for up to 37 people and prouides case managers who connect residents to pecigripare:.monde haSRb services 1ec'i(;gltse,envies t other.. :.t , deetrattelseettlitriontelems a. Peg.9g'Strttegy It Caoranate seasonal tatmwmmket horsing es severs-winter. abetters Add clanging languages to focus on c,Yy-&m#s rather to ncounty.and change"cootdmate".to.. 'support'as the cty:wilt not be the lead in tlnaefort:. :. .StJFaaitseasanalfarmworker housing as aevere-tatnfer abetters. Considerations.The.:. ott000gitiotionct of Ye in-u is a desnahly cation for fa °sly due to as conga, locaton end 'On, to storion H wgvo*,fa rmztbrkdr houairig is user iy not at fail copoGRy during the wort rho Formatter housing facilities that receive:public(state or federal) fonds or construction or operations may be restricted in who they can serve Advocacy with the. legislature to teevo these requirements tall be needed For example,'the Department of Revenue's(DOR)pokey is that any use other than farmworher housing during the winter in the first five}rears would make a property.ineligible for the:sales tax exemption provided for tarnworkerhousing: g. Page 32.Strategy t3.Continue to supporteducaboa programs on homeovmerstiip. $tmpi4lng language to he more genera/ked. ' Description Many reactants have needs for housing support programs that extend beyond mere. production of units Fast-time bortteowne *goo,us pas i face several panniers to ouxr homes ouch pm bilk or poor trod[ Homeowner educabop helps restdentc;prepare for the:process of purchasing a home and the challenges of being a new homeow;ler:The City of Yakima a Office of Nerghborhood Development Semites(ODDS)currently works with Habitat for Humanity to educate through `certified"first isms homebuyer classes,counsel credit,and assist to secure financial assistance: Continued support for this program is necessary. 10 Page 33 Strategy l4 Revise parking standan to:In key..areas. Mineroh8age—City sSould be Lead,net Partner tor this strategy II.Page 39.Strategy 17 Ova gtardsdoens to dims ty support smaII.busasesses.. Page 15 Add mlxedrisee aspect to fie the strategy to hogging Descifption Support wade businesses and cultural anchors in minwiro g aleitn„s to:help them invest In their space and keep up with reed. Gaps Addressed,This strategy helps with affordable housing in the community by supporting:. sma l:businesses and helping them to make tont costs.:'Vacant rowans reel'.5nace in m in ®Q„' 'din may rend-in is; hcr nerds ror WeidaIt scuds Considerations Economic development programs tan help to support small businesses. Restrictions on city funds can make itditttcua for local governments to support small businesses.Instead,:communities are using federal and private tunde that do not have the same. said restrictions on use of general city funds to support rent end Operating roosts for small businesses.Community lenders can heed to meet small businesses'needs,and the Gay could help to conned businesses with these lenders. 12.Page 40 Strategy 23 Encourage miare'rataii and Rexene cultural space design Genera!Comment-eoneder comLsning with Strategy 17 13.Page 83.:hnplementebon The.Yatums County Nomeless Coalition and HomefaasManure of YAM*County will be added as potential partners to strategies where Srebddiaris the Objective It Page 98 Monitoring. Adding additional clsrttying language Monitoring i In ondr bt 916 ua ih NSn dwell r{ ate hype S n is the sto to Plo sl of:. constructing anatio aan of 9 dveninn treguleead sttte city Intends to:monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes ona tear basis This will the desiredravage.rosycity be necessary al t ryand ffromt mited public eels on. actions that are roost effective Key indicators based:Ga:results from Housing Needs Assessment will be used to monitorsedormance: Key Indicators The following key indicators were selected to reflect the overall desired outcomes of this Housing re:lion Man.These indicators reflect success over the tang-term rather than easy wins. in the one,to two:-year tirreframe Indicators are attended to capture important pieces of the larger puzzle that is a healthy,equitable housing.market.Importanty an adjustment in strategy is needed if Yakima is not nsakt%progress with these indicators.. Key Indicator I Annual production rate of ADt),duplex,tawnhome,smaller multifamity fag units or less},and multifamily units overall.This reflects the goal of increasing the nix of housing Mates in Yakima. Page8. 16 • Key indicator 2:Monitor and track the units gat for sinters.Rat reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to the crty'a older residents Key indicator 3:Cost burden of residents and the share of residents wan low.and ✓ moderate-incomes in the coy..The reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to. the pays bvnand moderate-income residents Conclusions 1 The proposed Housing Action Plan is consistent with ftCw 36 70A:603 and the requirements of our Department of Commerst Grant. 2. Comments received during the pubic comment period have been addressed. 3 SERA Environmental Review was completed Staff:Recommendation The City of Yakima Planning Divown recommends that the YPC hold the required public hearing,take public input revise the draft(s)as necessary and forward the Planning Convfassioh's recommendation to the Yakima City Council for further consideration.. SUGGESTED MOTORS:: Approval:. Based on the testimony and evidence,presented during this afternoons public hearing;:I move. that the Planning Commission adopt the findings of fact and order that the draft ordinance be forwarded to the Yakima City Council with a reconaitendahon for approval. Approval with modifications:. Based on the testimony and evidence presented during this afternoons public hearing,I:rrcve that the City of Yakima Planning staff modify the findings of fact and draft ordinance,to include the changes noted in the minutes of this afternoons public hearing,and with these changes. move that the Planning Comnission approve the modified findings end ordinance and order that the modified draft ordinance be fennarded to the Yakima City Council withe recommendation for approval, Dental:. Based on the testinteny and evidence presented during this afternoons public hearing,I twee that the Planning Commission rejectthe findings of fact and order that the findings be modified to mcludethe following reasonsfordenial,and order t natthle draft ordinance be forwarded to. the Yalorta City Counpii with a muorrzirandaticn for tfeniaf: Page 9 17 Exhibit."B" DEPART1MIENT 011 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 0 easnfl Joan Davenport,MCP,Ilireu'rw'. Pia i mg rh uitvi p uv�1 PAS 1. iaeph C sib itta Aiaoager 129\orlb Second Short,20knoor;skink WA 93901 it otankinnhtg Jvel inatna.goe•tvau':yal imatra guv:y mvices planning: City of Yakima Planning Division Recommendation: Housing Action Plan TO: City of Yakima Planning Commission FROM:: Joseph Calhoun,Planning Manager SUBJECT: Housing Action Plan FOR MEETING OF: Aped 28,2021. PILE NUMBER: SEPAS007 20 Yakima Planning Commission(YPC):Consideration and publlotear4ng eta Housing Mien Plan {HAP}. Supplemental Findings. This document is intended to supplement the Staff Report delivered in the Apra 23,2021 packet,. and includes additional comments and analysis received prior to the April 28 2021 public hearing. Public Comment 1) Esther Magasis,Yakima County Director of Human S trsices,:provided Comments:on April23,2021 • Question about ownership roles,lead agency.;Partners;etc. Staff Response-we have added same adiddytnglanguage to Ohfectrvekand Strategies to. clarify the City Lead and Partner jead strategies • YCCO not a faith'besed organSalion Staff Response-Strategy 33 enpietnentatran miff.be edited to remove the YOCC as a:potenhat partner Pose at Implementation 33 Cat,torsnah.c.,b,:ea •uatni,,v inn n.amine na d a• v • Multigeneradonal housing is not listed as an option under Strategy 1 Data Response-.the staff report includes additonat textralater)to muttigenerationet housingPAX IOU pis 18 • Concern about fee waivers:lnipacbng funds for affordable housing Staff Response-the fee waivers discussed for defends,modrboatian in the HAP ere far city lees such as baking.permitting,land use,addles,etc The HAP to not proposing any changes to recording fees or other such hunch*mechanisms fdraflordable housing:: 2)Rhonda Haug„CEO Yakima Neighborhood Health:SenAcee,provided comments on:Apal23, 2021 * Comments included revised text related to aMil example program Staff.Response-text has been updated to reflect oranges made by Rhonda Haul 3)Gwen Clear,DOE Envtronmentai Review Coordinator,provided comments on April:25,2021. • boE Provided a fink to their interactive dkt nap: htm iwit ` la `groha d Which shows the footprint of land occupied by orchard during the era when lead arsenate was applied as a pesticide.Ecology can provide sampling services at no cost to confirm whether a property is impacted by. arsenic and lead from historic orchard use:.. Start Response-additronattext has been added rn Strategy 1 related to legacy pesticides,The link to the dirt alert map w,'11 be made available an the City Planning wen pegs. 4)Jerry Mellon provided comments on April 28 2021 a: Printout of en arbde fthe/t'The:Limits of Housing Firer" Staff Response-Pus article examines the Housing Fist Model end provides several examples elbow it has been used throughout the country The topics and issues raised In Me striae........ would be appropriate to Woos sr the Mare with the potential partners of several partner-lead: strata, HAP Documents. Adding Appendix F-Providing Housing for Future Households by Income The purpose of this appendix is to compare the 2040 growth target of 5.,517 dwelling units. across the income spectrum.if income percentages stayed the same throughout the planning.... period,about 45-51%of Mute households would need housing affordable at 88%or lower MI {Area:Median Income) The exhibit modere a range to estimate future housing need by income band:.This Includes an cognate based on Yaklrm County'a current distribution of household income and one bayed on the City of Yeklms's dlstnbution of household Income. =Din Aillih19 Almim • • • imm NMI MIN lull ME NOM MINIM . . . . - mil rill - - - - -- . . . . nil n I \„_ • H .. lIcuouzg act" [plan City of Yakima - June 2021 20 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Clt nt Introduction 7 Plan Organization 8 Developingthe HAP 9 Community Input 9 Technical Analyses 10 Objectives and Strategies 17 Priority 1 Strategies 18 Priority 2 Strategies 30 Priority 3 Strategies 43 Implementation. .70 Monitoring 87 Key Indicators 87 Appendices 88 A // Community Engagement 89 B // Housing Needs Assessment 96 C // Policy and Regulatory Review 144 D // Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites 184 E // Displacement Risk Analysis 185 F // Providing Housing by Future Income 190 June 2021 21 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Exhibits Exhibit 1 . Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 11 Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2012 in Average Home Values, Average Rents and HUD Median Family Income 12 Exhibit 3. Cost-Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 13 Exhibit 4, Household Tenure by Cost-Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 14 Exhibit 5. Housing Types 19 Exhibit 10. Current and Desired Housing Types 92 Exhibit 11 . Community Housing Needs: All Survey Responses 93 Exhibit 12. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by White and Hispanic/o or Latinx/o Race or Ethnicity 94 Exhibit 13. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Income Bracket 94 Exhibit 14. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size 95 Exhibit 15. Population Change 2010-2040 145 Exhibit 16. Progress on Comprehensive Plan Population Targets 145 Exhibit 17. City of Yakima Council Districts 146 Exhibit 18. Dwelling Unit Capacity Under Current Zoning 147 Exhibit 19. Vacant lnull, and Agriculture Acres in City Limits by Zone 148 Exhibit 20. Yakima Zoning Map 148 Exhibit 21 . Vacant Acres 200 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District 149 Exhibit 22. Vacant Acres 100 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District 149 Exhibit 23. Total Vacant Acres without Sewer by District 150 Exhibit 24. Housing Change 2010-2040 150 Exhibit 25. Housing Supply 2010-2040 151 Exhibit 26. Permitted Dwelling Units by Type and Year 151 Exhibit 27. Permitted Dwelling Types 2015-2019: Share by Dwelling Type 152 Exhibit 28. Permits by Dwelling Type 2015-2019 152 Exhibit 29. Permits by Year and Zone* 153 Exhibit 30. Permits by Zoning District 153 Exhibit 31 . Single Family Permit Values and Affordability Chart 154 Exhibit 32. Single Family Permit Average Values and Affordability Table 154 Exhibit 33. Townhome Permit Values 154 June 2021 ii 22 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Exhibit 34. Housing Element Goal and Policy Review 157 Exhibit 35. Housing Element Implementation of Programs and Action 166 Exhibit 36. Land Use Element Review 170 Exhibit 37. City-owned Sites 184 Exhibit 38. Eviction Rate, City of Yakima 187 Exhibit 39. Social Vulnerability Index Ranking, City of Yakima 189 June 2021 iii 23 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan G osscry Affordable Housing. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if the household is spending no more than 30% of its income on housing costs. A healthy housing market includes a variety of housing types that are affordable to a range of different household income levels. However, the term "affordable housing" is often used to describe income-restricted housing available only to qualifying low-income households. Income-restricted housing can be located in public, nonprofit, or for-profif housing developments. If can also include households using vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing (see "Vouchers" below for more details). American Community Survey (ACS). This is an ongoing nationwide survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau designed to provide communities with current data about how they are changing. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. We use data from the ACS throughout this needs assessment. Area Median Income (AMI). This is a term that commonly refers to the area-wide median family income calculation provided by HUD for a county or metropolitan region: Income limits to qualify for affordable housing are often set relative to AMI. In this report, unless otherwise indicated, AMI refers to the HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI). Community Integration Committee (CIC). The nine-member City of Yakima Community Integration Committee was appointed by the City Council in 2017. The purpose and intent of the community integration committee is to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement; diversify the city government and workforce; provide additional review of policies, ordinances and resolutions if requested; and give a voice to all Yakima residents. (Ord. 2017-034 § 1 (part), 201 7). Cost Burden. When a household pays more than 30% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "cost-burdened." When a household pays more than 50% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "severely cost-burdened." Cost- burdened households have less money available for other essentials, like food, clothing, transportation, and medical care. Note that HUD sometimes refers to HUD Area Median Fon-lily Income as just Median Family income or WI. See http5:;/vvvvvv.huduser.gov;portal;datasets/il.html. June 2021 iv 24 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Household. A household is a group of people living within the same housing unit., The people can be related, such as a family. A person living alone in a housing unit or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit are also counted as a household. Group quarters population, such as those living in a college dormitory, military barrack, or nursing home, are not considered to be living in households. Household Income, The U.S. Census Bureau defines household income as the sum of the income of all people 15 years and older living together in a household. Income-Restricted Housing. This term refers to housing units that are only available to households with incomes at or below a set income limit and are offered for rent or sale at a below-market rates. Some income-restricted rental housing is owned by a city or housing authority, while others may be privately owned. In the latter case the owners typically receive a subsidy in the form of a tax credit or property tax exemption. As a condition of their subsidy, these owners must offer a set percentage of all units as income-restricted and affordable to household at a designated income level. Low-Income. Households that are designated as low-income may qualify for income- subsidized housing units. HUD categorizes families as low-income, very low-income, or extremely low-income relative to HUD area median family incomes (HAMFI), with consideration for family size. See the table below. HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income HAMFI Income Category Household Income Extremely Low-Income 30%of HAMS or less Very Low-Income 50%of HAMFI or less Low-Income 80%of 1-1M4F1 or less t)(7)G, IV1 K. Median Family Income (MFI). The median income of all family households in an area. Family households are those that have two or more members who are related. Median income of non-family households is typically lower than for family households, as family households are more lily to have more than one income-earner. Analyses of housing affordability typically group all households by income level relative to HUD area median family income (HAMFI), which is calculated for the county or metropolitan region. ny • S U S ire I c: )kia u fl I a c1 • pe rso Nv j a CC:• hou. rgun4 To be o srge household:, -;of cc and c no:ds ,tould ent. June 2021 25 City v[Yakima Housing Action Plain Vouchers (Tenmnt'bmoed and P jeot'bmned). HUOp|o`ides housing vouchers to qualifying low-income households. These are typically distributed by local housing authorities. Vouchers can bc "tcnont-boscc],' meaning the household can use the vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing in the location of their choice, or they can be "project-hosed," meaning they are assigned foo specific building. u Universal Design. Universal design is "the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood, and Lised to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, or ability.", When integrated into the built environment, universal design principles ensure that residents who are aging or who have o disability are net blocked from accessing housing and sc|`iccc � '** h8pu//^`�w.hodnnv/nrnnrono nffice�potKc �d�n ho �o� n/nronvmnos/hc"/tenontond hMpu// �w.hod.nnv/;rnnrononffice5, po�|ic ind|onhno5inn/nronvmnos/Inc"/nroiect fnrn�or� d�hz||� " hM;://onK/erso|dednnJs/whot-| -Un|"sool-Des|nn, June 202| vi 26 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Rnn |ntrnductinn UnU�r �����Iu�� UU�" U *n This Housing Action Plan lHAP\ is the City ofYokinno's plan for promoting affordable housing options for all community members across the city's neighborhoods. Affordable housing has many implications for Yakima. Housing has a demonstrated relationship to improved life outcomes for children. Yet many yoLing families with modest incomes face challenges finding o home in Yakima, and many senior hoosehoWs face difficulties staying in the community that has been their home for years. Workers who serve the co/nnnunityconnotoffo/d to live near their jobs and face longer commutes, adding to regional and local congestion. The HAP'sgoolis to increase affordable housing opportunities for all households to improve community and economic health. The Housing Action Plon's six objectives are: A, Encourage diverse hoosing development within existing neighborhoods. DCreate and preserve affordable homes. C, Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate- income hoLiseholds. D Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. E, Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. F, Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. The Housing Action Plan is a five-year strategy that supports and guides city actions and existing long-range planning, inclLiding the 2024 update of the City of Yakima's 2040 Comprehensive Plan. The HAP is intended to supplement and inform existing documents, including but not limited to: • City nf Yakima Equity Study Analysis • City nf Yakima Comprehensive Plan 2040: Housing and Land Use Elements • City nf Yakima Consolidated Plan 2O15-2O19 • Yakima County 5-Yoar Plan h` Address Homelessness 2019-2O24 • Yakima County Fa|nnwn|kor Housing Action P|an2011-201G While the City plays o key role in local housing, the local housing system also includes for-profit and nonprofit developers and other stakeholders. The HAP articLilates a clear set of housing strategies the City can work onin partnership with developers, community service providers, and other stakeholders. The HAP will also guide the City's June 202| 7 27 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Introduction participation in multi-jurisdictional efforts to address regional housing needs. Development of this HAP is supported by a state-funded grant to enable communities to assess their housing needs and develop strategies to address those housing needs.The HAP is built upon the best available data and broad community conversation around: • Yakima's current and future housing needs. • Yakima's existing housing policies and regulations. Plan Organization The Housing Action Plan is organized as follows: • Developing the HAP. This section includes the following: . Summary of community input received for the Housing Action Plan. . Description of the key findings from the analysis of housing needs in Yakima. . Findings from an evaluation of the city's land capacity and housing policies in Yakima's adopted Comprehensive Plan, zoning, and land use code that implements these policies. • Objectives and Strategies. This section lists the six objectives that address community input, needs assessment findings, and policy review findings. Detailed strategies that nest under each objective are also included. • Implementation. This section lists strategies, timelines, resource requirements, responsibilities for leading the tasks, and partnership opportunities. • Monitoring. This section includes key indicators that the City will use to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes. •;•:14.-i."0„.. Fitl", f -• k. , , „,,,,f:** t• 1:1,'. • •• .j ,,., • .. ., I si*- • • . '''1:"':a 4% Cg.:.*,... •1:" y ,44;. ' '1'''''''W. *,f*1 ii i:'il:i i tit" f* ••.' . , - - ••'•••‘•••••• ••••••*,....*Sf '41.1**C V1:9 i.7-7.0.7.; "Y.7.=YM1:in Y ..** * .** '**'.*,C."" "; " `,Z. t to ,,": * **'4 p„.4., 'F.;...‘", 0, 'it ,1 ,.. ,i, 0,, .0 •'••..., ••••.'• .• * * ' . 1 ,.e,,,A or! I "4:- dlik ii,! '• ::.......:.:i. .? , "4 *. A., - , k Community members enjoying a street fair for Cinco de Mayo (pre COVID) June 2021 8 28 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Developing the HAP The Housing Action Han was developed between March 2020 and April 2021 . The HAP benefited from the expertise and guidance of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC); interviews with stakeholders; and a communitywide survey (which captured 531 responses). Information and perspectives collected through the community engagement process provided additional insight about how specific challenges affect the lives of residents, especially those populations that are not always represented in these conversations. See Appendix A for a full summary of fine community engagement activities. The HAP also used a wide range of quantitative data to help identify The key needs and challenges among Yakima residents and workers. Policies and regulations were also analyzed to inform strategies. Key findings from The engagement and analysis are presented below. See Appendix A, B, and C for a full summary of engagement activities, needs assessment, policy and regulatory review. Communi'y npu- The City of Yakima talked with residents as part of the HAP process to better understand barriers to securing affordable housing as well as residents' ideas for improving housing. The City conducted public engagement over the course of the project and heard from more than 500 members of the public and stakeholders. Engagement activities included: Broad community outreach cnd en c ement: 58/ survey responses,including 138 in Spanish. Affordability 303 Targeted outreach to families supported by La Casa Availability Hogar,including 144 confirmations and google Homelessness responses Quality of housing 79 community leaders and service providers contacted Safety,crime,drugs, and gangs to help spread the word. 2 Spanish-language media outlets advertised the project. 11 Outreach including social media posts, press releases in English and Spanish,reaching ID community contacts. There were 751-page views on the City website, June 2021 9 29 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan Drve|nping the HAP T,_r2etedtkehold Engagement Activities Participants'Top Priorities and Concerns 3 meetings with o Technical Advisory Committee Need for o greater diversity ofhousing (7AC), types,including iote'gnon'uKono| housing ----------------------------------------------- �hor�ogao� hoodngondddngcod� I |ntap/�wnv0hbco| hoo�ngdevelopers l de/oUedsv --------------n--------------------------------- Antkdisp|ocrnonntpn|icins «�o�|hrT�C� Quality ofeAi5tinghousing I Meeting-in-a-box hosted by a TAC member. Institutional racism,income inequality, and S meetings and consultation with the Community geographic segregation Integration Committee (C|C), Support for first-time homrboyao 7 phone- and email interviews with members ofthe Transitional housing and mental health OC. supports — ------------------------------ Uoodngdevab/pmentchoUengesrakzted J phone interviews with members of the Yakima City to lack ofinfrastructure Council, Mayor and City Manager. ----------------------------------------------- 3 additional intenviav/s with community leaders. The above input informed strategic objectives, shaped specific implementation steps, and provided insight into what key barriers needed toheaddressed. — � ��� /i V �� �� n �� ses / \�CeJ\ /\8R8DlRDf Findings Like other communities across YNcshingfon, the City of Yakima faces a critical need for rooreoffordohlehousing. TheCih/ ofYokjrnoHousingNeedsAoeornenfevoluotedfhe oorrenfhousingsupplyondsuroroorizeshousingneedsooroothefoUspeohuroof household types and income levels. Below are key findings from the Yakima Housing Needs Assessment. YGki/nG'JPOp0lntinO m The City of Yakima has grown since 20l0, with 000nent estimated population of � 94,440residenh. Theoifyisexpectedfoconflnoegro\vingondispr jeofedtobe home to llO,J87 people [/y2O4O. m Compared to Washington State, the City of Yakima has a slightly larger proportion of younger residents �Under 5 and under 18) and a slightly smaller proportion of residents between 5O and 69 years of age (20% between 50 and 69in the city vs. 8�nndo: Y`AOtfikC'eoY �1, 20l0; �ok)nno �1vNon:)ng �O3O June 202| |0 30 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP 25% statewide). • Yakima is ethnically diverse. The City of Yakima's Hispanic or Latinx population comprises 46% of its population, compared to 12% statewide. The younger population in the City of Yakima is far more ethnically diverse than the older age groups. This is particularly apparent in the student population. In 2019, 13,069 (80%) of students at Yakima School District identified as Hispanic/Latino. • Reflecting its ethnic diversity, Yakima has a high proportion of residents who speak a language other than English at home. Approximately 37% of the city's total population speak a language other than English at home, compared to 19% statewide. • The average household size in Yakima is 2.71, slightly larger than the statewide average of 2.55. While the average household size is larger relative to the state, more than half (58%) of the city's residents live in single or two-member households. Renters are more likely to be single-person households than owners (Exhibit 1 ). Exhibit 1. Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 10,08'2 9,462 tp,051 Rent er-ocoirmed 5,363 .792 4,71c, 4,533 amm ,,,en er-oaL,pied 3,4n Totoi 2/65,0 2,4136 1,042 2*362 1,485 7,255 1,217 717 5co so 1-person 2-person 3-person 4-person 5-person 6-person 7+ person household household household household how ehold household housithold ArneriCcr, Corn m un ty uvey8; ER K. 2020 Housing Need • There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes for sale are extremely low- below 1%. When vacancy rates are so low, people looking for new homes have fewer options, increasing competition for the limited supply of units available. This drives up both rents and housing prices. June 2021 11 31 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP • Local housing prices are rising faster than local incomes. The median home value in Yakima has risen by 33% between 2012 to 2019 while average rents increased by 26%. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective buyers. See Exhibit 2. • In the last 3 years, the city grew by an annual average of 530 new residents, a greater annual amount compared to 2010-2017 at 386 persons per year. To achieve its growth target, the city will need to add about 745 persons per year over the next 20 years. • The average household size in Yakima is 2.71 .6 If applying a 2.7 household size to the remaining population target, about 5,517 dwelling units would be needed between 2020 and 2040. Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2012 in Average Home Values, Average Rents and HUD Median Family Income 40% 33% 26% 19°/o -20% 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Average Home Value Yakima Average Rent Yakima Median Family income Yakima County February 2020: HUD -loome 1„irnits„ 2019; BERK, 2020, Cost Burdened Households • Many households in Yakima are cost burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all source: AC , 12014201 8. June 2021 12 32 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP households in Yakima were cost burdened. Cost-burdened households spend a large portion (over 30%) of their available income on housing costs. This leaves less money available for other important needs like food, transportation, clothing, and education. With rising housing costs, the number of cost-burdened households has almost certainly increased during the past few years. k Cost burden is not evenly distributed across households. For example, renters are more cost-burdened than owners. Nearly 50% of renter households were cost- burdened, compared to about a quarter of all homeowners (Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 4). t Needs are greatest among low-income households. About three fourths of all households with incomes below 50% of the county median family income are cost- burdened. Nearly half of these households are severely cost-burdened, meaning they spend over 50% of their income on housing costs (Exhibit 3). While there are low- income households living in neighborhoods across the city, the greatest concentration of low-income households is in eastern Yakima, and many of these households are of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Exhibit 3. Cost-Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All Households 16% 21344 63% Above Median Income (>100% AMI) 6% 93% Moderate Income(80-100% AMI) Low-Income(50-80% AMI) no 32% 59% _ Very Low-Income(30-50% AMI) 30% 44% 26% Extremely Low-Income ( 30% AMI) 63% 15% 13% a Severely Cost-Burdened (>50%) Cost-Burdened (30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculated ).)C> r' , CHASbasedt on ACS yeoeimates 20 12. 201 Siu<r\ JUJU June 2021 13 33 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Exhibit 4. Household Tenure by Cost-Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All .•• Households it 16% •tlY% 63% Severely Cost-Burcl erted a Cost-Burdened Renters 49%11111110111111111111111111:1111111111 Not Cost Burdened Owners 10% .15%: 75% Not Calculated ======= Source F-)(6.1--iAS (nosed on nstimate ): 220 6; BERK, :21320. Residents with Special Housing Needs Several groups may have special housing needs or supportive service needs, such as residents experiencing homelessness, residents with disabilities, and older residents. Given the city's proximity to a large seasonal agricultural workforce, farmworkers can also have special housing needs that differ from the general population. • Low-wage workers are traveling long distances to jobs in Yakima. Over 7,000 low- wage workers commute more than 50 miles from their home to a workplace in Yakima. That is nearly a quarter of all low-wage workers in the city. Many of these workers may be living outside of Yakima due to housing affordability or the inability to find suitable housing in the city. • There is considerable need among elderly residents. There are 5,400 elderly persons living alone in Yakima. About 42% of these residents are cost-burdened and 22% are severely cost-burdened. In comparison, there are only 926 units with federal subsidies set aside for elderly and disabled persons. June 2021 14 34 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Housing Inventory • Yakima needs more housing diversity. Over **tti• 65% of all housing units in Yakima are single- I e- it* family homes- Not all households require or "it •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••, „ can afford that much space. For example, 0,--•- - .0. • about 30% of all households in Yakima are ••''' * ••• ••• singles living alone, yet only 5% of housing 1.4,,,,,LJAA• units in Yakima are studios and only 13% tWr-roirt - 4,11114-'*77:71.; have just one bedroom. Increasing the A diversity of housing options available will increase housing supply and provide more choices for residents seeking more • *-** affordable housing that meets their current MHtfcyhousing in \i ein:ne needs. • Countywide there is a shortage of seasonal farmworker housing. There are approximately 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker housing provided throughout the county, despite over 23,700 migratory jobs available in the busiest summer months/ Identifying safe and high-quality housing for seasonal workers is an important gap to address in Yakima County. Policy Review Findings The Housing Policy Framework Evaluation reviewed and evaluated the current City Comprehensive Plan Housing Element, as well as other elements, regulatory incentives, and barriers, to determine the City's progress and success in attaining planned housing types and units, achievement of goals and policies, and implementation of the schedule of programs and actions. Overall findings from the review and an evaluation of land capacity, infrastructure needs, and housing activity are presented below. Overall Policy Review Findings The policy framework evaluation found the City of Yakima could improve its policy implementation in these respects: • Identify funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise 'undevelopablei parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). numberThk may qhIy oie etmaIe; r June 2021 15 35 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP • Explore incentives for projects that construct new senior housing such as: reduced parking requirements, clustering of units, variety of housing types. • Consider expansion of the Multi-Family Tax Exemption (METE) into areas outside of the downtown core. • Consider revision to parking standards, especially for high density residential and in the downtown core. Land Capacity Evaluation • The City has more than twice the housing capacity needed under current zoning (an approximate capacity of 14,500 dwelling units versus a need of about 5,500 dwellings). About 38% of the current capacity is for single-family dwellings, about 16% is for multiplexes and townhouses, and 46% is for dwellings in multi-family and mixed-use districts. Most of this capacity is in the western part of the city. • Most vacant land is zoned R-1, with relatively less in other zones. Some land is in agricultural use and planned for future residential or non-residential uses. Infrastructure Evaluation • There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city and about 25% of it is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represent about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. Housing Activity D./dual-ion • The City has demonstrated that it can produce both quantity and diversity in housing. Based on OEM data, since 2017 Yakima has produced 648 dwellings, or 216 dwellings per year, a little lower than the need between 2020-2040 at 295 units per year.B However, based on permit data since 2017-2019, the City permitted 1,145 net new units, which would be 381 units per year, above the 295 units per year needed. • The City is allowing a range of housing types including more affordable missing middle (plex, townhouse, etc.) ownership and rental housing, and apartments. Based on The es:InacAtec remaining pcyouttion target from 2020-2040 cAna the cAnlicpcAtea nou'5ehod size. June 2021 16 36 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strategies • I• I• es Six objectives were identified for fine HAP based on a synthesis of the findings of the technical analyses and stakeholder and community engagement: A. Housing Supply: Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. B. Affordability: Create and preserve affordable homes. C. Homeownership: Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate- income households. D. Older Adult Options: Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. E. Stability: Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. F. Anti-Displacement: Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. All strategies are identified as being City- or Partner- lead, which is further defined as follows: City Lead: Priority Strategies where the City is identified as the lead will be implemented by the City of Yakima. This will include, but not be limited to, review and modification to ordinances (zoning, subdivision, environmental review, etc.); review and modification of the Comprehensive Plan 2040; and analysis and modification of city policy for city-owned property, code enforcement, utility connections, permit review, fee structures, etc. Partner Lead: Priority Strategies where Partner is identified as lead will be implemented by a variety of local partners with City support as available. It is anticipated that local partners will be able to point to Partner-Lead strategies in The HAP when seeking support for grant funding, developing projects, and implementing their programs. The following sections present all the strategies categorized into three priority groupings. June 2021 17 37 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives odd Strategies Driorhy 1 STa-ec'es The following six strategies are top priority for the City of Yakima: 1 . Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. 2. Make strategic investments in infrastructure, 3, Encourage rent-to-own opportunities and sweat equity programs, LI. Expand and update down payment assistance programs, 5. Develop, acquire, or sell surplus or under-utilized city property. Incentivize landlords to improve the quality and maintenance of housing. Please use the below key to interpret the summary table under each strategy heading in the following pages. Key TIMELINE NVESYMIENI EFFORT a ShoilMeirn Minimal investment • Minimal effoit DO Mid-leim Modeiate investment • g Modeiate effoit gg: Long-teim SSS Significant investment • • • Significant effoit .LLLE Majoi investment June 2021 18 38 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies 1 . Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. LEAD TIMELINE #NV#SLAM NK EFFORT OBJECTIVES Cit Affordability Housing Supply y HO •ar Older Adult Options Stability Anti Displacement Description. Most housing in the City of Yakima is single-family (65% of all housing inventory) or multifamily of three or more units (22% of all housing inventory). Supporting innovative housing types and arrangements will more fully meet the needs and preferences of Yakima's community members. For example, community engagement revealed that many Yakima residents seek multigenerational, senior, and more affordable housing opportunities that these types of innovative housing can facilitate. There are a wide variety of housing types that help reduce housing costs and fit into a small-town character. Each is defined below. Exhibit 5, Housing Types , , 7 finnir • " ; oe*:;•11 1 *V:140mate Akf,,:,••••••' •••., • Examples of innovative housing types include: • Tiny homes are small dwelling units on a foundation or on a carriage with wheels with between 150-400 square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable compared with traditional site-built homes. They may be located on their own lot, serve as an accessory dwelling unit, or be located in a village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park. Their small size and cottage like nature make them compatible in single-family areas on their own lot or as an accessory dwelling unit. They may offer temporary or long-term housing for seasonal workers such as in a manufactured home or RV park. Senate Bill (SB) 5383, passed in May 2019, legally permitted tiny houses as permanent dwellings in Washington State; as a result, the State Building Council adopted International Residential Code standards that apply to tiny houses, effective in November 2020. SB 5383 also expanded RCW 58.17.040(5) of the subdivision statute to allow the creation of tiny house villages such as through a binding site plan and stops cities from prohibiting tiny houses in manufactured/mobile home parks. House Bill (HB) 1085, passed in 2018, also allows local jurisdictions to remove minimum unit size limitations on detached houses. June 2021 19 39 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives (IDnd Strotegies • Microhomes are small dwellings in a multifamily style. There are two types: Congregate housing "sleeping rooms" are often in the 140-200 square-foot range and may include private bathrooms and kitchenettes. Shared facilities include kitchens, gathering areas, and other common amenities for residents. A small efficiency dwelling unit (SEW is a very small studio apartment including a complete kitchen and bathroom. Typically, the units will be as small as 220 square feet of total floor space, as compared to 300 square feet for the smallest typical conventional studio apartments. Microhomes are more affordable apartment units, and could be located in commercial, mixed-use, and high-density multifamily zones. • Modular homes are structures that are built offsite, then transported to a permanent site. They differ from manufactured or mobile homes in that modular homes are constructed to meet The same state, regional, or local building codes as site-built homes, while manufactured homes adhere to national HUD code standards.9 • Co-op housing is a form of shared housing in which a cooperative corporation owns housing, and residents own stock shares in the corporation and participate in governance of the cooperative.lc Shared property, usually including a common house, is part of what defines this type of housing. These spaces allow residents to gather for shared meals, activities, and celebrations as well as the collaborative work required to care for the spaces. • Multi-generational homes are designed to provide space for multiple generations living together under one roof, with each generation benefiting from their own separate space and privacy. The design of the home is similar to a single-family residence in outward appearance with an interior layout designed around common areas with separate spaces for the different family groups. Other related dwelling unit types include cottages -a cluster of small dwelling units, generally less than 1 ,200 square feet, around a common open space -and zero-lot line development, which allows a zero or minimal setback normally required within a particular zone thus promoting efficient use of buildable land. Zero-lot line development is common with townhouse developments and may also be designed as an attached single-family home. The City of Yakima has made several changes recently to encourage the above housing types. Tiny houses on an individual lot are currently treated the same as a regular single-family home. The City has also updated its definition of multifamily HuC) http5:/;\vvvev.hud.qc v/program office s;hou5inn/rmra/mh5:facis. UniversIty of 01 /:onsn Center for COOP&CIVVE:Y5. http:/;reic.uvvec.M5c.edu/house/ June 2021 20 40 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies development to include any residential use where three or more dwellings are on the same lot. This can be 3+ tiny homes, a duplex and a tiny home, or other combinations. A new manufactured home can be placed anywhere a single-family home can locate, consistent with state law. However, process and level of review for these housing types can be improved. For example, to build a tiny home on a new smaller single lot (smaller than the city's current minimum lot size requirement of 6,000 SF) one must go through a Planned Development process. Streamlining and simplifying the review process for smaller housing types can further support encourage these housing types. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Housing like tiny homes and modular housing is often less expensive to develop than traditional, single-family homes. These cost savings could help encourage and facilitate the development of more housing that can also be more attainable for households with lower incomes. This housing is often also more suitable for small households, for whom Yakima currently has a shortage of housing options. Cooperative housing can provide a more affordable opportunity for homeownership than traditional single-family homeownership. Yakima, Ike many communities in Washington, also has a shortage of farmworker housing. Innovative housing types can provide farmworkers with high-quality housing that meets local codes, but at a lower cost to developers. Considerations. Additional options to encourage tiny homes, micro housing, cottage homes, multigenerational homes and others include: • Allowing for different zoning/density options to incorporate the above-listed housing types. • Density/massing and review process: Consider allowing a higher number of units than typical for the zone, due to smaller home size or where legacy pesticides are present. Some density increase is essential because the units are smaller and usually more expensive to build on a cost/square feet basis. Consider applying a maximum floor area ratio limit or an across the board allowed density for tiny houses, for instance one tiny house per 1,200 square foot of lot area. Consider reduced development standards such as lot coverage and setbacks for multi-generational homes. • Design elements. Provide design standards in a manner similar to cottage housing clusters: Consider providing design standards for both common open spaces and semi- private open spaces for individual cottages. 9 Permit construction of a shared community building to provide a space for gathering and sharing tools. Play close attention to how parking can/should be integrated with tiny house June 2021 21 41 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strotegies clusters. Example Communities • Cohousinci: Haystack Heights in Spokane is an intergenerational village that is close to downtown with clustered townhouses and flats to maximize efficiency, interaction, and green space. Designed to include 39 units spread out among four buildings, the development includes spaces to share skills and facilities. June 2021 22 42 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 2. Make strategic investments in infrastructure. LEAD TIMELINE J ,,f•WW EFFORT OBJECTIVES City c Affordability Housing Supply 000 W) ••• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. The Housing Needs Assessment found there is a housing shortage in Yakima. Increasing the overall supply of housing is one way to address this housing shortage. A key strategy to expand housing supply is to support the availability of sufficient land with infrastructure to respond to demand for more housing units. This includes identifying funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise 'undevelopable' parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home that cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). Strategic selection of infrastructure priorities in the capital facilities element can also help support the city's housing program as one cost associated with development is the cost of upgrading existing or developing new infrastructure to serve development. Gaps Addressed. There are two types of gaps in Yakima: 1 ) lack of sewer in growing areas to the north and west and 2) existing developed neighborhoods with poor infrastructure and little to no amenities. This often included an incomplete street grid system and no curb, gutter, or sidewalks. Many of these areas are still on septic systems. There are some gaps in the extent of municipal water and sewer systems in particular that should be addressed to advance City goals for revitalization in already developed areas as well as future development areas. There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city, about 25% of which is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represents about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. Considerations. The policy review found that adding sewer infrastructure, especially in District 5, can expand land available for development or redevelopment. Infrastructure improvements in existing neighborhoods (sidewalks, streets) especially those highlighted in the displacement risk map as at high risk of displacement is a key consideration. State laws allow community revitalization funding to be applied to infrastructure investments. Cities may also initiate Ictecomer s agreements and help fund extensions. Latecomer agreements allow a property owner to request that a municipality contract with them to extend street or utility improvements; the owner can recoup a portion of their costs to install the new facilities from others benefiting from the infrastructure June 2021 23 43 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies extension. A property owner who benefits from the infrastructure put in by the -first in" developer then contributes their fair share for connecting to the facility. Latecomer agreements are a way to share the cost of building infrastructure and can be a helpful tool to spur development in areas where the upfront cost of infrastructure is a challenge to development. Statutes authorize counties and cities to have a process to contract with owners of real estate for the construction or improvement of street projects; counties or cities may also participate in or finance all fine costs and become the sole beneficiary of the reimbursements for streets. In 2013 and 2015, the Washington State Legislature made changes to latecomers' laws to require a municipality or district to contract with the owners of real estate upon request to extend water or sewer service where it is a prerequisite to development The legislative changes also allow counties or cities to participate in or to initiate latecomers' agreements for utilities. Facilities must be consistent with all applicable comprehensive plans and development regulations (e.g., consistent with comprehensive water system plans, sewer plans, infrastructure standards and specifications, etc.). The applicable statutes for counties and cities have similar requirements regarding: 1 ) initiation of the improvement by the owner of real estate or by the municipality, provided the improvement is necessary for development; 2) determination of the beneficiaries in a reimbursement assessment area; 3) notification of property owners in the reimbursement area and a process to request a hearing (RCW 35.72 and RCW 35.91 only); 4) recording upon approval; and 5) reimbursement collection over a 15- 20-year period (roads shorter, utilities longer). The City of Yakima has a latecomers agreement ordinance -YtvtC Ch. 7.(7. Regular updates to this ordinance as well as strategic marketing of these regulations can help support housing development. June 2021 24 44 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strotegies 3. Encourage ren---o-own opportunities and sweat equity Programs. LEAD TIMELINE N,./fISIMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 • Affordability Homeownership Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Traditional rent-to-own opportunities are a contractual agreement between a landlord-seller and a renter-buyer That grants the renter either The option or The obligation to purchase the rental home for a pre-determined price prior to the expiration of the lease term. In some cases, the agreement terms include a rent credit, in which the tenant pays rent above market-rate, but the landlord reserves a portion of the rent for the tenant's future down payment. Traditional rent-to-own contracts tend to be financially risky for renters, as they can include upfront fees, higher rents, and an obligation for the tenant to pay for repairs and upgrades; all with the possibility that the deal can be terminated and additional costs forfeited if the tenant misses a rent payment, is evicted, or violates the agreement in any other way. However, in the wake of the Great Recession, some municipalities have created publicly backed rent-to-own programs for foreclosed properties. 11H cases where a nonprofit or public agency takes on the role of landlord-owner, such programs provide a unique opportunity for renters to build credit and make steps towards homeownership without leaving Their community. Program rules vary but the overall concept of sweat equity is to build new affordable homes or renovate distressed ones with the help of the people who will live there. The hours the buyers volunteer help save on labor costs and can be calculated to function as a down payment on the property. The buyers must also qualify for the mortgage. Habitat for Humanity is an example program. Gaps Addressed. Publicly backed rent-to-own programs can help create more affordable homeownership opportunities and bring these opportunities to more households that have been traditionally excluded from homeownership, including BIPOC households. Similarly, sweat equity programs are designed for lower-income households and provide opportunities for those who otherwise might face challenges to afford to own a home. Considerations. Publicly backed rent-to-own programs have higher rates of success (are more likely to result in the renter eventually owning the home) and provide One >uon pogrom A:kvauKer',Turnkey Renovation program. June 2021 25 45 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies significantly more protections for renters than do traditional rent-to-own contract arrangements. Due to fine limited amount of HOME Investment funds that the City of Yakima receives, combined with the limited number of qualified ONDS personnel, compared to the much larger entitlement amounts rewarded to the larger entitlements, the City has limited resources to directly build homes. City efforts since 2013 have concentrated on supporting its housing partners with gap financing on multi- family units for households with low to moderate incomes. The City currently partners with the Yakima Housing Authority and Habitat for Humanity who build homes. June 2021 26 46 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan [)I:,jr,tve� ond5trotrgies 4. ExDODCODdUl( Ofe down lOVO0eD- O5n5-ODCel[OU[000\. LEA | rvwa|ws epom � OBJECTIVES| � cny | pnnn~, | 00 SS | **o Affordability ",ov""v Anti.Displace mp~ Description. Because saving enough money for a down payment can take many years, and economic displacement pressures push households to relocate long before they save enough for a down payment, down payment assistance programs offer no- interest or lcw-interest capital for qualified buyers. Many programs support first-time home buyers and can be accompanied with home ownership edLication coLirses to soppod financial preparedness for first time homeowners. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the community by helpingrenters \vho \vonftoinvedlongferroinfheirneighborhoodfoporohosetheirfirst home. Considerations. The Cify of Yakima had a "down payment assistance program" that was cancelled doeto widespread hoodulent practices by some local lending institofions, reoUors, ondothen. Wentihingorosterofcornroonify-bosedorgonizotions who can work with the commLinity to apply eligibility and property selection criteria is one way to improve the program implementation. June 202| 27 47 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strotegies 5. Deve op, acquire, or se surp us or uncePutiized ci-y propery, LEAD TIMELINE :N'iff,',IMEN: EFFORT OBJECTIVES Cif •• Affordability Housing Supply Y Stability Anti-Displacement Description. The policy review found that the City of Yakima owns some under-utilized lands that could be suitable for housing development These public lands could be donated or leased to affordable housing developers to reduce development costs and to make projects more financially feasible. Under RCW 39.33.015, the City could also discount or gift land that it owns for "public benefit," defined as affordable housing up to 80% AMI. The City of Yakima fislunicipol Code Chapter 1 .79 addresses the use of surplus property for affordable housing and establishes a transparent process to dispose of properties for affordable housing when properties are considered surplus to the city's needs. Gaps Addressed. By making more land available for affordable housing, including different types of housing, This strategy would help increase the housing supply in Yakima. The new affordable housing units could also serve older adults or very-low income populations. By relieving the cost burden and creating a greater diversity of housing, this strategy could support affordable homeownership. Considerations. This strategy is best suited for communities that may own surplus land. The City of Yakima has identified properties that could be considered as surplus property to donate for affordable housing or sold. 2 See Append, ) fa'an ,ntinnitn a: area:1 (21 : ownra o ala ViOcy, June 2021 28 48 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegies 6. ncentivize and arcs to improve the qua ity anc maintenance of 1 Gus in g LEAD TIMELINE f,,;'./f.L2f,Mfif,“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Housing Supply City 00 .US •• Stability Anti.Displacement Description. While maintenance regulations discourage landlords from offering substandard housing, incentives can reward landlords that provide high-quality, well- maintained rental properties. Examples include providing landlords who meet the criteria with access to technical support, access to forums with city officials, fast- tracking of permits, reduced fees for municipal services, free or reduced cost equipment, free advertising of available rentals, and discounts at local merchants/contractors. Incentives that reward landlord who rent to lower-income residents or voucher holders have also been found to increase housing choice. The City could reduce permit fees for repairs or improvements and support programs that provide funding to cover security deposits and cost of damages and interest free loans for rehabilitation efforts. Gaps Addressed. Incentives for landlords to improve rental housing helps ensure that renter households have access to safe and decent housing, while also supporting landlords in maintaining a high-quality rental housing stock. Weatherization incentives can ensure that the costs of outdated or inefficient utilities do not fall on renters. Considerations. Consider how the City can leverage existing resources and systems to provide incentives that are low-cost to the City. Successful incentives are based on dialogue with property owners, landlords, and renters. This dialogue will help the City understand current gaps and shortcomings in maintenance of rental properties and how incentives could best help to maintain high-quality rental housing. Examples • Through its lovv-income vvegtherization program Pacific Power partners with local agencies to provide free weatherization services to income-qualifying homeowners and renters living in single-family homes, mobile homes or apartments. Based on the home's needs, a variety of measures can be installed to lower electric bills while keeping homes comfortable. • The Colorado Lcndlord Incentive Procircm/Lcndlords Opening Doors program offers participating landlords' reimbursement for short-term vacancies and minor unit repairs when they rent units to a low-income renter with a housing voucher. To be eligible, a landlord must participate in the Landlord Recruitment Campaign. The threshold for repairs is up to $300 and not more than $1,000. June 2021 29 49 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegies • In 2018, the Washington State Landlord Mitigation Law (RCW 43.31 .605) became effective to provide landlords with an incentive and added security to work with tenants receiving rental assistance. The program offers such incentives as reimbursement for required move-in upgrades, up to 14 days' rent loss and reimbursement for damages caused by a tenant. 'r'orly 2 Strctecies The following nine strategies are second priority for fine City of Yakima: 7. Create design standards for multifcmily cnd mixed-use development. E. Improve permitting cnd environmentcl reviekv process. 9. Expand need-bcsed rehcbilitction assistcnce. 10. Add more permcnent supportive housing. 11 . Support secsoncl fcrmvvorker housing cs severe-wecther shelters. 12. Ensure code enforcement does not displace residents. 13. Continue to support education progrcms on homeokynership. 14. Revise parking standards in key crecs. 15. Pcrtner with loccl nonprofits and housing providers. Please use The below key to interpret The summary table under each strategy heading in the following pages. Key TIMELINE ESMENT EFFORT a Shoit-teirn Minimal investment • Minimal effoit DO Mid-leim SS Modeiate investment • g Modeiate effoit Do: Long-teim LEE Significant investment • • • Significant effoit SSS1 Majoi investment June 2021 30 50 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 7. Create design standarcs for mu tom' y and mixed-use ceve agment. LEAD TIMELINE :W/KIMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Ctty ° II. Older Adult Options Description. Well-crafted design standards help to expand housing choices while minimizing impacts to adjacent uses and reinforcing the character of the area. They mitigate impacts of density, building massing/scale, parking and vehicle access areas, and service elements. Design standards can be used to promote compatible uinfflP development in the downtown core, business districts, and neighborhoods, to incrementally transform automobile-oriented neighborhoods or corridors into more dynamic pedestrian-friendly communities, and to guide the design of new development sues consistent with the community's vision. Universal design is a key element to integrate with design standards. Universal design creates an environment accessible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability, or disability. Universal design features include the layout and design of the home as well as specific features within homes. Typical layouts that accommodate universal design include locating a bathroom and bedroom on the first floor and others. Specific features include handrails or grab bars in the bathroom, doorways sized to fit wheelchairs, a wheelchair-accessible kitchen, and a step-free entryway into the home. Gaps Addressed. Yakima does not yet have design standards for commercial and multifamily development. The City does allow "bmixed use buildings" as a class 1 permitted use in all commercial districts. Design standards on a citywide or targeted basis can help the City set expectations for quality and affordable design in new development and prioritize investments in existing neighborhoods lacking infrastructure, recreation, and other features. Addressing design quality can also increase the acceptance and compatibility of new housing types supporting housing type variety. Demand for universal design is expected to grow as the community ages. Considerations. Balanced design standards should promote good design without imposing prohibitively costly standards on new developments. Design standards should focus on form to ensure housing scale and site design is compatible with surrounding neighborhoods. Form based standards that should be prioritized include floor-area- ratio, façade articulation, building massing, height and bulk, and trees/shade. Integrating development and design standards as complementary standards can help , \r-ci ;; r, 17.511.71d;o mcnn;o d; a commriccn di Irrt or panned devebpmerJ used parfiy tar esidentict use CArd 'corn, Icy accmrruntv fac:0,, or cx;n1rnorc,clu,o June 2021 31 51 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies balance design with feasibility. Allowing scaling of standards based on the form of The building rather than The number of units is also a key consideration to avoid discouraging small units on small lots. Design standards should also include allowances for modified parking standards, smaller unit sizes and different combinations of attached and detached units. Considerations to develop an effective set of design standards include: • Using a robust community engagement process can help define the vision and identify critical community design issues. This information can be valuable to define what types of developments are acceptable and unacceptable. • Consider an approach that utilizes dear minimum standards but offers strategic flexibility with clear guidance in how alternative designs are evaluated. Such an approach offers a good mix of predictability and flexibility and can be tailored to fit the community. Ultimately if offers a community the opportunity to say no if the design doesn't meet the intent while offering applicants flexibility to propose alternative designs. • Craft design standards to offer choices in how to conform with particular design provisions, whether it's the techniques to articulate a façade or how to add desired design details to storefronts. Such provisions allow greater flexibility in design and the ability to better control construction costs. • Provide plenty of photos and graphics to effectively illustrate the standards. Consider providing multiple good examples so applicants understand there are several ways to meet the standard. Likewise, providing bad examples can be very effective tools at communicating "what not to do." Such illustrations should clearly communicate The standard or standards. • Similar to form-based approach, some factors to consider in developing design standards: • Pay special attention to the review process and staffing resources and needs. Make sure the required design features are economically feasible. • Consider the standard's usability by staff, applicants, and the community • Test key elements of the design standards prior to adoption to ensure that development is feasible from a physical and economic standpoint. June 2021 32 52 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 8. mProve Permit-Mg and environmen-o review Process. LEAD TIMELINE JEH MEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES City •• Affordability Housing Supply Description. Providing an efficient predictable, and user-friendly permitting process can encourage new housing construction by reducing potential confusion or perception of risk among developers as well as lowering their administrative carrying costs. Many City practices facilitate permit processing and provide clarity and speed for applicants, such as the free of charge pre-application meeting, and an on-line permit building permit portal. The City did extensive work on the permit process in 2019 by simplifying permit levels for housing unit types, creating an infill exemption under the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and raising maximum exemption thresholds under SEPA. The City provides monthly and annual permit summaries to track progress. There are potentially other ways in which the City can improve The clarity, speed, and consistency of the permit review process, consistent with legal requirements.-4 Gaps Addressed. Improved permitting and review add clarity and certainty to The development process. This can translate to higher interest in development in Yakima and improvements in affordability. Considerations. Adaptive management Through permit procedure audits or studies and refinements can help ensure that permitting improvements are continuous and effective. This could identify additional policy and process changes to improve permit review timelines and communication. Increased electronic capabilities should be introduced. The City recently incorporated Bluebeam electronic plan review software. Additional process or programmatic efficiencies should be looked at as technology continues to advance. Lego:requee me nts for h;reciPtierws p:onn:no ,wder Chme: Chapter 36 W)13 POW Local Protect Re We,6 other rierledichons: 0 bower 35.63 ROW, 0 eapier 356.63 R OW or 0 bower 33.20 POW June 2021 33 53 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 9. Exponc need-basec relohii-crion ass's-once, LEAD TIMELINE N'./fl,',IMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 •• Affordability Housing Supply ,," Older Adult Options Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Rehabilitation projects for existing housing supports community longevity. Need-based rehabilitation assistance helps low-income residents, people with disabilities, and older adults to make needed home repairs and safety upgrades by offering favorable financing terms or time-limited tax abatements to qualified homeowners. The City currently has two programs that address need-based rehabilitation. Continued support and expansion of this program is necessary to meet the community's housings needs. • The City offers a Senior/Disabled emergency rehabilitation program to fix life and safety issues that would otherwise displace these elderly and frail homeowners into care facilities or risk homelessness. The City of Yakima Office of Neighborhood development Services assists approximately 100 Senior/Disabled low to moderate income Homeowner units a year with CDBG Single Family Rehabilitation program. • The City's Senior/Disabled Home repair program was established over 20 years ago. The average grant awarded is approximately $5000 per home over a lifetime. In 2019, 74 homes were served. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the community. Rehabilitation projects that address weatherization and energy efficiency improvements can improve long-term affordability for homeowners by reducing monthly energy costs. Considerations. Affordable housing funds can directly provide loans or be used to partner with non-profit organizations specializing in rehabilitation assistance. RCW 84.37 and RCW 84.38 provide for property tax deferral for homeowners with limited incomes. Awareness of these programs is also an important component of success. Local housing websites should provide information on state and local programs for home repair assistance and help with energy bills to increase awareness and expand the reach of existing programs. June 2021 34 54 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegies 10, Acc more permanent supportive -lousing. LEAD TIMELINE f,4'./fl,',IMP,“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 33SS •• stability Anti-DispIacement Description. Permanent supportive housing programs provide households with a permanent, subsidized housing unit (typically residents are obligated to pay 30% of any income towards rent), along with supportive services, such as health care, mental health treatment, and substance use disorder counseling. Permanent supportive housing is more expensive than other homelessness interventions but has been shown to be highly effective in reducing homelessness and use of crisis services (such as shelters, hospitals, and jails) among the highest-need households experiencing homelessness. Because of the associated reduction in use of crisis services, permanent supportive housing has been shown to be cost-effective. Gaps Addressed. Permanent supportive housing can bring together housing with supportive services that build independent living and tenancy skills and address the issue of chronic homelessness. It is also a cost-effective solution which has been shown to lower public costs associated with the use of crisis services. Considerations. Communities are almost never able to provide permanent supportive housing for all households that need it; need outstrips supply, and many individuals who need permanent supportive housing will not receive the service. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local providers/developers of homeless services to ensure that any plans for permanent supportive housing are consistent with the countywide plan for homelessness services. Example Programs Yokimc Neighborhood Health Services offers permanent supportive housing though a program called Master Lease. The program is based on relationships local landlords who lease with the program to house those experiencing homelessness. Once housed, clients receive regular case management from trained staff who support the participant's decision-making in their path to self-sufficiency. Through the recently completed Rhonda D. Hauff Resource Center, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services also offers temporary and permanent supportive housing for up to 37 people and provides case managers who connect residents to services, legal aide, employment, and other basic needs. June 2021 35 55 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 1 , Support season° tormworker -rousing as severe-weather she ters. LEAD TIMELINE rNr/E000ENr EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 •• Affordability Housing Supply Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Yakima County is home to more than 20,600 year-round agricultural jobs with more than 23,700 migratory jobs available during peak months. There are 4,637 beds available for seasonal workers in Yakima County. These beds house temporary farmworkers during peak times of agricultural production. As such, they are primarily used in the spring, summer, and autumn with comparatively little demand for these beds in winter months. By coordinating with operators of these facilities, public agencies and/or nonprofits could potentially secure additional winter shelter beds for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Some housing providers have already started to use vacant seasonal farmworker housing for other purposes during the winter. Gaps Addressed. This strategy has The potential to provide additional shelter beds for individuals and families experiencing homelessness in winter when the need is greater due to severe weather. Considerations. The city of Yakima is a desirable location for farmworker housing due to its central location and proximity to services. However, farmworker housing is usually not at full capacity during the winter months. Farmworker housing facilities that receive public (state or federal) funds for construction or operations may be restricted in who they can serve. Advocacy with the legislature to remove these requirements will be needed. For example, the Department of Revenue's (DOR) policy is that any use other than farmworker housing during the winter in the first five years would make a property ineligible for the sales tax exemption provided for farmworker housing. June 2021 36 56 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives (IDnd Strotegies Case Study: Yakima Housing Authority Creative Use of Farmworker Housing to Help Residents Experiencing Homelessness During the winter of 2016-2017, Yakima Housing Authority YHA initiated a creative use of the Cosecha Court apartment complex, located in the city of Granger, to meet the needs of both seasonal workers and residents at risk at homelessness. Cosecha Court was funded primarily through the U.S. Department of Agriculture IUSDA) Section 514/516 Farm Labor Housing Loan and Grant program, with smaller amounts from the Washington State Housing Trust Fund and the HUD Community Development Block Grant Housing Enhancement program. Given the limitations of the funding that limits occupancy to agricultural workers, the Yakima Housing Authority initially had been forced to close Cosecha Court when the agricultural season ended. The facility was not used during three of the coldest months of the year even as the community struggled with a severe shortage of housing and acute homelessness, YHA worked with the USDA and state agencies to get permission to use Cosecha Court as temporary housing for residents experiencing homelessness, a purpose outside its funded mandate. Working with two local service providers, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services and the Northwest Community Action Center, the housing development was able to address,in the short term, homeless residents need for stable housing. In total, the program sheltered 89 individuals, including 49 children, for 1,914 bed nights, The program has other benefits, such as relieving the burden on local churches, which typically provide temporary housing for residents experiencing homelessness. Source: leistps://www.huduser,govipertaliciesestucliesisibdy-052819.hioni June 2021 37 57 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 2, Ensure code enforcement does not cisd ace residents, LEAD TIMELINE Jf'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability City 00 •• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Some residential rental units have code violations which impact the safety and health of occupants. In some cases, These living conditions may require tenants to vacate the structure to allow for extensive repairs. These code violations are often caused by deferred maintenance or negligence by the property owner. The City code enforcement would only cause eviction as a last resort if it is a life safety issue. The City works with community members and exercises a flexible approach to code enforcement when able. However, code enforcement could unintentionally cause the eviction of the tenant household from its residence. Using a phased code enforcement process allows owners more time to secure financing and complete upgrades, reducing the likelihood that owners are forced to sell, or landlords are forced to dramatically increase rents. Gaps Addressed. Code enforcement plays an important role in ensuring that housing is safe and well-maintained. Considerations. Code enforcement can trigger displacement. Code enforcement policies should balance the advantages of providing property owners flexibility and leniency in reaching code compliance with the need for equitable code enforcement In the absence of carefully considered policies for phased code enforcement, enforcement discretion may advantage certain groups of owners above others. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a tool developed to identify vulnerability to hazardous events nationwide. The index was developed to assist public health and emergency response experts to identify areas of extra concern in the event of a shock such as a natural disaster. Many of the included variables, however, relate to housing vulnerability as well: poverty rates, identifying minority communities, and housing issues like crowding. Not all factors captured are relevant to identifying displacement risk, but they help paint a picture of neighborhood demographics. Results identify areas in Yakima with high vulnerability concerns. Over half (56%) of Census tracts have concentrated populations of lower socioeconomic status. Yakima city is also home to many people of color and non-English speaking residents, who also disproportionately face displacement risk. The map in Exhibit 75 (Appendix E) shows the areas of Yakima with higher concern for displacement risk. These neighborhoods in East Yakima and smaller neighborhoods to the north and west of the city should be of particular focus for outreach and anti-displacement policy implementation. June 2021 38 58 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 13. Continue to support education rogroms on homeownership. LEAD TIMELINE N./f.',,fAM{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Homeownership Partner 00 ,USS •• stability Anti-DispIacement Description. Many residents have needs for housing support programs that extend beyond mere production of units. First-time homeowners face several barriers to own homes, such as little or poor credit Homeowner education helps residents prepare for the process of purchasing a home and the challenges of being a new homeowner. The City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) currently works with Habitat for Humanity to educate through "certified" first time homebuyer classes, counsel credit, and assist to secure financial assistance. Continued support for this program is necessary. Gaps Addressed. Promoting programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers will address barriers to homeownership. Research indicates that low- and moderate-income homebuyers might stand to benefit most from These programs. Considerations. Community members benefit most from homeownership education and counseling when the available support is customized to their needs, easily accessible, and offered early in the process. Many first-time homeowners can face unexpected costs, struggle to maintain payments, and encounter foreclosure rescue scams. Education and counsel should address these issues. Community input also indicated the need for counsel to be offered in culturally competent ways. Example Resources/Programs • The NeighborWorks Center for Homeownership Education and Counseling (NCHEC) Training and Certification program offers practitioners certification to demonstrate advanced level knowledge and professional competency. Certification requirements include a level of training and examination, adoption of the National Industry Standards for Homeownership Education and Counseling, adoption of the National Code of Ethics and Conduct, and continuing education. Training towards NCHEC certification can be obtained through NeighborWorks Training Institutes (NTIs) and regional place-based training (PBTs). June 2021 39 59 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 14, Revise parking standarcs in key areas, LEAD TIMELINE Orr rir,,frrrr r“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES •• Affordability Housing Supply CHI+ 0 Older Adult Options Description. Yakima currently has minimum parking standards for residential buildings. - Current parking standards require 1 .5 or 2 stalls per multifamily unit (depending on density) and 2 per single-family detached dwelling. Parking facilities add substantial cost in the development new housing, whether Ts surface or structured parking. Reducing parking can be an important way to increase affordability. Parking needs also vary by location and household type. Senior households, for instance, may have less need parking. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Decreasing development costs by revising parking standards could help encourage and facilitate the development of new housing. Areas in the city near transit can support and benefit from higher-density multifamily housing. Revising parking standards has particular potential to increase housing available near transit where cars are less necessary. Increasing available housing near transit is also especially helpful when providing housing for older adults and people with disabilities, both of whom may have limited physical mobility or be unable to drive. Considerations. There are several elements to consider when revising parking standards. These could include: • Relating multifamily parking to the number of bedrooms. • Counting on-street parking toward parking ratios. • Adding additional parking tools for alternative compliance, such as contracting with car-share providers, providing transit passes to residents, shared use parking, and off- site parking. • Reducing or eliminating parking requirements in areas such as the historic downtown where on-street parking serves needs, especially for change of use and redevelopment, to ensure historic and compact downtown character can be retained. • Lowering parking requirements in areas with higher transit service as well as in areas targeted for redevelopment and affordable housing. See ry rib-1Di 1 5 05 YMC June 2021 40 60 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strotegies • Adopting rules that allow Third party sharing/rental of parking spaces to help even out parking supply and demand. • Allowing developers to reduce parking stalls if a parking study by a certified transportation planner or engineer demonstrates minimum impacts to surroundings. • Updating bike parking requirements concurrently and distinguish between short- term and long-term bicycle parking. • Allowing residents of multifamily housing with designated parking stalls to be able to rent their parking stall if they are carless. One potential drawback is that reductions in parking requirements could prompt residents to park their cars on streets, eroding on-street parking opportunities in business districts. The City should also carefully consider the needs and impacts of revised parking standards on farmworkers or inter-generational families who depend on cars to access work. Example Communities • Ellensbur cl Code Ch 15.550 - Senior assisted housing requires less off-street parking than senior housing, single family homes, duplexes, or townhomes. The City also allows on-street parking adjacent to the site to count towards parking requirements for non-residential uses, which could benefit mixed-use but not solely residential development. • Kennewick tvlunicipol Code Ch. 18.38 - Off-street parking requirements for senior or disabled housing can be reduced if public transportation is directly available, essential services are within 1/2 mile of the site, and a notarized agreement to provide additional off-street parking if the housing is no longer restricted to senior or disabled persons. Business in the central business district are also allowed to count adjacent on-street parking towards their parking requirements. • Prosser tvlunicipcil Code Ch. 18.95 - Allows on-site parking variances for projects applying for earned increased density by providing affordable housing. 8 Bellevue Municipal Code 20.25A.070 and 20.20.128 - Studio and 1-bedroom units affordable to 8070 AM I in Downtown have reduced minimum parking requirements of 0.5 stalls per unit. The percent of compact parking stalls may also be increased for buildings containing affordable housing (up to 75% in non-Downtown zones and up to 85% in Downtown zones). June 2021 41 61 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strategies 1 .5. Former vvi-h local nonprats and -musing providers. LEAD TIMELINE :NVESIMEN: EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 Affordability Housing Supply • Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Local governments can coordinate with local housing groups, faith-based organizations, and non-profit developers to pursue common goals and to identify ways to work together. This could include identifying property, creating incentives, developing housing assistance programs, supporting grant applications, code enforcement property owner assistance, and other programs that help to increase affordability and reduce homelessness. Faith-based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and a desire to use those resources for the public good in line with their congregation's values. Gaps Addressed. This strategy can help to increase housing supply, support affordable homeownership, and support middle-income rental housing, senior housing, and very- low income housing. Case Study: Veterans Supportive Housing and Service Center An old US. Marine Corps Armory in Yakima is being turned into a veteran housing and service center by the Yakima Housing Authority ('rHA). The adaptive reuse project, which is currently under construction, includes new construction of 5 apartment buildings for 41 supportive housing units serving homeless veterans. The land and existing buildings were conveyed from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to the Yakima Housing Authority. Veterans will not need to pay more than 30% at their income for rent. The project includes on-site services, such as primary care, dental, job resources, and case managers. The project was funded through grants, donations, the state budget and the City of Yakima. Considerations. This strategy works best when the City reaches out broadly to identify local organizations, resources, and housing needs of groups including people with disabilities, older adults, or people who are homeless. House Bill 1377 works as an incentive to build affordable housing on faith community owned land. Faith communities who use their land to create homes for low- and middle-income residents with incomes below 80% AM I receive a density bonus. A density bonus allows a developer to build higher, build more units, or build units with more floor space than normally permitted in that area. Density bonuses are valuable in that they allow more to be homes created which can make it easier for affordable projects to become feasible financially. HB 1377 also stipulates that units must remain affordable for 50 years. June 2021 42 62 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strotegies Driorhy 3 STcrec'es The following 22 strategies are third priority for the City of Yakima: 1 a. Consider fee wcivers or deferrcls for cffordcble housing. 17. Give grcnts/loons to directly support smcll businesses. 18. Engcge \Nith local employers to support workforce housing. 19. Consider a levy or soles tax for affordable housing. 20. Collaborcte with nonprofits to build trcnsitioncl housing. 21 . Expand landlord and tenant assistcnce. 22. Address mobile home parks thct are dilopidcted. 23. Encourage micro-retcil and flexible culturcl space design. 24, Support third-party purchases of existing affordable housing. 25. Explore -Right to Returns policies for promoting home ownership. 2E. Incentivize senior housing. 27. Support cging in plcce services. 28. Minimize barriers to development of housing serving multiple populations. 29. Put in plcce Just Cause eviction protections. 30. Consider the strctegic ccquisition of existing multifcmily housing. 31 . Recolibrcte the Multi-Family Tax Exemption (METE) progrcm. 32. Incentivize backycrd cottcges and cottage housing. 33. Collcborate with faith-ccsed orgcnizctions on temporary housing cnd permcnent supportive housing. 34. Provide tenant relocation assistcnce. 35. Provide customized housing cssistance through a Housing Ncvigctor program. 3o. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell / Scle Ordinance, 37. Put in place community benefits/development cgreements. June 2021 43 63 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives :;nd Strategies Please use the below key to interpret the summary table under each strategy heading. Key TIMELINE INLESMVEh;Y EFFORT o Shoit-teim S Minimal investment • Minimal effoit ❑❑: Mid-teim ELL Modeiate investment • • Modeiate effoit Do: Long-teem SST Significant investment, • • • Significant effoit ESS Majoi investment June 2021 44 64 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 6, Consider fee waivers or deferra s for afforda e -rousing. LEAD TIMELINE f4'./ff,',IMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Ctty on Affordability Housing Supply Description. Fee waivers or deferrals reduce the up-front cost of construction for residential development. Utility connection fees and project review fees can bring high costs for residential properties. Waiving or deferring some fees for income-restricted units can be an incentive to encourage the development of income-restricted affordable units. Gaps Addressed. By waiving or deferring fees, the City can support affordable homeownership, middle-income rental housing, older adult housing, and very-low income housing in Yakima. Considerations. This incentive is most effective when combined with a larger incentive package for affordable housing. Example Communities • Port Townsend allows for deferral of system development charges, building fees, and utility connection charges to serve single-family or multifamily residences for low-income households. If there are mixed income proposals, the deferral is in proportion to the proportion of units that are proposed to be affordable. Up to four single family dwelling units per applicant per year are eligible or up to $10,000 for multi-family developments. The deferral is subject to an agreement specifying the waiver/repayment period, criteria for waiver, reporting requirements, and a lien. • Puyallup allows for a reduction in sewer system development charges (SDCs) if a senior or low-income housing project demonstrates lower average water consumption. • Pierce County, Of cshinaton. Regulatory incentives for affordable housing at 80% or less of the Pierce County median household income include expedited permit processing (building permits, subdivisions, road and design review), fee waivers, bonus units, and alternative open space and parking standards. The County assumes shared equity when units increase in value, which is recaptured at time of sale to fund price reductions for additional units. June 2021 45 65 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 1 7. Give grants/ cons to cirect y support sma businesses, LEAD TIMELINE f,4./f„fMf.,f,“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Stability Antt-DtspIacement Description. Support small businesses and cultural anchors in mixed-use buildings to help Them invest in Their space and keep up with rent Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps with affordable housing in the community by supporting small businesses and helping them to make rent costs. Vacant commercial space in a mixed-use building may result in higher rents for residential tenants. Considerations. Economic development programs can help to support small businesses. Restrictions on city funds can make it difficult for local governments to support small businesses. Instead, communities are using federal and private funds that do not have the same strict restrictions on use of general city funds to support rent and operating costs for small businesses. Community lenders can help to meet small businesses needs, and the City could help to connect businesses with these lenders. June 2021 46 66 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 18. Engage whi oc o emp dyers fo suppor workforce housing. LEAD TIMELINE h RP“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES City 00 Affordability Housing Supply rt. • Description. While employer-provided housing is not the norm in most industries (agricultural work being the notable exception in the Yakima area), employers have an interest in ensuring that there is adequate affordable housing in reasonable proximity to work sites. Engagement with employers can encompass a variety of tactics, including consultation on zoning changes, housing incentive programs, and more. Gaps Addressed. Engagement with local employers can help to facilitate the production of new housing units, addressing the overall shortage of housing units. Certain programs, such as linkage fees, can help to address more specific housing needs, such as the need for more affordable housing units. Considerations. Ongoing dialogue with existing major employers can be an effective tool. Prior to implementing new policies or fees related to commercial development, the City could engage with the business community and employers to understand Yakima's advantages and disadvantages as a development site. Partnering with employers on housing issues can sometimes present a "chicken-and-egg" problem, as many employers will want to see evidence of sufficient housing for their workforce in a city prior to locating additional jobs in the area. Al the same time, municipalities hope that employers adding jobs will bring more resources to the region, enabling more public investment in housing. June 2021 47 67 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies I 9. Consider a evy or so es -ox for offorc 09 e LEAD TIMELINE :NlE,',IMEN: EFFORT OBJECTIVES City Affordability Housing Supply 000 .USS ••• Description. The City could provide direct project funding through local taxes, fees, and levies to encourage production of income-restricted affordable housing. A local housing tax levy is authorized Through RCW 84.52.105 and allows up to $0.50 per $1,000 of property tax to be allocated toward affordable housing serving very-low income households if approved by the majority of voters in the taxing district. RCYV 82,14,540, introduced as Substitute HB 1 ziOo in 2019, authorizes counties or cities to redirect up to 0.0146% of the sales tax currently 6 collected by the state to fund affordable housing programs serving households with income below 60% of the county AM and within specific categories, including: individuals with mental illness, veterans, senior citizens, homeless families with children, unaccompanied homeless youth, persons with disabilities, or domestic violence victims. Counties or cities which participate are not imposing a new or additional tax on consumers but redirecting funds from existing tax revenues toward affordable housing initiatives. This increase must be approved by a ballot measure with simple majority. Al least 60% of the revenue must be used for constructing affordable housing, constructing mental and behavioral health-related facilities, or funding the operations and maintenance costs of new units of affordable housing and facilities where housing- related programs are provided. The remaining funds must be used for the operation, delivery, or evaluation of mental and behavioral health treatment programs and services or housing-related services (RCOs 82.14.530)i The funds can also be used for rental assistance to tenants for cities with a population at or under 100,000.1 ' A housing trust fund is a specific fund that receives ongoing dedicated funding to support housing affordability. Gaps Addressed. This addresses the lack of affordable housing and also supports affordable homeownership, middle-income rental housing, senior housing, and very-low income housing. Considerations. This strategy is most effective in communities with a shortage of very-low ih6 ILK COO, 1sacTJicgcntthe taL:, ILK wIA„, 01 6 '1'7, 4,6d \ 41 poi ocAecoe con,kin” • Y,OCIC:It r'fn of WC:1 n10TC:n C rnr: r=== ntirz1 11:5 14(.)6 blip ac hip s.orq;data- resource5;implementing-h b-1 406 June 2021 48 68 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan [)�,jr,tve� ond5trotrgies inconnc-|cstricied affordable housing where the community would support such otax, fee, or ballot measure. Coordinate city funding with other known funding Sources can maximize impact. YVo|king with community groups to develop information about ballot initiatives and to demonstrate the connection to the types of housing needs in the community is an important element of success. For a housing trust fund, leveraging additional funding from state or national programs can maximize the benefits of the dollars raised. Example Communities m E]lenshurqResoIutionNo, 7Ol7'2J. In20l7, voters in Ellensburg approved o0Tosales tax fo support affordable housing projects. The tax passed with 6lToin favor and is estimated fo bring in $450,000to $J00,000o year. The City has implemented on �ffor(�ob�� Hous/ng [ononnioionto administer the revenues generated [/ythe sales tax for housing and related services. On Novcnn[/e/ l3, 20l9, the Affordable Housing Commission recommended two affordable housing development proposals be provided City assistance through affordable housing sales tax funds and City-owned surplus property. The Breezy Meadows project proposal at Bender and VVcter Street, and Addison Place on South Pearl Street will be forwarded to City Council for their opp|ovo[ m Leoven,vorthResoIutionl ondOvdinoncel In March 2020, Leavenworth City Council adopted Ordinance l608 authorizing the soles tax revenue and funding provisions for HBl4O6. Money collected from the tax will [/e used for affordable and supportive housing and rental assistance Icifiesof less than l0O,00O can use some of fhefundsforrentolooidonceL [heCityedirootesfhefox\viUbringinohoof $l6,000 m per year. ',rn, k*eWo:n1cl, Rswnno* sk vopni" offo, obknhovSIng|nbmovanvvoelh, (3eptenober2�, 2019[ hMpu//^`�wweno�chsswoddznnn/ns^�/re"enos'�hore'wno|d'�o;poh`o�npdo�|s' hnodnn'|n'|eo"snwnr�h/od|c|s 9i�78o2�'dfs7'lls9't�9�'8�d9o�c>�9odh�no| June 202| 49 69 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 70, Co °Potato with nonprofits to DUi c fronsitiono housing. LEAD TIMELINE {,.;./f..JAM{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 TTST ••• Affordability stability Description. Transitional housing includes apartments or congregate housing where there is a limit on how long a household can stay, typically 24 months. Allowing transitional housing in more areas can increase the supply of transitional housing so that it meets the scale of need. Gaps Addressed. Transitional housing can help to address the need for immediate shelter for households experiencing homelessness. Considerations. Transitional housing projects can sometimes be controversial among neighbors, and Thus difficult to site. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local lead agency for homelessness services to ensure that any plans for transitional housing are consistent with the countywide plan for homelessness services. June 2021 50 70 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives find Strotegles 21 , Expand and or dna -anon- ossis-ance, LEAD TIMELINE IN if.,fAMW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Homeownership City Partner 00 LiLLSS ••• stability Anti-Displacement Description. In areas where housing affordability is a growing issue, housing agencies have coordinated efforts to provide comprehensive Landlord and Tenant Assistance through policy and programming. Programming assistance comes in many forms, including tenant rights education, trainings for landlords and renters alike to understand local rental policies, etc. Other actions to provide assistance include offering low interest loans for code compliance and to create an ombudsman to liaise with tenants and landlords. The City of Yakima currently offers Tenant/Landlord Counseling through the Office of Neighborhood Development Services program to assist tenants and landlords with disputes and advice on reaching agreements or seeking legal support. The Dispute Resolution Center of Yakima and Kittitas Counties is also a local resource. Continued support for The Office of Neighborhood Development Services program is necessary. Gaps Addressed. Expanded assistance for landlords and tenants can increase their awareness and familiarity. It addresses the lack of oversight of rental housing and can maintain the quality of rental housing. Considerations. Using an ombudsman as a single point of contact can work well as a trusted point of assistance. Example Communities • The City of Tukwila requires that all rental units be licensed and inspected; owners of residential property should obtain a Rental Business License annually. The City provides access to renter rights information on the Rental Housing Program webpage. Examples include a 'Renter's Tips Sheet,' redirection to the 'Tenants Union of Washington State webpage, and 'Know You Rights' information. The City of Tukwila's Code Enforcement Team works with property owners to ensure compliance with Municipal Code related to private property. The Portland Housing Bureau, Renter Services Office (RSO) operates a helpline and provides technical assistance and information. The RSO is a resource for both landlords and tenants. The City has adopted the Fair Access in Renting (FAIR) ordinance as of March 1 , 2020; RSO offers free trainings to renters and landlords to learn more about the ordinance. Rental property owners are required to register their units annually through the Residential Rental Registration Program and Schedule R. June 2021 51 71 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan [)�,jr,tve� ond5trotrgies 77 /\CC[e5\ 0ON e home DO[l -1Of (Are CiODrCO-ed. LEA | rvwa|ws epom � OBJECTIVES| � | pnnn~, | 00| | �4�� | **o Affordability | | | | � Older Adult Options | ",ov""v Anti.Displacement Description. Mobile homes are often on affordable option for renters and homeowners. [he/co/cvo|ious types of mobile home parks, which may [/e owned byo single entity or community-cwned through a Resident Owned Communities (ROC) designation. Mobile home parks that are c]isinvestedand lockp|opc| inf|ost|uctu/co/coftenof /isk of being acqLjired, which woLild displace residents of these communities. Addressing much needed repairs and opgrodes can help to mitigate displacement ofvulnerable residents and ensure improved safety and quality oflife. Gaps Addressed. Mobile home parks meet the needs of those who want to live ino detached single-family home bLif often cannot afford the associated mortgage or rent payment. Considerations. Partnerships with non-profits experienced with mobile home rehabilitation may be necessary to address improvements and preserve housing. Example Programs m CASAofOreqon's Manufactured Housing Cooperative Development (MHCO) Center is one of nine Certified Technical Assistance Providers lC[/\Ps\ under the national R[)G USA network. ROC USA is o nonprofit that provides technical assistance with specialized porohose financing for resident cooperative corporations. CASA of Oregon delivers pre- and post-pLirchase technical assistance and helps manufactured homeowners secure the financing needed. m The City ofAohorn Home Repair Program Provides grants for minor and emergency repairs, including for mobile homes. The City offers 87,0O0 grants paid directly to contractors. m The City of Kent Home Repair Assistance P/og|o/n offers home repair services to low - and moderate-income homeowners, including mobile homes. Mobile homes must be built in l976o| newer with HUD certification in order to qualify and gross income must not exceed 807oAMI. Grants inolodeo $J,000 limit for mobile homes. m The King County Housing Authority \^/eothe/izotion P|oW/onn p|ovic]esvvcothc|izotion services for homeowners, including mobile homeowners. An income threshold must be rnef to access free services. The King Coonty Housing Repair Program provides grants Lip to $8,000 to mobile homeowners who need to make qualify of life repairs to their homes and do not own the land o/ pad where mobile home sits. Grants c]o not have to [/erepaid. June 202| b2 72 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles ?I Encourage micro-retai and f exid e Cu -ura space design. LEAD TIMELINE {,.;./f..JAM{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES City on •• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. In some cases, displacement occurs when smaller retailers and cultural spaces that anchor communities disappear from neighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. Ensuring affordable commercial spaces in neighborhoods as new development come in can help reduce displacement. Considerations. Preserving existing affordable space is most effective for maintaining affordability. If new space must be built or adapted, it works best to design the ground floor with nontraditional commercial uses, such as a flexible space for different types of businesses and arts organizations. June 2021 53 73 City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan [)�,jr,tve� ond5trotrgies 74, \UllOrffkx'1-lO[-YDU[ck(As e\ Ofexi\flDUOffOPcO|` e1OU5iDU, LEA | rvwa|ws epom � OBJECTIVES| � cny | pnnn~, | 00 SS | **o Affordability ",ov""v Anti.Displacement Description. Community-based organizations, ncn-prcfif organizations, and community land trusts can be important property owners in neighborhoods. Under RCW 3521 685, public resources can [/e used to empower trusted institutions to preserve o/ create affordable housing and spaces for ccmmunity-serving organizations and businesses. The City 000W help these institutions in land and property ooqoisition efforts fopreserve affordable housing and prevent displacement inneighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to address the lack of housing supply in the community. The Housing Needs Assessment foond that renters in Yakima face higher affordability challenges than owners. These challenges are not always solved bynew oonshoctionsinoene\vhornesorelorgelyintendedforfhehigherendoffhernoriei Cities can partner with community-based organizations, non-prcfits, and community land trusts to add tothe inventory of long-term affordable rental housing bypurchasing existing housing with low-cost units. Acquisitions of this type iso faster and lower pc+ onif-oodfhonnevvoondroofionofoffordohlehoosing. VVhenocqoisitionisforgetedin opportunity-rich areas this can increase equitable access tohoosing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public doUorcSetting goals forthelocofion, qoontih/, ondh/peofunihcreotedorpreservedthroughfhis strategy can help ensore limited poblic dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensLire the longevity of impact from these investments. June 202| b^ 74 City at Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles ?S. Ex 9 ore " Right to Return" pa ides for Promoting tome ownership. LEAD TIMELINE IN if,A4MW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 000 TELLS Antt-Dtsplacement Description. A -Right to Return" policy helps to reverse effects of past physical displacement by providing down payment assistance for first time homeowners who can prove that they have been victims of displacement. These policies can prioritize cases of displacement by direct government action. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses homeownership gaps. Considerations. Right to Return policies work by giving highest preference for housing support to those who can show that they were forced to move in the wave of displacement that occurred to make way for new development including recently constructed streets or other development. These policies can also be designed to give preference to current or formerly displaced residents preference for income-restricted housing. Example Communities • Portland's -Right to Return" policy allows tenants, mainly minorities, to move back to communities that they were displaced from. An important aspect of the -Right to Return" initiative is the "preference policy." The Preference Policy is an effort to address the harmful impacts of urban renewal by giving priority placement to applicants who were displaced, are at risk of displacement, or who are descendants of households that were displaced due to urban renewal in North and Northeast Portland. The Portland Housing Bureau (PHB) funds the development of affordable rental housing, homeownership opportunities, and down payment assistance for first-time homebuyers. When any of these opportunities become available in North and Northeast Portland, PHB will open the waitlist for those interested in the housing opportunity. Priority status is given to households who owned property that was taken by Portland City government through eminent domain. Eminent domain is the right of a government agency to take private property for public use and relocates and/or compensates The owner of the property. Examples of eminent domain action include the construction of Memorial Coliseum and the expansion of Emanuel Hospital. Austin has also indicated its intent to develop a Right to Return and Right to Stay Program for East Austin, June 2021 55 75 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 26. ncentivize senior rousing. LEAD TIMELINE {,.;./f,,R.U'{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Housing Supply City Pa 5„. •• Older Adult Options Stability Antt-Dtsplacement Description. Cities have several tools at their disposable to incentivize the production of new housing for older adults by private developers and builders. These include the authorization to waive or reduce impact fees for senior housing, the ability to offer density bonuses for buildings with units reserved for older adults, allowing a greater variety of housing types in existing zones (e.g., cottages, duplexes, etc.), offering property owners tax exemptions when constructing multi-family housing (METE), and more. Gaps Addressed. The strategies highlighted here all address the need for additional housing that meets the needs of older adults, particularly as a segment of the population ages over the next 10 years. Considerations. In implementing any new policies, decision-makers should consider the ability of the policy both to incentivize the production of housing that meets the affordability needs of older adults, but also the social needs (e.g., proximity to family) and housing design and layout needs (e.g., mobility considerations). June 2021 56 76 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 27, Support aging in p ace services. LEAD TIMELINE N./f.',,fAM{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES •• Affordability Partner Older Adult Options Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Aging in place refers to the ability of individuals to remain in Their home as They age. Older adults often have different physical, social, and affordability needs Than younger adults, so supportive services are often necessary to allow older adults to remain in Their home. Examples of services That support aging in place include meal delivery programs, home aides, shuttle services, social events through community centers, mobility modifications to homes (such as installing ramps), and senior property tax exemptions (available statewide in Washington). The City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) supports aging in place Through services That connect older residents with existing services and by providing additional services for older residents. Continued support of This program is necessary. The City can also consider refinements to the program such as: • Connecting older adults to affordable and trustworthy contractors for home maintenance and modification assistance • Grants that target older renters for assistance. Older renters living in market-rate apartments are often responsible for making any accessibility improvements they need. They may face the additional expense of restoring units to their original condition when they move out. Gaps Addressed. Providing aging in place services can help Yakima to meet the need for additional housing units for older adults in the years ahead by allowing some older adults to remain in their current homes for longer. Considerations. Aging in place will not meet the need of all older adults, so any plan to support the housing needs of older adults must consider a range of housing types, including congregate housing, multi-generational housing, and ADUs. It is also important to leverage The experiences of existing service providers to maximize The efficacy of any new aging in place service programs. Engage with older adults in the community to fully understand the needs and preferences of this community. June 2021 57 77 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strotegies 28, Minimize barriers to deve opmen- of housing serving mu tip e 909U clans. LEAD TIMELINE :NV EH MEN: EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Homeownership City 0c, •• Stability Anti.Displacement Description. Housing providers often build housing that serves multiple populations to increase financial stability and local support for the development. For example, a housing development may include units for agricultural workers, people with disabilities, large families and people experiencing homelessness. Regulatory barriers should be reviewed to ensure they align with these practices and do not unintentionally add time and cost to the development process. The key barrier identified by stakeholders is when a use is defined as a "Mission" when services are open to the public at large. Uses that are defined as "Mission" uses are only allowed in General Commercial (GC), Central Business District (CBD) and the Light Industrial zones (M1 ). Gaps Addressed. This strategy can help to increase housing supply, increase affordable housing options, and support the needs of vulnerable populations such as farmworkers, people with disabilities, and people experiencing homelessness. Considerations. Review potential updates to the zoning code use table and definitions, yMisorV necsc; 1.:K20y ty ifoffff.0, ff,.“ c,Pe'cinj by c= pu Iffl -- Ofjf"Thf-Y or jtsiiiPieijii Litt Pstistitsiji j c s its tj c; s sig,'t`t :ff f cii.c:“:14)nic)g, tVF:=If. CCIC) IC'i C C inc dirdr,0 facHit1e. , healTh and court ClinO CICTARCS /11C:111Cr or rot of fpJ.4501 notem, >uon punk-Jai:I pro Accyj publ:c cAt June 2021 58 78 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 29. Put in 9 ace Just Cause eviction protections. LEAD TIMELINE :N if.,,AWN: EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability City •• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Washington requires that tenants receive at least a 20-day notice when asked to leave a property, but the state law does not require landlords to provide an explanation. Cities may pass Just Cause eviction protections that require landlords to provide tenants with a legally justifiable reason when asking them to vacate. Legally justifiable reasons could include failure to pay on time, meet lease terms, building sale, or owners desire to occupy the unit. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to protect tenants against displacement and poor housing conditions. Considerations. This protection does not prevent displacement, but the Just Cause eviction requirement supports rental stability and provides a legal recourse for residents who are asked to vacate without justification. It is important to be clear in city code about what reasons for asking a tenant to vacate would constitute just cause. It is also important to make sure that this information about the Just Cause protection is circulated widely so that tenants are aware of this protection. Example Communities • In Seattle, landlords must have 1 of 16 "Just Cause reasons"if they want to end month-by-month rental agreement. Land ords must give you a written notice commonly called a "Notice to Terminate Tenancy" and state the specific just cause. The amount of advance notice depends on the specific just cause reason. In general, the notice period is 20 days before the end of a rental period unless otherwise stated below. June 2021 59 79 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegies 30. Consider -le s-rategic acc uisition of exis-ing mu tom' y housing. LEAD TIMELINE f'4'./E.',IMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES City 000 ,uss ••• Affordability Housing Supply Stability Anti-Displacement Description. This strategy uses acquisition to provide income-restricted affordable housing. When the acquired housing is in neighborhoods with amenities such as open space, good schools, and other public infrastructure it promotes equitable access to neighborhoods that may be otherwise out of reach for low-income residents. Community-based organizations, non-profits and community land trusts can be important property owners within a neighborhood. Leveraging public resources to empower trusted institutions can preserve or create affordable housing and space for community-serving organizations and is authorized with RCW 35.21 .685. The City of Yakima's resources can assist these institutions in land and property acquisition that preserves affordable housing and prevents displacement within a neighborhood. Gaps Addressed. The Housing Needs Assessment found that renters in Yakima face higher affordability challenges Than owners. These challenges are not always solved by new construction since new homes are largely intended for the higher end of the market. Cities can partner with community-based organizations, non-profits, and community land trusts to add to the inventory of long-term affordable rental housing by purchasing existing housing with low-cost units. Acquisitions of this type is a faster and lower per-unit-cost Than new construction of affordable housing. When acquisition is targeted in opportunity-rich areas this can increase equitable access to housing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public dollars. Setting goals for the location, quantity, and type of units created or preserved through this strategy can help ensure limited public dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensure the longevity of impact from these investments. Example Communities/Programs • The King County Housing Authority [KCH,A) has taken advantage of the flexibility granted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Moving to Work (MTW) program to pursue multifamily acquisitions as a means of increasing units in high-opportunity neighborhoods (with high-performing schools, public transit, and jobs). King County has acquired mixed-income properties in high- opportunity areas through bond financing and other private financing tools. Under Washington's state authorizing legislation, KCHA can issue bonds directly, not dependent on the county government In 2016, King County agreed to provide KCHA with access to the county's triple-A credit rating. This type of credit June 2021 60 w City v[YoNn`o Housing Action Plan [)�,jr,tve� ond5trotrgies enhancement is valuable to housing authorities that may not have strong, independent issuer ratings. Since 20l6, KCHA has acquired more than 2,O0O units of housinW� m Launched in2O06, the Ne,vYorkC it! Acqu/s/ton Fund provides funds to developers to acquire and preserve affordable buildings which might otherwise bc sold to speculative investors. The fund provides flexible loans for vacant sites or occupied buildings, predevelopment, and moderate rehabilitation to developers committed to the creation of new or preservation of existing affordable and/or supportive rental housing. lJ,692units have been created o/ preserved in82projects through thisfunc]� June 202| �| 81 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies 31 . Reca iorate he Mu ti-Famiy Tax Exemption (METE) program. LEAD TIMELINE N\ 3/MC.NV EFFORT OBJECTIVES City Affordability Housing Supply 00 Description. The Multifamily Tax Exemption (METE) is an incentive program that enables cities in Washington State to waive a portion of property taxes for housing builders and developers that are creating multifamily and income-restricted housing in designated areas.: The City of Yakima established its METE program, called the Downtown Redevelopment Tax Incentive Program, in 2006.21 The program applies to the residential target area established in the City's central business district, approximately centered around the intersection of the BNSF railroad tracks and Yakima Avenue. Through the downtown redevelopment incentive, Yakima can grant a property tax exemption for residential or mixed-use development that includes at least four units of multiple-unit housing. So far, the City has attracted about 51 units under the program. There are currently 24 units receiving the exemption; 27 units have completed the tax-exempt period and are now fully taxed. Downtown Redevelopment Tax . E incentive Program Area Yakima er„a„„„ a„ Gaps Addressed. Yakima ) needs more housing for , • ; ) small households and more housing for residents with incomes below 50% AMI. Recent changes in • 7 or. the METE program from • - T • • T SHB2950 also allow the , • • program to be used for the conversion or rehabilitation of residential buildings. i) 9 25 0 5 Considerations. As a Wes voluntary program, the METE is effective only if developers choose to use it. There are several options the city of Yakima can consider adding variations in the program to meet the goals of the HAP, sce rhnr ter 84 1 4 R CW See chanter 11 63 Y6AC June 2021 62 82 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegies including: • Expand the MFTE to more areas in the city to encourage denser growth in areas with fine greatest capacity and significant challenges to development feasibility. The program could also be expanded to areas where more multifamily is desired. • Use the METE to encourage more rental or ownership housing. The METE programs applies differently to buildings with rental units versus ownership units. • The City could consider other possible conditions to attract desired housing such as senior affordable housing. • State law does not limit the type or size of units that may qualify. According to (0 study by JLARC, about 75% of the units created between 2007 and 2018 using the METE are studios or one bedroom. At least four cities have enacted local policies to encourage larger units: • Bellevue requires at least 15% of units to have two or more bedrooms. • Seattle, Bellingham, and Shoreline encourage large units by applying stricter affordability requirements for smaller units. All three require That units with fewer Than two bedrooms be affordable at lower income thresholds. This has the effect of lowering the maximum monthly rental price for smaller units. Seattle also requires that a development that does not have at least four larger units out of every hundred must include more affordable units overall. Proforma analyses of sample projects can help estimate the developer's expected return on investment under different scenarios. This can be helpful to calibrate requirements such as percentage set-asides and affordability levels to maximize the benefits without discouraging use of the incentive by developers. Some additional options to consider for increasing the effectiveness of the program include advertising the METE program and opportunities on the City website, and layering METE with other incentives for affordable housing, such as density bonus or fee reductions, to magnify the overall effects. Although the program can help address Yakima's housing needs, the City may lose potential future property tax revenues. Additionally, affordable units may be at risk of losing their affordable status both at the end of the MFTE period and during its existence if a developer decides to opt out of the program. Requiring affordability covenants for these units is one method for preserving affordability. June 2021 63 83 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Strotegies 32, ncentivize Dockyard cot-ages ono cot-age housing. LEAD TIMELINE N'./fl,',IMEW EFFORT OBJECTIVES City •• Affordability Housing Supply Homeownership Older Adult Options Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Cottage housing refers to a cluster of small dwelling units, typically less than 1,200 square feet around a common open space. This arrangement offers a development approach that is appropriate and compatible with low-density residential neighborhoods, and their smaller size makes them more affordable than a typical single-family residence. Like cottage housing, backyard cottages or accessory dwelling units (both attached and detached) provide housing alternatives that increase the capacity of residential neighborhoods. The City has put in place several modifications in 2020 to expand the zones in which These homes are allowed and simplified the overall process. Creating pre-approved ADU plans is a potential way to further incentivize These smaller housing types. Gaps Addressed. Providing cottage housing and backyard cottages helps to diversify the housing stock, increasing housing supply for individuals and families with different needs. Backyard cottages or accessory dwelling units can also be a helpful option for multi-generational families. These units may serve as rentals providing additional income for homeowners or as main unit extensions that offer privacy for older or extended family members. They offer affordable options to renters and can assist homeowners in need of additional income to avoid displacement. Increasing the diversity of the housing stock also supports affordable homeownership. Considerations. Some density increases may be needed for cottage housing in single- family areas since these units are smaller and can be more expensive to build on a cost-per-square-foot basis. The typical density increase is two cottages per one traditional single-family home. Applying design standards and a maximum floor area ratio limit can ensure these units fit well into the applicable single-family contexts. It is important that the approval process for the units is not overly burdensome. June 2021 64 84 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strategies 33, Co a gorate with faith-gased organizations on temporary housing ono Permanent supportive housing. LEAD TIMELINE N.,/f.,„fMf.,f,“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Homeownership Partner 00 54SS •• Stability Anti Displacement Description. Faith-based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and have a desire to use those resources for the public good in line with their congregation's values. Several faith-based organizations in Yakima operate affordable housing projects and housing programs for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. By partnering with faith-based organizations, the City can draw on the valuable experience these organizations have in providing services to individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Gaps Addressed. By partnering with faith-based organizations, the City can help to address the needs for temporary and permanent housing for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. See Strategy 15 for additional information about partnering with faith-based organizations. Considerations. Faith-based organizations have a unique set of strengths and resources that are important to partner with to provide services to Those experiencing Homelessness, Several policy provisions are uniquely available to faith-based organizations to provide shelter. For example, HB 1377 grants faith communities a density bonus for developing homes for households with incomes below 80% of AM on their land. While these partnerships are important, it is important to consider how the City will approach any policy differences with faith-based organizations. For example, in 2018, the City of Seattle ccme under fire for contracting for shelter services with a faith- based organization that had a policy of not hiring LOBTO staff. The City's hiring policies prohibited it from contracting with organizations that discriminate based on sexual orientation in hiring. To maximize success, the City should broadly reach out to identify local organizations, resources, and existing temporary and permanent housing programs. It should also fully explore any potential policy conflicts with faith-based organizations before entering into contracts. June 2021 65 85 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strategies 34, Provice tenon- re °cation assistance. LEAD TIMELINE J kJP“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner AffordablItty 00 ,USS ••• stability Antt-DtspIacement Description. Rezoning in neighborhoods may cause an increase in demolition of existing housing units to build newer housing. This process can displace existing tenants. Under WAC 365-196-835 and RCW 59.18.440, local governments can pass an ordinance to require developers, public funds, or both fo provide relocation funds fo displaced tenants. Gaps Addressed. This strategy provides relocation assistance to displaced tenants and improves housing stability. Considerations. Tenants at or below 50% of county median income, adjusted for family size, qualify for these funds. Resident relocation assistance resulting from public action is required (details are in RCW 8.26). If is important to be clear about who qualifies for tenant relocation assistance, what is covered, and who pays the amount. If is also important to ensure that information about tenant relocation assistance is easily available to all members of the community. Two of the most important federal programs that fund affordable housing are the HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) and the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. Both HOME and CDBG are important resources in the local development of homes and communities. While sharing similar goals related fo improving the living conditions of low-income families, each program has specific eligible activities and requirements. Due fo the limitations of both Community Development Block Oran' (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) investment regulations, City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) is only able fo provide relocation assistance when a property is acquired and/or displaced with Federal Funds through specific program guidelines. Housing assistance is provided through the developers as subrecipients as program guidelines allow. To implement these types of programs and/or strategies through ONDS, a measure of "Administrative costs" would need to be financed through sources other than -CDBG or HOME admin" such as general fund in order fo remain CDBG and HOME Investment program compliant. June 2021 66 86 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 35, Provice customized housing assistance throug i a Housing Navigator program, LEAD TIMELINE lb/LIME P EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability Partner 000 ,USS ••• Stability Anti Displacement Description. Housing Navigators work with both landlords and tenants and offer customized assistance to reduce barriers through supports such as search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Examples of customized assistance include providing information on amenities and resources across neighborhoods, facilitating neighborhood tours, preparing individuals to be tenants on the private rental market, identifying barriers to renting, budgeting, preparing materials needed for rental applications, support during the housing search process, referrals to units, and providing flexible funds to help families overcome additional costs associated with moving. Gaps Addressed. The needs assessment revealed that there is a need for housing- related support that extend beyond housing production and vary across groups in fine community. Since barriers in the housing search process are an important driver of residential segregation, providing customized assistance in housing search could reduce residential segregation and increase upward mobility. Considerations. This program will need significant resources to operationalize. Partnerships with locally based housing providers and organizations will be necessary for implementation. Housing Navigators will be most successful if they have background/familiarity working with property management firms and other for-profit entities, landlords, social service providers and the rental housing sector in Yakima, have knowledge of local rental housing resources and social services, and have cultural competence. Example Communities • King County's Creating Moves to Corportunity (CMT0) program is a housing mobility program offered to eligible families from the Seattle and King County Housing Authorities Housing Choice Voucher waitlist.. A key feature of this program is the use of hosing navigators who provide customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Evaluation of the pilot program, and interviews with participants, revealed that barriers in the housing search process are a central driver of residential segregation by income. The customized assistance that addresses each family's needs in a specific manner from emotional support to brokering with landlords to financial assistance was critical to the program's success. June 2021 67 87 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strategies 36. Acodt a Notice of n-en—o Se / So e Ordinance. LEAD TIMELINE J kJ{'“ EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability City Pa •• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. A -Notice of Intent to Sell" ordinance requires owners of multifamily buildings to provide official notification to tenants and local housing officials. The ordinance could apply specifically to properties with rents at or below certain income levels. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses The lack of affordable housing supply especially for low- and moderate-income populations. Considerations. The notice gives public authorities an opportunity to plan for a potential purchase of the property, in the interest of preserving housing serving low- or moderate- income residents. The ordinance also serves as a mitigation measure for residents by providing additional time for potential moves. Example Communities • Seattle's Notice of Intent to Sell ordincnce reauthorized by Council in 2019, provides The City with information about the intention to sell residential rental property with at least one unit rented at 80% of Area Median Income (AMI) or below. The City, in partnership with The Seattle Housing Authority and community partners, can use the notification information to evaluate properties and deploy a range of property preservation tools, including incentives and acquisition. The notice can also help residents seek tenant protections and relocation resources if necessary. June 2021 68 88 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives °rid Strotegles 37. Fu- in ace communi-y benefits/deve apmen- agreements. LEAD TIMELINE f',.;./f...i•WW EFFORT OBJECTIVES Affordability City 000 •• Stability Anti-Displacement Description. Development agreements or community benefit agreements are voluntary, negotiated contracts between developers and municipalities. These agreements specify the public benefits that The development will provide, along with each party's responsibility. They support affordable housing, affordable commercial space, community gathering spaces, and other public amenities. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to ensure that new developments will provide affordable spaces for housing and commercial activities, along with public benefits. Considerations. Examples include developers agreeing to build out ground floor space for small businesses and cultural anchors, making it more affordable for them to get into new spaces and gradually afford market rent with time. June 2021 69 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Iplement°tio n The HAP establishes a framework for aligning efforts across the city, coordinating with partners, and measuring progress. To support an effective implementation program, this section includes: • A comprehensive listing of strategies, timelines, resource requirements, responsibilities for leading the tasks, and partnership opportunities. This matrix will also support the City's budgeting and implementation processes and provide a mechanism for assessing progress and maintaining accountability. • A timeline summary for implementation of the specific actions identified in this report. Strategies are categorized by short-term (1-2 years), medium-term (3-5 years), and long-term (5+ years) implementation timelines. The information in this section is duplicated in the timeline section below, in which the strategies are grouped by the anticipated timeline instead of priority. The following key defines the symbols used in the tables below, Key TIMELINE ❑iTESTMENI EFFORT ❑ «:. Short IT Minimal investment • Minimal effoil 00 leim ?.}5 Modeiale • • Modeiale 00Z Mid leim ❑:7:7 investment • • • effort Long- ZEES Significant Significant leim investment effort Major investment June 2021 70 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Driari-y 1 STa-ec'es OBJECTIVES y < >. STRATEGY LEAD ': TIMELINE .NV •A• N1 EFFORT w m. O m 1. Update city regulations to remove on �. barriers to innovative housing types. 2. Make strategic investments in e y 000 e=pe infrastructure. June 2021 71 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES cs v SE ts p— et qla at a STRATEGY LEAD '� " ' ':.. TIMELINE :#8•.5•�ENT EFFORT -` tD O m � � 3. Encourage rent-to-own opportunities Partner 00 1 ;;n e 1 ,8' J ,8' and sweat equity programs. 4. Expand and update down payment Penner ,: on k>r ". ,8' r 1'.... I J assistance programs 5. Develop, acquire,or sell surplus or City 0 ,u 1 J under-utilized city property. - - 6.Incentivize landlords to improve the 00 ex I quality and maintenance of housing June 2021 72 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Driari-y 2 STa-ec'es OBJECTIVES n a a - < s 7 STRATEGY LEAD TIMELINEDR:{,Via;{pLD: EFFORT 7. Create design standards for multifamily . . and mixed-use development. City .. ... ❑ n7=s : J J 8.Improve permitting and environmental City •❑ t •0 review process. 9. Expand need-based rehabilitation Partner . . an cat j J' I J J J assistance. 10. Add more permanent supportive Partner: ❑❑ 2'ry ,/,: :...�.... housing. •.}. .7,...+a- 11.Support seasonal farmworker housing partner 00 ..} • I J as severe-weather shelters. II12. Ensure code enforcement does not City 00 SS .t J.. 1 displace residents: June 2021 73 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES ts STRATEGY LEAD .. TIMELINE .k J3+tfti+,3i EFFORT { s 13. Continue to support education partner t"u"tkt de '.. I deprograms on homeownership. no II14. Revise parking..standards in key areas '., Partner , .... ❑ $$ S. a I J I 15. Partner with local nonprofits and housing providers. Partner 00 J I J June 2021 74 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Driari-y 3 STa-ec'es OBJECTIVES s a C a ° a STRATEGY LEAD ... . .: V':.: TIMELINE Y ,.ko6 ABA NI EFFORT 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for City 00 3,5115 affordable housing. 17. Give grants/loans to directly support Clty on :srs a '. ad' se It small businesses. .,...... . , 18. Engage with local employers to City ❑❑ ,g' I '.. support workforce housing. II19. Considera levy or sales tax for .M,u rye,. affordable housing City OEM $:.>b _ J J 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build ,u,,;,u transitional housing. Partner 00 '.. :.}�,a„7° °•• J J 21. Expand landlord and tenant City . . .. 00 .,,,,000s4 ;.,.. L.. J_.. assistance June 2021 75 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES AL o STRATEGY LEAD + "" "6 TIMELINE . RISES/ EFFORT u f t 22. Address mobile home parks that are Partner no u,.. M1.n eae dilapidated. '.., 23. Encourage micro-retail and flexible city ❑❑ 6. J' J cultural space design. 24.Support third-party purchases of - ,u,,;,u existing affordable housing. Partner ❑❑ '.. :.}�,a„,o-..} J' J J J J 25. Explore Right to Return policies for City ❑❑❑ t s e I promoting:home_ownership '.,. 26. Incentivize senior housing. City 00 27.Support aging in place services. Partner: 0 } .:... J I J..-.-J.... 28. Minimize barriers to development of a n - ,g housing serving multiple populations. 76 June 2021 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES a it- > a 7,7 STRATEGY LEAD < = = c TIMELINE :t,vi-SIMINI EFFORT 29. Put in place Just Cause eviction City 0 e, • ye protections. 30. Consider the strategic acquisition of e'r City ODD I I I existing multifamily housing. 31. Recalibrate the Multi-Family Tax City 00 Exemption (MFTE) program. 32. Incentivize backyard cottages and CEty a $ es' I III ,/ cottage housing. 33. Collaborate with faith based organizations on temporary housing and Partner On S$% e• de permanent supportive housing. 34. Provide tenant relocation assistance. Partner 00 $$$$ I June 2021 77 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES > a . • n , 2• a. cc 2 c < = = c STRATEGY LEAD TIMELINE :Nvi-SIMINI EFFORT 35 Provide customized housing assistance through a Housing Navigator Partner 000 „.5%,,$$ es ,t program 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell/Sale City no en eae ./ at Ordinance. 37. Put in place community City 000 $ 1 1 1 benefits/development agreements June 2021 78 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation TI fin The HAP emphasizes implementation over the next five years. Error!''Reference source not found.The tables in the following pages illustrate the anticipated timeframe for implementation of the recommended actions. They present the same information as the tables in the implementation section above, but they are grouped by the anticipated timeline instead of priority. • Short-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the one- to two-year timeframe. • Mid-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the Three- to five-year timeframe. • Long-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the five-or-more year timeframe. These strategies may rely on short- and medium-term strategy success, have longer legislative processes, or require infrastructure projects to materialize prior To implementation. The following key defines the symbols used in the tables below. Key PRIORITY t41 ESIMEk4i' : EFFORT 1 Pnonty 1 e Minimal investment • r:: Minimal effoil 2 Pnonty 2 ?,;, Modeiale • • ;. Modeiale 3 Pnonty 3 See investment ', • • • effort ,M1'ee Significant Significant investment effort Majoi investment June 2021 79 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Snor--Terra S-rc-ecies OBJECTIVES n ._ STRATEGY LEAD .r,kt>RL:S ID LIO•Sk A. EFFORT { Es ✓` 5. Develop, acquire,or sell surplus or under-utilized city property. City {$$ a I 7. Create design standards for multifamily, City and mixed-use development.. '.,. 8. Improve permitting and environmental City J' ,j review process. 14. Revise parking standards in key areas :..Partner 2 $r • 27.Support aging in place services. Partner ' ' 3 J J J I 28. Minimize barriers to development of City 3 vitg ; housing serving multiple populations 29. Put in place Just Cause evictione a I J J protections. .. . ., 32. Incentivize:backyard cottages and f City ' ' `,'3 :: ,e' ',.. ./ J' i.vir cottage housing June 2021 80 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Mic-Term S-rc-ecies OBJECTIVES a a A er- STRATEGY LEAD PRIORITY Y.,.ko ILDL41 EFFORT ' s s -' 1. Update city regulations to remove arty "' f $ • J J '.. J J J barriers to innovative housing types. 3. Encourage rent-to-own opportunities Partner ..`.. ,.:. l a J and sweat equity programs 4. Expand and update down payment .. ryu. assistance programs. Partner 3 M:.a = • J J .B J June 2021 81 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES s . . .: .. "" AY '` ti s =STRATEGY LEAD HOORAY .YsV tvE"v�3:L53 EFFORT 6.Incentivize landlords to improve the City .r... . . .!,. .,., t$$ es J J. J quality and maintenance of housing 9. Expand need-based rehabilitation partnee 2 $$ • J J J .B J assistance. 10. Add more permanent supportive Partner '" `',t°t"`', housing. p °8 11.Support seasonal farmworker housing Partner ... ,/ ,j J' .I as severe-weather shelters. 12. Ensure code enforcement does not city 2 S$ >gi• ( 1 J displace residents. r..: 13. Continue to support education Partner 2 , $M r$ •• J J J programs on homeownership. June 2021 82 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES s � I � . . .: .. "" HOORAYHOORAY '` ti s STRATEGY LEAD `s.YsV tvE"v13:L53 EFFORT 15. Partner with local nonprofits and Partner '.. J J housing::providers.: 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for affordable housing. City .. ' : xt J J 17. Give grants/loans to directly support -. . . $$ J I J. small businesses city k>;F 18. Engage with local employers to City3 i • II support workforce housing. 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build Partner - ---- -n"� e'te, J J transitional housing '... Homeless Network of Yakima County 21. Expand landlord and tenant CI4yr J J J J assistance. ,. June 2021 83 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES s 57 � I � . . .: .. "" '� ti s e STRATEGY LEAD HOORAY .tsV tvE"v�3:rt3 EFFORT 22. Address mobile home parks that areu, dilapidated. Partner $$ s J 23. Encourage micro-retail and flexible , cultural space design. City ? a J J 24.Support third party purchases of Partner '; ; J I I I r--el' existing affordable housing '.,. 26. Incentivize senior housing. City r. ,., $ •e I I J 31. Recalibrate the Multi Family Tax City - J Jeee '.. (Exemption. (MFTE) program 33. Collaborate with faith-based organizations on temporary housing and Partner ., 3 $ r 3 a s I I J' I permanent supportive housing. 34. Provide tenant relocation assistance. Partner 3 $$rt J J J. June 2021 84 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation OBJECTIVES ti < = = 7 STRATEGY LEAD ()BUY :t.;vi-SikAlhfl EFFORT 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell/Sale city .S 0 1 1 ./ 0 rd in once June 2021 85 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Lone-Tenn S-rc-ecies OBJECTIVES s s STRATEGY LEAD .. ... PRIG DY ALDABRA DI EFFORT 2. Make strategic investments in City SS-SS J. J infrastructure. .. . . , . ,. ❑9. Consider a levy.:or sales tax for city 3 $$$x., affordable housing * * J J 25. Explore "Right to Return" policies for City3 {kSS promoting home ownership. 30. Consider the strategic acquisition of any existing multifamily:housing . . 35. Provide customized housing assistance through a Housing Navigator Partner ., . ., 3 r$$$$ ••• J ,/ J program. 37. Put in place community CPty .., .... 3 t ,/ J: ...J.... benefits/development agreements. - - June 2021 86 106 City ot Yakima Housing Action Plan Monitoring I • I• In order to monitor the results of HAP actions in comparison to the 2040 Comp Plan goal of constructing an average of 295 dwelling units/year, the city intends to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes on a regular basis. Performance monitoring will show whether HAP actions are achieving the desired results. This will allow the city to be flexible and agile to any refinements to actions that may be necessary and focus limited public dollars on actions that are most effective. Key indicators based on results from the Housing Needs Assessment will be used to monitor performance. Key Inc'cc-ors The following key indicators were selected to reflect the overall desired outcomes of this Housing Action Plan. These indicators reflect success over the long-term, rather than easy wins in the one- to two-year timeframe. Indicators are intended to capture important pieces of the larger puzzle that is a healthy, equitable housing market. Importantly, an adjustment in strategy is needed if Yakima is not making progress with these indicators. • Key Indicator 1: Annual production rate of ADU, duplex, townhome, smaller multifamily (49 units or less), and multifamily units overall. This reflects The goal of increasing the mix of housing choices in Yakima. • Key Indicator 2: Monitor and track the units built for seniors. This reflects The goal of increasing housing affordable to The city's older residents. • Key Indicator 3: Cost-burden of residents and the share of residents with low- and moderate-incomes in the city. This reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to the city's low-and moderate-income residents. June 2021 87 107 i A // Community Engagement 89 B // Housing Needs Assessment. 96 C // Policy and Regulatory Review 144 D // Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites. 184 E // Displacement Risk Analysis 185 June 2C21 88 108 // Encccemen- Activi'es Community engagement activities consisted of targeted stakeholder engagement and broad public engagement. Targeted stakeholder engagement included the following groups: • Technical Advisory Committee. The City created a committee of residents and community stakeholders involved in affordable and market rate housing development, community services, and education to serve as a sounding board for fine HAP development. The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) met three times from August 2020 through February 2021 to discuss and advise on the HAP. • Community Integration Committee. The City's Community Integration Committee (GIG) was established in 2017 to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement, diversify The city government and workforce, provide additional review of policies, ordinances, and resolutions if requested, and give a voice to all Yakima residents. The project team conducted interviews of CC members by email and by phone, presented at CC meetings, and supported CIC members in hosting roundtables in a box (see broad public engagement below). • Interviews with Real Estate Community. The project team interviewed local real estate professionals to gather input on marker feasibility of HAP strategies and identify barriers to housing development. • Yakima City Council. The project team interviewed city councilmembers to learn about their priorities and concerns for the HAP and to gather Their insight on Yakima's housing needs. Broad public engagement included: • Community survey. The project team hosted an online survey to engage residents across the city and gather feedback on residents' housing needs and priorities. The survey was open during summer and fall of 2020, and again during early 2021, and was available in English and Spanish. The project team publicized the survey in El Sol de Yakima to gather additional Spanish-language respondents. In total, 531 individuals responded, including 138 in Spanish. • Roundtable in a box. The project team provided materials and support for members of the Community Integration Committee, City of Yakima staff, and other locally based partners to lead small virtual group discussions and act as "trusted liaisons to reach key audiences. :1 I Document Appendices I 89 109 m Legislative ll The public had two opportunities to engage inthe legislative process. /\ Council study session in December 20l9 was on introduction and public kickoff to project, during which members of the public provided comment onthe proposed HAP approach. In202l , 8ERK will present o draft HAP to the planning commission followed hyo hearing and possible adoption by City Council. <, -- , -, ^ �(�V - i{�[�(� (���(�� -� ��� n(�s / _ � ~ ~ This sectionc]escri[/es the major themes, concerns and other ideas that were raised during the public engagement process. T1e[e is Deed for lOU5iDg-[e|Q1ec sUUP0[-iVe O[OU[Q0s. m Housing needs extend beyond housing production and include needs for housing- related support. These needs vary across groups such os older residents, residents with disabilities, people of color, people who don't speak English very welland forro\vorken. \fU<e|lOder Findings The TAC, CIC, and City Councilmembers contributed several ideas to improve availability of housing in Yakima, including: m The need for o proactive approach fo address the shortage ofhousing. m The need for o mix of housing types os preferences and needs vary across the population. m The need for intergeneration housing as an important part of the housing model in Yokjrno� m The need fo promote programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers. Many stakeholders referenced the need for programs that can help renters become homeowners in the neighborhoods in which they currently live. m The need to address impacts of institutional racism and income inequality, including geographic segregation hysocioeconornios and race. m The need to incorporate anti-displacement policies and mixed-income communities so that new development does not displace current residents. m The need for more supportive transitional housing, including housing for recovery and comprehensive mental health supports. - U - ���| m^��/Dnco*oof I Appendices 90 11^ Specific strategies that were recommended include: m Tiny Homes that could help serve homeless population and small householdcTiny homes are small dwelling units ono foundation o| ono carriage with wheels with between l50-40O square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable co/npo/ec] with traditional site-built homes. They may [/e located on their own lot, serve oson accessory dvveUingunit, orbe located ino village arrangement ino manufactured home orRVpark. m Addressing the repair of mobile home parks that are dilapidated. m Addressing opportunities for farmwcrker housing: COVID has resulted in loss of about 30% of Farmworker inventory. Farmworker wages have grown enough that many farmworkers can't quality for low-income housing and can't afford market-rate housing. There is potential for seasonally based coordination of seasonal farmworker housing and winter sever-weather shelter for people experiencing homelessness. (—O01OlUl \UrVeV [iUr|iD{ls SurveyrespondenhrepresentedfhefoUovingderoogrophiosondhoosingpreferencec m Respondent Ethnicity: The ethnic background of respondents was fairly reflective of the ethnicity and race of the city osowhole. About half were White and the other half persons of color, primarily Hisponio/oorLofinx/o. m Live/Work in Yakima: Over three-fourths (83%) of respondents indicated they live in Yakima and about two-thirds l657o) work inYakima. More than half (55%) live and work in Yakima. Respondents were found across all the Council Districts. m Personal Housing Afford a bility/Sec urit y: About one-fourth of respondents indicated they are struggling with housing affordability. lJ7oindicated the C()V0-l9 pandemic impacted their housing. m Tenure and Occupancy: Half of respondents own o home. Almost 607oreported having Jo/ more residents in their home and just under 407c had l-2persons. m Housing Types They Live In: Over 6O76 live ino single-family home. About47c did not have permanent housing. m Housing Types Desired: Single-family homes are desired by most respondents. Manufactured and mobile homes, apartments, c]uplexes, and friplexcswc/e the next most desired housing types. Other housing styles that can offer affordable ownership were also desired including fownhonnes and condominiums. Housing preferences: Respondents showed a preference for a diverse range of - U - ���| m^��/Dnco*oof I Appendices 91 111 detached ownership units, illustrated in Exhibit 6. Exhibit 6. Current and Desired Housing Types Survey question: -What type of housing do you currently Rye in?" (n = 508) \?2, rc ,„”/ Single-Family Home 62% Apartment 15 Manufactured or Mobile Home Duplex or Triplex Townhouse Condominium I ok ADU„ Mother-in-Law Unit, or Backyard Cottage 5% iiiu 4clk I do not currently have permanent housing. N/A ok Other 2% Current Housing Type Desired Housing Type(s) Source: Pic:/k Housing Challenges: The survey asked respondents, Have you faced challenges in finding safe and affordable housing that meets your needs? Please tell us your story." Of the 275 responses, the following themes were most common: ® Affordability ® Lack of availability s Safety s Housing quality The survey also asked respondents: -Are there any issues or challenges that impact quality of life in your neighborhood? Please share them here." The 287 respondents most frequently referenced the following concerns: s Crime :1 I Document I Appendices I 92 1 12 ▪ Safety • Gangs • Homelessness • Affordability • Drugs Community Needs: Survey respondents most commonly identified more affordable ownership housing options as a housing option in greatest need in Yakima, as shown in Exhibit 7. Exhibit 7. Community Housing Needs: All Survey Responses Survey question: What kind of housing options do you think are in greatest need in your community? (check all that apply)" (n = 513) ,Vt;De a ffor cb be ownership housing options, • 75% Affordable housing for seniors 48% More flexibility for single-family homeowners to Wild 38% 'acce.ssory dwelling units such as Lackyard cottages. A portments and other s,rri alter rental housing 426`..4 Short-term housing for migrant workers, 29% Larger homes for housing large or extended fam Hies. 111111.11111111111M Other 14% SO UFOs: EERK. 2021 Disaggregating by ethnicity as shown in Exhibit 8, Hispanic/o or Latinx/o residents show higher preference for ownership housing, short-term housing for migrant workers and larger homes. HAP strategies will need to address this preference to respond to diverse needs in the community. :111 Document Appendices 93 113 Exhibit 8. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by White and Hispanic/o or Latinx/o Race or Ethnicity 100% 90% 83% so% 730, 70% 60% 50% 40% 37% 20% 54% 43% ii 4483 S% 4383 I I II 34% 1118% 108% More affordable Affordable housing for More fiexibtlity for Apartments and other Short-term housing for Larger homes for housing ownership housing seniors. single-family homeowners smaller rental housing, migrant worters, lorge or extended options. to bud"occessory families. dwelling units-such as backyard cottages. •Hispan(clo or Latinx/o(n=101) "'White(n= 1 18) (LiOi„)r ce: BERK, 2020, As shown in Exhibit 9, respondents across the income spectrum said more affordable ownership options is a key need. Respondents with lower incomes and higher income households also identified affordable housing for seniors, and apartments and other rental housing, as key needs. Exhibit 9. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Income Bracket 100% 90% 80% 70% liiiLEH 60% =is 40% iss ....... =is 30% sts sts HEE liiiHEE 20% =is iss. issis 10% iiilLEL I I LEL I =is: d ........ 0% liii More affordable Affordable housing for More flexibility for Apartments and other Short-term housing for Larger homes for housing ownership housing seniors, single-family smaller rental housing. migrant workers, large or extended options. homeowners to build fanii lies. "accessory dwelling units" such as backyard cottages. Less than S10,000(n=5) $10,000-$25,000 in=25) •$25,000-$50,000(n=43) •$50,000-$75,000(n=28) •$75,000-$100,000(n=9) •$100,000+(n=16) Source: BERK: 2020 :111 Document Appendices 94 114 Exhibit 10 shows that respondents with a range of family sizes said more affordable ownership options is a key need. Respondents with larger household sizes referenced the need for larger units and flexibility for backyard cottages. Respondents with smaller household sizes referenced the need for affordable housing for seniors and for smaller rental housing. Exhibit 10. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size 00 90'a 70,f 60`6 f �.: 3 More,affordable Affendesble h.,us ng fen More flexibilrb for Apornseass and ouser SJerr+e s ng fa ter h.n as for nwsing merMp;ousng sunk 6 Ingle-family _ ller ream',Jcuansi nJuJ a rr srkers. ended options o ro hand a famines. ors:absorb dwelling um s suf..J as backyard craages. bur on(n =351 2 people(r =Al; ..3 people(n=446 4 rouble(n =40, 06 pc_ple(s( 06 pearl..in=16) ® people in=J`.. +8 peuple(n = lI Document Appendices 195 115 B // Housing Needs Assessment See the document here on the project website: https://www.yakimawa.ciov/services/plannind/files/2020/05/Yakima-FINA- 2020 0422.pdf anim Al liii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III . . . 111 NISEI " II II nil 11111 II 1 • ALP , &go yoctiiiti• ja Nees3 C66 e/36fitellt April 22, 2020 Prepared by BERK Consulting II BERK :111 Document Appendices 96 116 T 1 t is Introduction.............................................................................................................................98 Summary of Key Findings.. .99 Housing Terminology......................... ....................... ....................... CommunityProfile 104 Population 105 Households 112 Residents with Special Housing Needs 119 Workforce Profile 124 Countywide Employment 124 Citywide Employment Trends 124 Employment Projections 125 Housing Inventory. .127 Housing Supply Characteristics 127 Home Ownership 131 Rental Housing 134 Housing Production 136 Subsidized Housing 137 GapAnalysis 139 Appendix: Table of Exhibits. .142 June 2021 97 117 The City of Yakima is developing a Housing Action Plan. This plan will identify a set o f actions the city can take to support and encourage housing production that meets local housing needs. The purpose of this plan is to increase housing choice and affordability for Yakima residents and workers of all income levels. This Housing Needs Assessment will help inform and guide the selection of actions to include in the Housing Action Plan. It provides an evaluation of current housing supply and housing needs in Yakima, across the full spectrum of household types and income levels, by answering the following kinds of questions: • Who lives and works in Yakima and what are their socioeconomic characteristics? • What types of housing are available in Yakima? • Are there any groups of people who are not able to find housing that is safe, affordable, and meets their household needs? • How much housing, and what types of housing, are needed to meet current and future housing needs of Yakima residents? The data in this Needs Assessment will be synthesized with information gathered through engagement with stakeholders and residents during the formation of the Housing Action Plan. :1 'Document Appendices I 98 118 • There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes for sale are extremely low -below 1%. When vacancy rates are so low, people looking for new homes have fewer options, increasing competition for the limited supply of units available. This drives up both rents and housing prices. • Housing prices are rising faster than incomes. The median home value in Yakima has risen by 38% between 2010 to 2019. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective buyers. • Many households in Yakima are cost burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all households in Yakima were cost burdened. Nearly 50% of renter households were cost-burdened, about a quarter of all homeowners. Cost-burdened households spend a large portion (over 30%) of their available income on housing costs. This leaves less money available for other vital needs like food, transportation, clothing, and education. With rising housing costs, the number of cost-burdened households has almost certainly increased during the past few years. • Needs are greatest among low-income households. About three fourths of all households with incomes below 50% of the county median family income are cost burdened. Nearly half of these households are severely cost burdened, meaning they spend over 50% of their income on housing costs. While there are low-income households living in neighborhoods across the city, the greatest concentration of low-income households is in eastern Yakima, and many of these households are of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. • Low-wage workers are traveling long distances to jobs in Yakima. Over 7,000 low- wage workers commute more than 50 miles from their home to a workplace in Yakima. That is nearly a quarter of all low-wage workers in the city. Many of these workers may be living outside of Yakima due housing affordability, or inability to find suitable housing in the city. • There is considerable need among elderly residents. There are 5,400 elderly persons living alone in Yakima. 42% of these residents are cost burdened and 22% are severely cost burdened. Yet there are only 926 units with federal subsidies set aside for elderly and disabled persons. • Yakima needs more housing diversity. Over 65% of all housing in City of Yakima are single-family homes. Not all households require, or can afford, that much space. For example, about 30% of all households in Yakima are singles living alone. Yet only 5% :1 'Document Summary of Key Findings I 99 119 of housing units in Yakima are studios and only 13% have just one bedroom. Increasing the diversity of housing options available will increase housing supply and provide more choices for residents seeking more affordable housing that meets their current needs. • Countywide there is a shortage of seasonal farmworker housing. There are approximately 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker housing provided throughout the county, despite over 45,000 seasonal jobs available in the busiest summer months2 Identifying safe and sanitary housing facilities for seasonal workers is an important gap to address in Yakima County. !Ns nurrer nacAy Yilahtly overes:InacAte the e:leril of :he clap gh.en that workers may no:a muillpie jots :1 I Document Summdry of Key Findings I MD 120 I • I• This guidebook uses some terminology, acronyms, or data sources that may be unfamiliar. Here are some definitions. Affordable Housing The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if the household is spending no more than 30 percent of its income on housing costs. A healthy housing market includes a variety of housing types that are affordable to a range of different household income levels. However, the term "affordable housing" is often used to describe income-restricted housing available only to qualifying low-income households. Income-restricted housing can be located in public, nonprofit, or for-profit housing developments. If can also include households using vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing (see "Vouchers- below for more details). American Communi-y Survey (ACS) This is an ongoing nationwide survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. If designed to provide communities with current data about how they are changing. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. We use data from the ACS throughout this needs assessment. Area Median Income (AMU This is a term that commonly refers to the area-wide median family income calculation provided by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for a county or metropolitan region.2' Income limits to qualify for affordable housing are often set relative to AMI. In this report, unless otherwise indicated, AM I refers to the HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI). Cos- Burden When a household pays more than 30 percent of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are -cost-burdened." When a household pays more than 50 23 NOTF,inOt HA'? ;C:InCtirnr- rnicr;to HUD Area: Medan Famft, :n-cm(' us 1,, I F cmdv :ncomc See https:/; /NA: Lhudu ser.now portal/data 5et5;11.html :1 I Document Housing Terminology I 101 121 percent of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "severely cost- burdened: Cost-burdened households have less money available for other essentials, like food, clothing, transportation, and medical care. Household A household is a group of people living within the same housing unit's The people can be related, such as family. A person living alone in a housing unit or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit, is also counted as a household. Group quarters population, such as those living in a college dormitory, military barrack, or nursing home, are not considered to be living in households. Househo d Income The census defines household income as the sum of the income of all people 15 years and older living together in a household. ncome-Res-ric-ed Housing This term refers to housing units that are only available to households with incomes at or below a set income limit and are offered for rent or sale at a below-market rates. Some income-restricted rental housing is owned by a city or housing authority, while others may be privately owned. In the latter case the owners typically receive a subsidy in the form of a tax credit or property tax exemption. As a condition of their subsidy, these owners must offer a set percentage of all units as income-restricted and affordable to household at a designated income level. Low-Income Households that are designated as low-income may qualify for income-subsidized housing units. HUD categorizes families as low-income, very low-income, or extremely low-income relative to HUD area median family incomes (HAMFI), with consideration for family size (Exhibit 11). Hu:: dirip to units'ridd considers an person:, Dv;no;n an occu:::);c:;c::: hou3V9 un:t To be 0 singe household:, So. Cens, :,estimates of acc apied aoasaa nail's and non:eholds mould aa aqua/a:ant IDocument Housing Terminology I 102 122 Exhibit 11, HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income NAMED Income Category Household Income Extremely Low-Income 30%of HAMFI or less Very Low-income 50%of HAMFI or less Low-Income 80%of HAMFI or less '" RrFk 9090 Median Family Income (MFI) The median income of all family households in an area. Family households are those that have two or more members who are related. Median income of non-family households is typically lower than for family households, as family households are more lily to have more than one income-earner. Analyses of housing affordability typically group all households by income level relative to HUD area median family income (HAMFI), which is calculated for the county or metropolitan region. Vouchers (Tenan--oosed and Projec--based) HUD provides housing vouchers to qualifying low-income households. These are typically distributed by local housing authorities. Vouchers can be genant-basedff meaning the household can use the vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing in the location of their choice. Or they can be "project-based-, meaning they are assigned to a specific building.° Universe Design Universal design is "the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, or ability".2t When integrated into the built environment, universal design principles ensure that residents who are aging or who have a disability are not blocked from accessing housing and services. See https://%/w\Lhud.gov/prociram offices/public Indian housing/programs/hey/tenantand blips:// thud.gov/program offices/public Indian housing/programs/hey/project 17,r mc,rr http://universaldesionie/What-is-Universal-Design/ :1 I Document Housing Terminology I 103 123 Community Profile Located in central Washington, on the banks of the Yakima River, Yakima is the largest city in Yakima County. The cities of Selah and Union Gap lie immediately to the north and south of Yakima. In addition, the unincorporated suburban areas of \Nest Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Yakima is comprised of numerous neighborhoods. Older neighborhoods cover the east side of the City, from the Yakima River to approximately 16m Avenue. This area includes the original City and the growth occurring prior to World War IL This area also contains some of the more architecturally-significant, historical neighborhoods in the City, including portions of Northeast and Southeast Yakima. Growth in Yakima has been largely westward from Downtown, despite a limited east-west street network and pedestrian-oriented infrastructure. Newer housing in the west provides residents with fewer opportunities to walk to destinations or amenities. Coupled with the long distance from employment centers in the east, this creates greater dependence on cars to access jobs, services and amenities. Exhibit 12. 4th Street from a 1940s Postcard ll:3 1 1 i * ,- .,...; .,..1 :;.?-.:- ii.6., •-;;;Fori oyr . „..,„ „„ 4•1•111, .4, ,7:fir,re,„,,er,14 Eir'.: ' ' ' " -.. 1- 1•1 a • e''•;S- I •'I.1. ar- * .7.';11r-' ,2 ''- i. _.. -. . . a' ..4.4.0.*.ne-4±,-0 -.* -— i.t• • . ••• 1.1 I Cr-iiir-ii, -DLyiLn, 2023 :411Document 1 Community Profile I 104 124 Exhibit 13. East Yakima Avenue from a 1900s Postcard * " a • • k yt: • = „t.t.tem;,,r • w**Arrow, ' ,41,1 • *1 24 j**4* ** 4 * or ki ir • , I I "" „r- to',L ro, 222 Popu a-ion During the last 10 years, Yakima County had an annual average population growth rate of about 0.6%, which was slower than Washington's 1 .2% growth rate. Yakima County's population was estimated at 251,466 in 2018, up 3.4% from the 243,240 county residents in 2010. During the same period, Washington's state's population grew by 12.1%, nearly three times faster. The City of Yakima has grown since 2010, with a current estimated population of 94,440 residents. The city is expected to continue growing and is projected to be home to 110,387 people by 2040, as shown in Exhibit 14. This would add 15,947 new persons between now and 2040, or about 760 new residents per year. The city has grown slower than the county as a whole, especially between 2015 and 2018, as shown in Exhibit 15. :11Document Community Profile I 105 125 Exhibit 14. Historical and Projected Population in City of Yakima, 2000-2040 120,000 110,387 4,440 I COI 91,196 ao,cco oQcOO Yakima Avyia 4OcDo Yakima Pro.iectiml 20,00'0 m71' yi, 0 C> o 0 0 Source: Al (.2)j-9299: oj- Hancid 2019: yokimc Counly Harming. 2020: BLP2r.:Consullinch 2020. Exhibit 15. Population Growth Rates in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 2010-2018 1,5% 111111,1 55555555, .0/6 1.3% 1111111111111111111 11111111 sssssss, 535553535355 555535535351 553553535355 .35353535353551 535553535355 555535535351 553553535355 .35353535353551 535553535355 555535535351 553553535355 .35353535353551 6%55553535355 555535535351 553553535355 .35353535353551 05050505 5500000 55050055 50050505 0.45,0 45555555 555555555 55555555 II0.3% 151111151 11111511511 11151115•1 BEREMBE ninel 055555505 8505555555 8555555550 11111 11111111 2010.2014 2015-2018 2010-2014 2015-2018 2010.2014 2015-2018 2010-2014 2015-2018 2010-2014 2015-2018 Ya kimo Kennewick Richland Walla Wolin Yu kima County SOUrCe: WA% (Dj'j'k:'e oj- Hflancid Pylanagernenl, 2019: yokimc Counly Harming. 2020: BLP.19.Consullinch 2020. :111Document I Community Profile 106 126 Age of Population Compared to Washington State, the City of Yakima has a slightly larger proportion of younger residents and a slightly smaller proportion of residents between 50 and 69 years of age (22% vs. 25% statewide), as shown in Exhibit 16. Yakima has larger proportions of residents under 5 (8% vs. 6% statewide, and under 18 (28% vs. 22%). Exhibit 16. Age and Sex Distribution in City of Yakima and Yakima County, 2018 City of Ynkimn Wnshinofon 70 years and over 4% 62999999n9 4% aaeaaeaaeaaeaae.ae, 60 to 69 years 4% 2339970333341%, 5% 50 to 59 years 6% 6666666666-6-aa 40 to 49 years 6% 23333399703341%, 6% 30 to 39 years IlIllIllIllIllEEl 7% eieeeeemeeee41,3 7% 20 to 29 years 8% 27222222222222240,7 756 1 0 to 19 years 8% ke%a exemeeeeeeee33 66%777777702idie 0 to 9 years 8% 77777773334%1 6% Mole Male Female Female eo ei e. EEEEEE SE)1 EJI E EEiq EEEEEEE--E 2010 & 201 BERK2020 Demographic patterns across Yakima vary by geography, with areas east and west of 16m• Avenue showing markedly different patterns shown in Exhibit 17. Key geographic differences in age include: k The proportion of youth is higher on the east side. k There are fewer older residents (over 60) on the east side. :1 I Document Community Profile I 107 127 Exhibit 17. Population Under 18 Years Old and Over 65 Years Old in City of Yakima,2010 • O 4.y ` s r Under It Yeats Old , v 8't I > 40% Popu:abon 5 0 S " 65 Tears Old and Over e >40% Population 1 Race and Etnnici-y Yakima is ethnically diverse. the City of Yakima's Hispanic or Latinx population Comprises 46%of its population, compared to 12`% statewide. A Comparison of Yakima's Hispanic of La linx popu la[ion io compui able co n u nu pities is shown in Exhibit 18. The younger population in the City of Yakima is far more ethnically diverse than older age groups. [his is particularly apparent in student population. In 2019, 13,069 {80`7) of students at Yakima School District identified as Hispanic/Latino. A relatively small proportion in the City of Yakima identify as American Indian or Alaska Native. The city's American Indian/Native Alaskan population was 1 .2%: smaller than the 3.6%countyv3de and slightly higher than the 1 .1%statevxde. These percentages n likely reflects the nearby presence of the Yakama Nation in Yakima County. 11I I �08 128 Exhibit 18. Percentage of Population by Race and Ethnicity in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 20l0 and 20l0 lno0111; /1/� r% nl; 8% 91/1 81�x r% r% v0�lr nnu 23% %n% /n`rl, oo1u 5n�/, �om 70% 72% znu lo% «% znln zolo zn|n zolo zn|n 2018 znln 2018 znlo zoln zolo zn| n ,oum" ci,» xm"o^ia. ci/» v/ono Wolin city, nlm,bv,j ,i~, (hu"" ,i~, ,ouw" covw» vvo,ri"o*" w/"`u"vm" w/"`u"vm" p/n`uoom" p/n`woomo */n`wnvfoo 0 Non-Hispanic vumonly oni,po"ic./any race Non-Hispanic people ./color �cr��e �rxe�tu: Conxxxni|v ;o!ve, '5 \tEd|mute», 2O1O & 2O1,; BE'"[, 2O2O� HISTORY ()F THE iAT|N% COMMUNITY |NY4K|MACOUNTY The large number of Latirl and Hispanic residents in the city reflects historical patterns of migration and employment, tied mostly to the local agricultural industry. While the city has been u destination for migrant Hispanic fu/rnw/n/kco over the years, growing numbers nfHispanic farmworkers began permanently settling in the area from the I 930s to 1980s due to changes in the agricultural industry and immigration reforms. Yakima's population grew from roughly 3,200 residents in 1900, steadily increasing decade citter decade, to 45,500 in 1960. These population increases were in part due to the arrival of Mexican American farmworkers from Texas in the early 1930s. During World War 11, the U.S. government established the Bracero program, which allowed Mexican citizens to come to the Yakima Valley to work. While these workers did not settle in the Valley, this established the Yakima Valley as a destination for Latinx farmworkers. By the I 980s many former seasonal workers settled permanently in the Yakima Volley due to changes in immigration policies. By the 1980s, Yakima County's Hispanic population was 1 4.807o, and by the 2000 census, 3317o of the residents of Yakima County were o[ Hispanic or Latina origin, compared to7.517nin the state. Today, 4O.47. ufYakima County'spopo|ohonisMisponicneodyfourtinnesfhestofewideperoentogeofl2.37. Source: Hbtno'Unk.org Essay Y}87by Jim Kenhn*r Reflecting its ethnic diversity, Yakima has a high proportion of residents who speak a language other than English of home. 377oof thecity's total population speak o �m �| U - m��/Dncownn� � Cnn`*or�vprn'i|n � lOY 129 language other than English at home, compared to 19% statewide, shown in Exhibit 19. Spanish is the most common language among non-English speakers, with 35% of the city's total population speaking it. Exhibit 19. Languages Spoken at Home in City of Yakima and Washington State, 2010 and 2018 locvc, 20% 30% 40% 50%. 60°,0 70% SO% 90% 100% 2010 =111=1.1 0.2°1 201 8 I , 0.4% 0.7/o 7" 2010 1LELE 2018 9°o 4' English only It Spanish =Askm or Podfic Islander Indo-Europeort Other Source: Orlol;r2LIO CuMoo_ol ,/survey Si60 /%21r ESanaLI%<, 201 2 201 1321‘1K 2020 The distribution of race and ethnicity across Yakima varies by geography, with areas east and west of 16th Avenue showing markedly different patterns. The proportion of residents who are of Hispanic origin is greater on the east side, shown in Exhibit 20. :111Document Community Profile 110 130 Exhibit 20. Percent of Residents that Identify as Hispanic or Latino in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 PERCENT HISPANIC OR t \ LATINO 0 Yakima City Limits \ / ,..7.) 0 City Council Districts 7; ,..-.4: • Over 80% L 1., ) , ni 60%to 80% 40%to 60% ' L2'1,. 20%to 40% — ir Under 20% 1........,, . '.. NOTE Petc,*41 44 populota+II,t0.dent,eci , 8,Hrwrinic(A;cihm,2014 2018 ACS 5 yQur Ostimcres,census hock grou,gc.ograpL.y. °Ur .s. •''''..+ IP • 8 '' : ), . .........21 .. ... — -' ' IN ........... 2.. ..... . ..„. , .. . . . . . . ... .. .. 1, ', .::, :, :::, . . ' •••• •••• ••• • . .: ....,... .. . .,.. - .. . j dri ki . ,..„.2 0 o 2, 2 L—Th g4 111 Milos #;:$ C',—i‘r(*('''' /A tThar 1.7,0 ri C am rn; n it/Survey, 20'',4-2u I 8: BERK C c ns ultin A 2020 i ic us,cho ids :III Document 1 Community Prof He I 111 1 31 Households A household is a group of people who live in a single dwelling unit, such as a house or apartment. Households can have only one member or many members. They can be families or unrelated people living together. As of 2017, there are an estimated 33,466 households living in the City of Yakima. Understanding the makeup of the households in the city across age, race, and family sizes helps us to better understand and provide affordable housing to a diversity of household types and sizes. Household Size The average household size in Yakima is 2.71, slightly larger than the statewide average of 2.55. More than half (58%) of the city's residents live in single or two-member households. Exhibit 21 shows the breakdown of households by size by tenure. Exhibit 21. Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 10,082 9,462 &051 mom ReP4Or-C.e.`,Cvpied 5163 ,792 471 4.533 11111111111111110 Own .or:zup"*.d 3,411 —0—Tono .•• 2,650 2.486 3,442 2'171 2'1'82 1,485 T,232 1,233 7)7 56allialle 32• •• .person 2-pemco 3-per 4-person 5.person 6.persco 7+ person household hOUSehOld household household both ehold household household Source: Amercon Corl' nuny survey, 201 42018: :E3ER: cons: Household Income When summarizing housing affordability by income level, households are typically grouped relative to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Area Median Family Income (also known as "AMI"). The 2019 AMI for Yakima County is $56,078. Exhibit 22 lists 2018 median income in the city and county for families (households with two or more related persons) and non-families. Fa mily incomes are Eel I I Document Community Profile 112 132 typically higher than non-family incomes due to the higher earnings from potential dual income households. However, the gap between family and non-family incomes in Yakima is particularly wide, as the median non-family income in the city is a little over half (53.6%) of AMI. This likely reflects the presence of agricultural workers who may live in non-family arrangements and make relatively lower wages. Exhibit 22. Median Household Income by Household Type in City of Yakima, 2018 *City of Yakima $44,266 111111 meammeme %.,Ynkimo County szsgsgm SO 32 szsgsgm szsgsgm szsgsgm .............................................................................................. BE.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.E.BE szsgsgm szsgsgm II szsgszto szsgszto .......................................................... szsgszto szsgszto mff mffm mo wgzsgsta . .............„:.. ............ .......................................... . .:........................ .t............:............................ :.............':.. .,............................ ._...........— „......................................== BE.E.E.E.Bosto szsgszto mff mffm mo szsgszto .......................................................... ................................ ............................... szsgszto nowszsgs szsgszto nowszsgs szsgszto nowszsgs szsgszto nowszsgs szsgszto szsgszto szsgszto szsgszto / l'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1111'1 All Households Family Non-Family Source: American Community Survey, 201E1-2018; BERK Consipliine: 2020. Exhibit 23 breaks down renter- and owner-occupied households in the City of Yakima by income level relative to AMI. It shows a significant difference between owner- occupied and renter-occupied households, with owner households much more likely to have incomes above 100% AMI.27 Only 21% of renter households earn at or above AMI, compared to 54% of owner households. Close to a quarter of renter households have extremely low incomes, compared to 8% of owner households. 27 17.H2H, itfuEsiil yEhen grouping households by income level: HUD cdeRislis income Ihresholds based on household size to reflect Me ilislo1 tha1 the living exeenses iturr a isuerscrii household ore sigifilflaareliy less than mose of a forneri of four, These adjustmenes are based on HUD's published household Inc°r e Li its needed to qualify for income-restricted affordable housine that is set aside for households at a speced income level or below, Wc]shinqton State Housing Finance Cor i ssion publishes an eiRponded version of Ihese income Emits for each county in Washington Sifrute, :1111Document I Community Profile 0 113 133 Exhibit 23. Percentage of Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All Households 15% 15% wok IN 38% Exheznely Lew-income(5;3(ra MFI; Very Low-income(30-50c"0 MEI) Renter 24% 23% 22% 21% *Low-b1 cool e(50 RQs M F *Modetate Income(80-100°0 WI) Owner 8% 8% 1$14 54% Above Medan income(>1 00',.•MR) Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. Median household incomes vary by ethnicity as well, as shown in Exhibit 24. The median Hispanic or Latino household has an income about 15% lower than median white alone (not Hispanic/Latino) households. Exhibit 24. Median Household Income by Ethnicity in City of Yakima, 2018 $ $70,1 16 72,81 3 $52,879 $47,773 $44,266 $41,537 II II 111 All households White alone,not-hispanic/Latino Hispanic or Latino *Yakima city,Washington *Washington ,') r ;‘, A map showing strong disparities in income by neighborhood is provided in Exhibit 25. Document I Community Profile 114 134 Exhibit 25. Median Household Income by Census Tract in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD I INCOME . k!....7.1 )71,-,..._ —7 [3 Yakima City Limits c / Ej City Council Districts -,-: 1111 Over $100k ,, L. $75k to $100k ....... i Ei $50k to $75k$25k to $50k 4 - , Under $25k , , ] ..,:-.. . , ‘ N \\., , „ NOTE:Median I lotehold Income,2014-201 a , N‘ . . „ALS 5-year estimates,camas hs,ock group geography. 2 . .. . ,, . ................ gi rs- u ................... „...., . ................... ................... et ................... ,...rrrrrr, . ..............,....................... . ..............====== ...................................... . • . ....................................... ....,................ .. ....................................... • „„„„„„„„_„„„„„„. , ....................................... ...................,...............„„„„ .................,................. ....................................... """""""""""""""""". . .. ..........„....r..........................,........... ...........=_..........................,.....„ . „ „ • ........................................................ x===::::::::=="===„......... """."" . •.................. •• ..„=„=„. ............... . if:::::::-:::::::::,:::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::::::- ---------------------'''''------1-------------------- . ::.-------- --------------. ;, -------- ................. ............................... '""""' ....: ....................................."- ---------- -------- ---------------- , „ :".--_ .._______ . . ...........................................................................................................7 ------ . ' : ft ------------------ . „ • """""""""""""""""" ................... ...,.............................. ................ ••••••71T— I ................. .....:=..===.==:...„::: ............ ......................................._ . .======.:.................. . • .. , . ,........................................................ • •• • ==========© ............................................................................ EHEEEEFEHEE========. . , • • ••• "..rzrzrzrzrzrzrzrzz.f. 1. , .. • • .====z= .......... - . • =====""" ., .-- ..... , , . \ , I , , I : 0 °011iral 2 Miles L Source: American Community Survey, 2014-2.018; BERK COnSkiffing, 2020, 76111Document I Community Profile I 115 135 Cos--Burdened Houseiolds One of the best indicators of affordable housing needs is the number of households that are "cost-burdened" or spending too much of their income on housing. These households have limited resources left over to pay for other life necessities such as food, clothing, medical care, transportation, and education. They are also at higher risk of displacement when housing costs rise, or life circumstances change. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if it costs no more than 30% of a households income. Households paying more than 30% of their income for housing are cost-burdened, and households paying more than 50% are severely cost-burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all households in Yakima were cost burdened, as shown in Exhibit 26. Households with lower incomes are more likely to be cast-burdened. Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS Sveor estimates), 20 2-20 f(); BERK ConsuUThy. 2020. Exhibit 27 presents estimates of total households by income level and cost burden status. While there are cost burdened households across the income spectrum, severe cost burden is most prevalent among the lowest income groups. Slightly more than 3,000 households (6370) with extremely low incomes, roughly 1,500 (30%) households with very low incomes, and 600 (9%) households with low incomes are severely cost- burdened. :1 I Document I Community Profile I 11 6 136 Exhibit 26. Cost Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All Households 20%EHEEE 63% Above Median Income (>100% AMI) 55% 93% Moderate Income(80-100% AMI) ,;;, 11t°i::::::E 83% Low-Income(50-80% AMI) 3��ofp;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; 59% ............................................................................................ Very Low-Income(30-50% AMI) 3090 26% ..........................................:.::.............................................. Extremely Low-Income (530% AMI) 13% 13% aSeverely Cost-Burdened (>50%) ;;;Cost-Burdened (30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculated Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. Exhibit 27. Total Cost-Burdened Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 1 4,000 Total HH:12,845 1 2,000 10,000 8'Q00 Total HH:6,640 6,000 Total HH:4,985 Total HH:5,065 A,000 Total HH:3,495 ................................... 2,000 IMMEMS ................................... a Extremely Low- Very Low-Income (30-Low-Income(50-80% Moderate Income(80- Above Median Income(530% AMI) 50% AMI) AMI) 100% AMI) Income(>100% AMI) ■Severely Cost-Burdened (>50%) :::Cost-Burdened (30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculated Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. As shown in Exhibit 28, renters are more likely to be cost-burdened than owners, with nearly half of renter households (48%) cost-burdened, compared to a quarter (25%) among owner households. Renters are also more severely cost-burdened than owners, with 23% of renter households severely cost-burdened compared to 10% of owner households. 1 Document Community Profile 1117 137 Exhibit 28. Household Tenure by Cost Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All 16°/o 20% 63% Households $Severely Cost-Burdened *Cod-Burdened Renters 23% 28% 49% Not Cost Burdened Owners 10% 15% 75% Not Calculated Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 20i 2-201 6; BERK Consuiting, 2020. Renter households are most vulnerable to the impacts of rising housing cost. Exhibit 29 shows estimated counts of cost-burdened renter-occupied households by household type and income level. While there are households struggling with housing costs across the entire income spectrum, the greatest number are among household types with incomes below 50% of AMI. The greatest need is among small families (2-4 members) and non-family households, which are typically people living alone or with unrelated housemates. Exhibit 29. Cost-Burdened Renter Households by Household Type and Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 Extremely Very Moderate Above Median Low-Income Low-Income Low-Income Income Income All Cost-Burdened Household Type (530%AMI) (30-50%AMI) (50-80%AMI) (80-100%AMI) (>100%AMI) Renter Households Senior Family 25 85 65 25 65 265 Senior Living Alone 365 430 335 35 95 1,260 Large Family 535 350 180 4 0 1,069 Small Family 970 1,155 470 55 30 2,680 Other 880 820 320 49 0 2,069 Total 2,775 2,840 1,370 168 190 7,343 Household Type Description Elderly living alone A person age 62+ living alone Elderly family Two persons, either or both age 62 or older Small family Families with 2-4 members (excluding elderly families) Large family Families with 5 or more members Other Non-family, non-elderly households (includes those living alone or with housemates) Eel I I Document Community Profile 118 138 ,)[ Residen-s win Specia -ousing Needs Several groups may have special housing needs or supportive services, such as residents experiencing homelessness, residents with disabilities, and older residents. Given the city's proximity to a large seasonal agricultural workforce, farmworkers can also have special housing needs that differ from the general population. Residen-s Experiencing Homelessness According to the 2019 Yakima County Point-in-Time (PIT) Count, 636 individuals were experiencing homelessness countywide, with over half reporting having slept in an emergency shelter the prior night. A summary of the count results is shown in Exhibit 30. Most households surveyed in the 2019 PIT Count were actively seeking housing and 7 in ten households reported needing assistance to find housing. The top reasons cited as the cause of homelessness included economic, job loss, alcohol/substance use, and family crisis. However, there are often a combination of factors that contribute to housing insecurity and homelessness. Exhibit 31 ranks the reasons cited by survey respondents. Exhibit 30. Yakima County Homeless Point-in-Time Count Summary, 2019 2019 YAKIMA COUNTY PIT COUNT WHERE HOMELESS NEIGHBORS SLEPT THE NIGHT PRIOR TO THE COUNT TOTAL',I N(LUDI HEAD OE HOUSEHOLD,PART NER,NROUSE AND DEPENDEN Tc DATA FROM 539 SURVEYS 367 Considered Homeless by HUD definition(636) ........................... .............................. ........................... .............................. al Not considered Homeless by HUD definition(146) ........................... ........................... .............................. ............................ .............................. ............................ .............................. ............................ 94 115 42 36 37 60 22 11 Emergency Covered- Uncovered- Venicle fladequate Transitonal Hospital/J HotellMotel Wth Famiy1 Shelter outside outsde Stnictre Housing Friends Fcr 'Document Community Profile I 119 139 Exhibit 31. Top Reasons Cited as Cause of Homelessness, 2019 Yakima County PIT Count (Participants could select more than one reason) Number of Responses 1. Economic 178 2. Job Loss 177 3. Alcohol / Substance Use 174 4. Family Crisis 171 5. Lost Temporary Living Situation 134 6. Kicked Out / Left Home 108 7, Eviction 102 8. Domestic Violence 99 9, Physical / Mental Disability 97 10, Mental Illness 97 11.Illness / Health Related 92 12. Released from Jail 77 13-Personal Choice 68 14. Lacking Job Skills 63 1s, Medical Costs 34 16. Lack or Childcare 15 17.Language Barrier 13 18. Aged out of Foster Care 12 Suur A K C ) Yliir , 9C,9 Another source of information about families experiencing homelessness and housing insecurity is available from the Yakima School District. Each year the district surveys the families of all students regarding their housing situation. During the 201 7-2018 school year the district found that at least 621 students experienced housing instability. However, not all of these students meet the strict standards of homelessness in a PIT count. A summary of the living situation of these students is shown In Exhibit 32. the term "doubled-up" refers to students who are sleeping In a friend or family member's home temporarily. Exhibit 32. Students Experiencing Housing Instability in Yakima School District, 2017-18 School Year At least 621 students in Yakima experienced housing instabill • 44E1 wcic daybled-up • 53 stayed in hotels/motels • 101 stayed in shelters • 19 were unshelleied a u;111porumenl I Gornmunily Prcfllr; I 170 140 iiceirce: 1ff ei Office of iiiiiiirericifericierif of Pcbiic insIwolion, 20 I BEiCK Oonmiting, 2(:2(:. Yakima County's Five-Year Plan to End Homelessness (2018) identified the following population as needing specific attention with regards to homelessness are: • Individuals experiencing chronic homelessness; • Unaccompanied youth; • Veterans; • Families with children (including victims of domestic violence); and • Individuals over the age of 62. -ousellolds Exhibit 33 shows households in Yakima by disability status and income. While there are households with disabilities across fine entire income spectrum, the proportions decrease across income categories. The percentage of households with one or more members with any disability among households with extremely low incomes is dose to double the percentage among households with extremely high incomes. This is higher for ambulatory limitations, with 37% of total households with this disability belonging to The extremely low-income category compared to 1770in The moderate income or higher income category. Exhibit 33. Households by Disability Status and Income level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 Moderate Extremely Very Income or Total Households Disability Status Low-Income Low-Income Low-Income Higher with 1 or more (an household member) 1530%AMI) (30-50%AMI) (50-800/0 AMI) 1,800/0 AMI) housini •roblems Hearing or vision impairment 725 640 565 395 2,325 Ambulatory limitation 1,080 815 640 370 2,905 Cognitive limitation 675 850 305 340 2,170 Self-care or ind. living limitation 730 640 620 385 2,375 None of the above 2,370 2,450 2,130 1,480 8,430 HUD Area M, con Fornity income Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 20 2-2016; BERK ConsWting, 2020. Older Residents 13,432 residents in Yakima are age 65 or older, or about 14% of the population. Another LAIDocument Community Profile I 121 141 9,000 residents are age 55-64, indicating that the elderly population will likely grow significantly over the next 10 years. While older residents have a range of housing preferences, many need affordable, accessible housing in age-friendly neighborhoods with close links to healthcare and other supports. Some of these households in Yakima have the financial means to afford appropriate housing and services. Many others do not. Exhibit 34 shows the prevalence of cost burden among elderly households across income ranges. The greatest need is among elderly residents living alone with incomes below 30% AMI. Exhibit 34. Cost-Burdened Households by Household Type Income Level (Elderly households) in City of Yakima, 2020-2016 WrenletY VetT MtWont* AATIT*Median tow-Income LOW*InCarne tovArgoine Income Income All Cod lkWelled Thadah*Id T •$ S30%AMI) (30-50%AMI) (50-80%AlVli) ($0-100%AtAl) >100%Alvil Mposah*Id& Elderly Family 105 170 1.40 110 1.40 665 Elderly Living Alone 815 620 625 60 155 2,275 Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. :1 I Document Community Profile I 122 142 Parmwor<ers Yakima County is the biggest county in Washington for agriculture, measured both by number of employees and by number of farms. As of 2018, Yakima County is home to approximately 20,630 year-round agricultural jobs, and this number more than doubles during the peak months for seasonal employment, as shown in Exhibit 35. Agricultural workers have unique housing needs: year-round agricultural employees in this region are estimated to earn less than the median household income, $31,719 annually in wages, and will likely be looking for bottom-tier homes or rental units for their households. Seasonal workers who come from outside areas will need housing for shorter time periods, and may desire lower-cost, temporary options such as single- occupancy rooms or barracks-style accommodations. Because of these needs, seasonal worker housing is typically measured in beds, rather than housing units. Exhibit 35. Farmworker Jobs and Housing in Yakima County, 2018 Estimate Permanent, Covered 20,630 948 units Seasonal, Covered and Lowest Month: 2,434 4,637 beds H2A Highest Month:45,337 Total (Annual Range) 23,064-65,967 5,585 units or beds Source: \Aiashingtor! Slate. ErniooYmerd'Secmity Deparinw!t, 20Ic; Was Hnc.:3ton Slat& Financ& Committee, 2019; US Department of Labor. 2020- BERK. 2020. ES0 201:: AgrIcudurci Workforce Report, Lc-1=r MorKet oricl Economic Aoysf; Document I Community Profile I 123 143 • : Coun-ywice Emoloyment Yakima County had a total covered employment of 116,332 and average annual wage was $39,893 or 60.35 of the state average of $66,195. Agriculture was the largest provider of jobs and wages in the county in 2018, accounting for 28% of all jobs (32,320 jobs) and 22% of total covered wage income. While agriculture accounts for 28% of jobs in the county, it accounts for only 22% of wage income, reflecting the seasonal nature of its jobs. C'tywice Emoloymen- -rencs According to the Census, as of 2017 there were 40,482 jobs in the City of Yakima. During the past 15 years the city has gained about 8,370 jobs averaging about 1 .7% growth, or about 558 jobs per year.' Reflecting countywide employment, top sectors in the city include agriculture, health care, retail, and manufacturing. The City of Yakima's agricultural and manufacturing employers are diverse and include fruit packers, beef processors, and canneries. The City's jobs in the health sector reflects its role as a regional medical center, with a hospital and fine nearby Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences (in Terrace Heights). City jobs are concentrated in the Downtown in the eastern part of the city and near US-12 in the north. Almost a quarter (23%) of the jobs in Yakima pay less than $1,250 per month. A worker earning that wage alone would be severely cost burdened by the average one- bedroom rental cost of $666 per month. About one half (48%) of the jobs pay between $1 ,250 and $3,333 per month. Maybe of the workers in this wage category would also have trouble afford average cost rental units without working multiple jobs. To balance their household budgets, many lower-wage workers may move to areas farther away from the city in search of more affordable housing options. Exhibit 36 shows the home location of workers who are employed inside the City of Yakima. Some of these workers may desire to live in Yakima but currently live in surrounding areas. It is likely that some of these households living outside of Yakima are doing so to access more affordable housing or due to a lack of housing options that meet their needs. US. GensL) Center for rc 'C SI ude , "(0', :1 I Document Workforce Profile I 124 144 Investments in affordable and workforce housing within the city can ensure that The local workforce, especially lower-wage workers, can live within easy reach of employment centers and in The communities they serve. Emo oymen- proectons There is a great deal of uncertainty about future employment growth in Yakima due to The current stay-at-home order in Washington State that has resulted in widespread layoffs and unemployment. However, employment growth in recent history has been healthy: an average of 1 .7% growth per year between 2002 and 201721 According to the 2017 City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan, the city's growth target is to add 8,556 jobs between 2017 and 2040, or about 372 jobs per year (about 0.9% annual growth). This would represent a slowdown compared to recent years. Many lower-paying occupations, such as healthcare support (nursing/medical assistants or home health aides), retail, and sales, are expected to be in demand in the region in the next five years based on occupational projections and current supply- demand data provided by the Washington State Employment Security Department (ESD).'17 ESD also projects the fastest growth in Construction, Transportation Warehousing and Utilities, Education and Health Services, and Leisure and Hospitality. Th:s needs csesmet Was d=o{iaa ;(s April 2020 'aaal=„== Ca:=1=SaS?ylac:=01= °Cate(for E hitt r Re St ecil 2020; BERK 2020 itititereESD, Reit> See the Occupation in Etemeird rthiEp hitt Itittp5R;vevvv.p5dRAiciciov/laitiormarEptinfo;lpromtaitiouttantoccupration. :1 I Document I Workforce Profile I 125 145 Exhibit 36. Place of Residence for Workers in City of Yakima, 2017 -.. i. . . i WEN ATCH EE WSRES-- is-- -s EPHRATA' . . . -I SH.1',A,,„ . 57; I' QUINCY,. . --, ROSLYN . 1,...„ CLE REHM ' S i / 4. : i I , LA FS E11C 1 C1S'5 sry....q.' I.- .,,LELEENRAURO ½ 9EORGE H. L... . -- ' 1.. . . S K IRMA'S. S-2";r1SRIARORN Ws7TH 1 L.. . * a t .. ,OTHELLO ..." .,4., rif MATTAWA /„..„ : . v....„ CONNELL ., L, sw, , dELA H. MEAR-s,10XE E L. , HsisH r !, 7 r. 1 I H WESTI IOC Si L A NIRO/Issw___,A' ORANGER sLss,„ \*R1 ..-.1 PARR° (ti RICHLAND: :.,, ts1PROSSER 'AMON . ' AWLS' KENNEWICK 1.5t3 Home Location of Workers With Jobs I Located in the City of Yakima i IL . — 1 kt, b .4!, * More Workers 0 Yakima City Limits . Other Cities I County Boundaries I , .... , . .- Yakoma Reservation . „r ' Less Workers :111 o s 10 20 pi z: .4 Source: i„: S Censw' Bureau Center for Economic St.lciles, 2020: 15ES:K: COnSinlirg 2020 33*1111AM K* 1 Document 1 Workforce Profile I 126 1 46 Housing Inventory Housing Supply Characteristics Housing Units by Type There is a total of 36,120 housing units in Yakima, shown in Exhibit 37. Nearly two thirds (65%) of these units are single family homes and 15% are multifamily buildings of 5+ units. Another 12% of units are smaller multifamily structures such as duplex, triplex, and quadplex buildings. Close to 7% of the housing stock is in mobile homes, which likely reflects the supply for local seasonal housing for farmworkers. Exhibit 37. Housing Inventory by Type in City of Yakima, 2018 °iv 9% • • 7% HOUSING INVENTORY C12 pkY,61. (201 8) motifomA y 3 or 4 Uniq', * M 5to 19 1E1E11' *MuMarnily?20+Ur,es *Mob Hoe Source; Amerlcan Comm:Jr-lily Survey D.11'04, 201 420 r3E1-;;K Conulting, 2020; Unit Size Exhibit 38 shows Yakima housing stock by number of bedrooms and households by household size. It indicates a potential undersupply of both smaller units. 30% of households in Yakima have only one or two members, but only 18% of housing units are studios or 1-bedroom units. :111 Document I Housing Inventory 127 1 47 Exhibit 38. Percentage of Housing Unit Sizes Compared to Household (HH) Sizes in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 44 40% 3 7% C 3 5% 2 9% '#) 3 0% 0 2 5% 15 "a" 2 0% 41 0.J 5% 1 3% 1 3% 4J 1 0% 5% % 2% Studios 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Bedroom 4 Bedroom 5+ Bedroom bi -0 3 5% 3 0% 41 30% top 0 424, 20% 4.o 4% °/0. i 41" 1 5 WO 111 5°/o 0% 1 Person HH 2 Person HH 3 Person HH 4 Person HH 5+ Person HH Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016: BERK Consulting, 2020. Housing Condition According to the Yakima Comprehensive Plan, in 2014 only 10% of the city's residential structures had been built since 2000, and roughly half (50.1%) of units were built 40 or more years ago. These older units may represent lower quality housing stock that may require additional investments for upkeep. Older housing may also need modifications :111 Document I Housing Inventory 128 148 for access to ensure their suitability suitability for older residents, differneenstslyiin-ialitby improvement, led residents, and families. While some housingunits may need upkeep or an older housing stock may also represent much of the more affordablehousingy imaavkailaabile in the city. Exhibit 39 compares images of housing in southeast and northeast Exhibit 39. Images of Housing in Southeast(left) and Northeast (right) Yakima y. • :.;±:43Plfr 'et..x•.,,, :**....,ti:",.... •-' '...... * ."*41, ******1 E. . xe * ,..,,,,,,,,,,,,,,::::::iiiii. int,,,,,''...? 44"; ,f, '4,41 ...,:, fr. , Y " vaitagake. : ,,-;',:•, XIS .*.". .. . . ..2 wa , sk„, ,,:,,,,,,, .„.„,„:„. e. . lt_ - .,-,.... . - * • - 7 mg il r 1.4 $0,-:-., : - -* w --* - '"--. - '---"L" ******': •e4::::=1::**;:**.ittt.t.441:1:•••••• ... •,,., • __,,, .- • - ' I'•;-+ *4,• ===,*• ':**....4....,..\, • A ', ..,... .,4*)c - ,,,,.._r \c Plan. ,4.,1 -- :: Yak ma F. WI-1r 1 rh Exhibit 40 maps the geographical distribution of residential structure by year alokuiilEa, in It shows that much of the older housing stock in the city is located Preservation eastern m areas that are typically close to amenities, services, and and support for home maintenance can be important elements of housing affordability. I129 g°111Document 1 Housing Inventory 149 Exhibit 40. Residential Properties by Year Built in City of Yakima i n/ResRicritidi ProPcttio 't,1024,„. 27 at. ' by Year Built . - 1 SyC CI 11 CO . ef r,AX .„.„ tn. 75AW'l ...... ,, , ------ .V4 Source: C:i:v rt.:I:dr-cc; C:omprehensivcr: Plan, 0 1 30 :11111 Document Housing Inventory 150 Housing Tenure I n Yakima, just over half of housing units are owner-occupied (55%) while 45% are renter-occupied, as shown in Exhibit 41 . Exhibit 41. Household Tenure in City of Yakima, 2018 Renter 45% HOUSING TENURE A;Iri Home Ownership Homeownership is an important topic to consider since it is the main way most American families accumulate wealth. Homeownership in advantaged neighborhoods also provides access to higher performing school districts, amenities, and social capital that lead to better opportunities. There are a total of 18,081 owner-occupied housing units in Yakima. In terms of race, 85% of these units are occupied by whites, and in terms of ethnicity, 70% of these units are occupied by non-Hispanic white residents. Only 44% of Hispanic or Latino households own their homes. Exhibit 42 shows change in housing values over time in Yakima and Washington State. Homes in Yakima are relatively more affordable and housing costs in the city are not rising as rapidly as they are statewide. However, the median home value in Yakima has risen by 38% from 2010 to 2019. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective home buyers. Eel I I Document I Housing Inventory 131 151 Exhibit 42. Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income in City of Yakima, Yakima County, and Washington state, 2010-2020 80% 60°/0 40% 20% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 YID Homes,Yakima City A Homes, Washington Stote HUD AAFt, Yakima County ebruary 2020 income 2020, Homeownership Affordability Exhibit 43 estimates the income needed to afford an Average and "Bottom Tier"33 cost home in the City of Yakima, assuming the household has 20% down payment in savings available for the purchase. It also shows the percentage of all households at or above these income thresholds. Based on household income estimates from 2018, just under half of all households in Yakima have incomes high enough to afford an average cost home, and 62% had incomes high enough to afford a Bottom Tier home, as shown in Exhibit 44. Unfortunately, data about household savings is not available, so it is impossible to estimate how many of these households have the means to become homeowners. At current housing prices, a 20% down payment is equivalent to approximately one full year's income for households at these income thresholds, as shown in Exhibit 45. lei la A data on housing :dues for she Cis,/ of Yakima orouide average for all ownership homes as wee as aracilas creche ' ihrellam iierf iherhas illiehse in !he helium tiara or all uhils aura) and ' TniL; in Hid ni ill ergs cosiii ii-0111 Document I Housing Inventory 132 152 Exhibit 43. Home Ownership Affordability in City of Yakima, 2018-2020 Average 20% Down Annual Income Needed to Percentage of Households Home Price Payment Afford (Assuming access to at or Above this Income 20% Down Payment) Threshold (as of 2018) Average $244,763 $48,953 $52,027 45% Home (about 86%of AMI) Bottom-Tier $161,586 $32,31 7 $34,347 62% Home (about 57%of AMI) SourceWc Data 2(00 5,-/ear F-Ylimates 2014-201R' BERK, 2020, Exhibit 44. Percentage of All Households by Income Bracket in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 1 a 0% 15% so% 11% The cost of an average home is affordable for • $100,000 or higher just under half of in$75,000 - $99,999 60% Yakima households, $50,000 - $74,999 assuming the ability to $25,000 - $49,999 save for a down 40%• < $25,000 payment, and bottom tier homes are still unaffordable for 40% of 20% households. 26%. ocvu ouc'e: AC S S1901 5ea Estimates: 20 AMIA: 8.:JRK, :111Document I Housing Inventory 133 153 Exhibit 45. Home Ownership Costs for Average and Bottom-tier Homes in City of Yakima, February 2020 Average home Bottom tier home Monthly Mortgage Sales Price ($) $` 244,763 S 161,586 Assumed 20% down payment ($) $ 48953 $ 32,317- Mortgage amount ($) `a' 195,810 S 129,269 Interest rate 4% 4% Monthly payments over course of loan - 360 - 360 Monthly mortgage payment ($) $` 935 $ 617 Annual Housing Expenses Mortgage payments ($) $ 11,218 $ 7,406's Property tax ($) $ 3182 S 2,101 Insurance ($) $ 1,224 S 808 Annual costs ($) $ 15624 $ 10,314's Monthly costs ($) $ 1r302 $ 860 Monthly Income Needed $ 4,336 $ 2,862s Annual Income Needed $ 52,027 $ 34,347 cc i It+<,f,. ' ,::t' ff ,c .y Sri r 1Sr1 Ren-a -ous'na There are a total of 15,385 rental housing units in Yakima. In terms of race, 77% of these units are occupied by whites, and in terms of ethnicity, 54% of these units are occupied by non-Hispanic white residents. A larger proportion of Hispanic households are renters than owners. Rental Housing Coss and Vacancy Exhibit 46 shows average apartment rents as of 2019 as well as the household income level needed to afford the unit as a percentage of AMI. Households with incomes at 60% of Atv11 can still afford average market rents for 1- and 2-bedroom apartments. Those with lower incomes cannot. This helps to explain the fact that so many lower- income households in Yakima are cost-burdened. el Document Housing Inventory 1134 154 Exhibit 46, Yakima County* Rental Rates and Affordability, 2019 1-bedroom 2-bedroom Average Rental Rates $666 $818 % AMI Needed to Afford 60% 60% 1,1,)1C1 ,95 of )(51\ .Souce: ? o.shingto( Center for Rea kfie /01 , 'VSHIC /0:9, BERK 2020 Rents in Yakima are also rising at a faster rate than incomes. Between 2010 and 2019 average rents in multifamily buildings such as apartments have risen by about 40%. During the same period median family income increased by only 19%. One likely reason for the continued increase in rent is extremely low vacancy rates, as shown in Exhibit 47. Since 2015 the vacancy rate in multifamily buildings has stayed very low since 2015,while rents have continued to increase. The latest data shows Yakima's vacancy rate at less than 1%, whereas a healthy housing market has a vacancy rate of around 5%. When vacancy rates sink much below 5% there are fewer options on the market for households seeking to move. This increases competition for the limited supply of available units and results in upward pressure on market rents. :1 I Document Housing Inventory I 135 155 Exhibit 47. Yakima County Multifamily Rents and Vacancy, 2010-2019 $900 6% $819 $750 5% $600 4% $450 3% $300 2% 0,7Co'o $0 08/4 2010 2011 2012 •2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 9999 Average Monthly Rent 1,2481) Rental Vacancy Rate Source: cl—car' r Rea EStatetc)ccirrr )01 ) )(I ,") OCt05 5-Year Estimates - 1119 el 34 Housin Production Single-family has been developed at a fairly steady pace over the past several years in Yakima, as shown in Exhibit 48. However, 2018 and 2019 have shown a sharp increase in the number of multifamily housing units permitted for development. Overall, 1,590 units of new housing have been added in Yakima since 2015. Mobile home production has maintained steady throughout this period, likely reflective of the housing needs of farmworkers population who often need more flexible and temporary housing solutions (see discussion on page 122). I ) IDocument I Housing Inventory I 1 36 156 Exhibit 48. Count of Permitted Dwelling Units by Project Type inly of Yakima, 2015-2019 2015 72% U 158 2016 68% 157 2017 63;b 143 2018 513/4 °/. 280 2019 1C3% 720/i 2° 852 Single Family Duplex 3 & 4 .5 + E Mobile Home Scuroe 1,f\ of Yakfrna, 210210 EER.: 1010 Suos'cizec -ousinc Yakima has 686 units with federal subsidies. These units may be funded by one of several programs at HUD or the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These units typically have sub-market rents and are set aside for low- or moderate-income households and specific target populations. The breakdown of federally-subsidized units by target population is shown in Exhibit 49. :1 I Document Housing Inventory I 137 157 Exhibit 49. Housing Units with Federal Subsidies in City of Yakima, 2020 Target Population Units Available Family 220 Elderly 446 Target population unspecified 20 Total 686 99 B The Yakima Housing Authority also provides rental assistance to low-income families in the private rental market through the HUD Housing Choice Voucher Progran-TT- f Dusky s on vo......chcy ues L1O11flCOmmCJ. :1 I Document Housing Inventory I 138 158 • Housing Needed -o Accommodcre Future GrowTh The projected population growth for the city is 15,947 new persons by 2040, or an average annual population growth of 760 peopleci- Using a consistent household size of 2.7, this translates to an annual increase of 281 households. Assuming a healthy vacancy rate of 5%, this indicates the need for 295 housing units annually or 6,196 units by 2040. Between 2015 and 2018 the city permitted an average of 185 units per year, or only about 63% of the rate needed to keep up with growth projections. In 2019, the city permitted 852 units. While this recent boost in production is encouraging, it is unclear whether this is a trend that will continue in years to come, particularly given the threat of an economic recession associated with the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic. Additionally, it is not yet clear if these units will be provided at price points, sizes, and locations that directly address the greatest housing needs. Rental Marken A ttordabili-y Gabs Current average market rents for apartments in Yakima are affordable to households with incomes at 60% of AMI or above. Residents in households at lower income levels will have difficulty findings affordable housing under current market conditions, and rents are increasing faster than incomes. Using older data available from HUD, Exhibit 50 presents estimates for the number of renter households with incomes below Three different thresholds, as well as the number of rental housing units in Yakima that would be affordable to them. If shows a dear gap in the number of affordable units available for those with incomes below 30% AMI or 50% Afv11. However, there is a surplus of units affordable at the 80% AMI level. Significantly, this data reflects conditions from several years ago. Since then, it is likely there has been a reduction in the number of units affordable to the lower-income categories. -cpo+ c-c-;cc,<> based on 2040 Target n the Yo& Cor prcrk..mk.. :1 I Document Gap Anolysls I 139 159 Exhibit 50. Total Affordable and Available Rental Units in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 16,000 13,650 14,C00 12,000 10,450 10,000 8,000 7,040 5,540 6,000 3,625 4,000 1,595 2000 0 <30%AMl <5677/o ANN <80%AMI Number of Renter households •Number of affordable and available rental units AJA = 1,U:7; L\-e3 Median Family ncome Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016: BERK Consulting, 2020. Home Ownership Affordability Median value homes in Yakima are potentially affordable to households around 86% of AMI, assuming that a given household has access to a 20% down payment. Nearly half of the households in Yakima do not have incomes high enough to afford a home at this price, and many of these households likely do not have savings available for a 20% down payment ($52,027 for a median value home). Homes in the "Bottom Tier" (lower third) in terms of value are, on average, potentially affordable to households at 57% of AMI. However, many of these homes may be small or in poor conditions. As noted earlier, Hispanic and nonwhite households are underrepresented among homeowners. In many communities, nonwhite households often face additional barriers to homeownership such as overt discrimination or steering from real estate agents, bankers, or others in the housing market; challenges related to immigrations status, employment, or credit background; or lack of access to knowledge networks. This means that these households may be less likely to own, even if they meet the income thresholds necessary to own a home in Yakima. Farmworkers There are approximately 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker housing provided throughout the county, despite over 45,000 seasonal jobs available in the busiest °will Document Gap Analysis 140 160 summer months w Identifying safe and sanitary housing facilities for seasonal workers is an important gap to address in Yakima County. number may Yilghtly overes:Imate the e?:leril of :he clap gh.en that workers may no:amunpe jor;s. :1 I Document Gap Analysis I 141 161 I • I• I• Exhibit 1 . HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI) 103 Exhibit 2. 4th Street from a 1940s Postcard 104 Exhibit 3. East Yakima Avenue from a 1900s Postcard 105 Exhibit 4. Historical and Projected Population in City of Yakima, 2000-2040 106 Exhibit 5. Population Growth Rates in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 2010-2018 106 Exhibit 6. Age and Sex Distribution in City of Yakima and Yakima County, 2018 107 Exhibit 7. Population Under 18 Years OH and Over 65 Years Old in City of Yakima, 2010 108 Exhibit 8. Percentage of Population by Race and Ethnicity in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 2010 and 2018 109 Exhibit 9. Languages Spoken at Home in City of Yakima and Washington State, 2010 and 2018 110 Exhibit 10. Percent of Residents that Identify as Hispanic or Latino in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 111 Exhibit 11 . Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 11 Exhibit 12. Median Household Income by Household Type in City of Yakima, 2018 113 Exhibit 13. Percentage of Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 114 Exhibit 14. Median Household Income by Ethnicity in City of Yakima, 2018 114 Exhibit 15. Median Household Income by Census Tract in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 115 Exhibit 16. Cost Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 117 Exhibit 17. Total Cost-Burdened Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 117 Exhibit 18. Household Tenure by Cost Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 118 Exhibit 19. Cost-Burdened Renter Households by Household Type and Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 118 Exhibit 20. Yakima County Homeless Point-in-Time Count Summary, 2019 119 Exhibit 21 . Top Reasons CHed as Cause of Homelessness, 2019 Yakima County PIT Count (Participants could select more than one reason) 120 Exhibit 22. Students Experiencing Housing Instability in Yakima School District 2017- 18 School Year 120 Exhibit 23. Households by Disability Status and Income Level in City of Yakima, :1 'Document Appendix Table of Exhibits I 142 162 2012-2016 121 Exhibit 24. Cost-Burdened Households by Household Type Income Level (Elderly households) in City of Yakima, 2020-2016 122 Exhibit 25. Farmworker Jobs and Housing in Yakima County, 2018 Estimate 123 Exhibit 26. Place of Residence for Workers in City of Yakima, 2017 126 Exhibit 27. Housing Inventory by Type in City of Yakima, 2018 127 Exhibit 28. Percentage of Housing Unit Sizes Compared to Household (HH) Sizes in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 128 Exhibit 29. Images of Housing in Southeast (left) and Northeast (right) Yakima 129 Exhibit 30. Residential Properties by Year Built in City of Yakima 130 Exhibit 31 . Household Tenure in City of Yakima, 2018 131 Exhibit 32. Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income in City of Yakima, Yakima County, and Washington state, 2010-2020 12 Exhibit 33. Home Ownership Affordability in City of Yakima, 2018-2020 133 Exhibit 34. Percentage of All Households by Income Bracket in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 133 Exhibit 35. Home Ownership Costs for Average and Bottom-tier Homes in City of Yakima, February 2020 134 Exhibit 36. Yakima County* Rental Rates and Affordability, 2019 135 Exhibit 37. Yakima County Multifamily Rents and Vacancy, 2010-2019 136 Exhibit 38. Count of Permitted Dwelling Units by Project Type in City of Yakima, 2015-2019 137 Exhibit 39. Housing Units with Federal Subsidies in City of Yakima, 2020 138 Exhibit 40. Total Affordable and Available Rental Units in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 140 :1 'Document AppendIxt Table of Exhibits I 143 163 HP,hcy - Introcucion one Purpose The purpose of this policy framework evaluation is to review and evaluate the current City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan Housing Element to determine the City's progress and success in attaining planned housing types and units, achievement of goals and policies, and implementation of the schedule of programs and actions. (RCW 36.70A.600 (2)(e)) This evaluation will inform potential strategies in the future Housing Action Plan. In addition to reviewing the Housing Element, this document reviews other related Comprehensive Plan Elements, particularly Land Use. As well, regulatory incentives and barriers are considered. The evaluation is organized as follows: z Introduction z Developing the HAP z Objectives and Strategies z Implementation z Monitoring z References z Appendices :1 I Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 144 164 Growth Target Evaluation Population Targets and Growth The County has distributed population in consultation with cities. The City of Yakima's 2040 population target is 110,387. (Yakima County, 2017) (City of Yakima, 2017) Yakima's 2020 population is 95,490. See Exhibit 51 . Since 2010 the City has added 4,294 residents. Since the City's adoption of its 2017 Comprehensive Plan, the city has added 1,590 residents. In the last 3 years the City's annual average new residents is 530, a greater annual amount compared to 2010-2017 at 386 persons per year. To achieve its growth target, the city will need to add about 745 persons per year over the next 20 years. See Exhibit 52. Exhibit 51. Population Change 2010-2040 120,o(x) 110,397 1000(X) 91,196 93,220 93,900 __,„„/5„49/1„ 000 4,0000 20,000 0 2010 2015 2017 2020 2040 Population Target :4, ,,' ima )( V ) Exhibit 52. Progress on Comprehensive Plan Population Targets 2010-2017 2017- 2020- 2020 2040 New Population 2,704 1,590 14,897 ,\( '( rk- OHM, '}`; ) :ill Document I Appendix:Table of Exhibits 145 165 The average household size in Yakima is 2.71.37 If applying a 2.7 household size to the remaining population target, about 5,517 dwelling units would be needed between 2020 and 2040. Lana Capacity Exhibit 53 identifies council districts around which land capacity information has been developed. Based on a land capacity analysis, the City has more than twice the housing capacity needed -14,500 dwelling unit capacity versus a need of about 5,500 dwellings. About 38% of the capacity is for single-family dwellings, about 16% is for multiplexes and townhouses, and 46% is for dwellings in multifamily and mixed-use districts. Most of the capacity is in the western part of the city. See Exhibit 54. Exhibit 53. City of Yakima Council Districts : - YAKIMA 2o4.0 COMPREHENSIVE ,.. PIAN UPDATE . . Yflyna ex.uncil MY:acts '7 n.7CM..7.,1"- . ... .. . . i.FE4..4; ml,ii4 ComIcyi 0.1n.t 1 'a\—'''''',.)vi‘ 5 -- V IntnitigtTh.."Arierit -,. 'kr..., ... . .... . ... ............... ......... ............... . , ...................................... .. v EEEEEEEEEEEEEnEEHEE ...., y — .- r::::::::::::r7.;:::::::.:--:::::::::::::±vem 7 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::x.z.:* o byr GiC,I,Atca ''' Trt:1?"'719:IYEZEHEEEEEEEBEEE"" , 3 r---- EA --- -t„„.. ,...as:::•,::xcxx.x.x.„,---.6-„,. , , Ontanyi,4S4ig4-.„„ lizzu : fr--1 N A „ . I ',9,,, ..-. .tr , , - :"! !...;, t- ..,...:, Source: V: ty c Yakima 2017) SeLqce: Arneican Community Survey, 20 i -20 18. :111 Document 1 Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 146 166 Exhibit 54. Dwelling Unit Capacity Under Current 7vnin8 DISTRICT DETACHED "MISSING MIDDLE" &uULT|FA&u|0[ GRAND SHARE SINGLE-FAMILY (TOWNHO0aES (APARTMENTS TOTAL AND PLEX) AND CONDOS) Qls1rTic| l 129 74 998 1,201 0% Qls1rTic| 2 273 236 305 814 6% ------------------------------------- ............... ------------------------------------ District J 108 216 896 719 5& --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Distrirt 4 29 OS 210 321 2% District 5 1,406 124 1,085 2,615 |B% --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dbfdct6 1,729 878 231 2,337 16Q ------------------------------------- ............... ------------------------------------ Dhffict7 1,771 1,201 3'482 6,450 45% �no/ce� Ci/yn,ro�nx� /�|�� �EpKIOIO� Most vacant land iszonedk-1, with relatively less in other zones. Some land isin agricultural use and planned fo| future residential o| non-/csic]entioluses. See Exhibit 55 and Exhibit 56. m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � 147 1 67 Exhibit 55. Vacant, Infill, and Agriculture Acres in City Limits by Zone 0 1 00 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 SR R-1 R-2 R-3 B 1 Ens B-2 Ess HB SCC LCC CB D Tll GC M-1 m-2 RD AS Vacant Acres Potential Inf HI Acres *Agriculture Acres Source; City of YcEinna. BERK, 2020, Exhibit 56. Yakima Zoning Map SeLth 01 .SR 31..!,,ban Res;c•art a P.,1 S,r12,e 7-5,"" R.S"M.7.:rarr E-2 Local vaar SCC Sra::Co.^,ere:ce Center 44, 4 LOC Large Corp.,.e,Ce CB D Cenve,Euzireis D GC C-er.e,a'Cornmarc a; g,"..in.j.:.16a, , M-2 Heavi Industr a 4 •' RD Reg als,L'eve come, 4S A,.888 Suppo, . , . . 4',444888'88i: Glp MOXi Source: (2,4 of REBkirnEE 2020, ro 1 I I Document I Appendix:Table of Exhibits 148 168 Vacant Lands and Infrastructure There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the City and about 25% o[ it is locoted2O8 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres louot*c] further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. See Exhibit 57. Exhibit 57. Vacant Acres 200 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District COUNCIL DISTRICT NOT IN FLOODPLAIN IN FLOODPLAIN TOTAL l 59 20 79 2 .22 22 44 66 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- J 32 79 lll 4 V U --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 63 213 277 6 44 44 44 7 Gl 24 104 Vacant acres vithin lOO feet or more from sewer infrostructur* represents about 3O% of the vacant acres, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. District 5 has f he most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. See Exhibit 5Q. Exhibit 58. Vacant Acres 100 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District COUNCIL DISTRICT NOT IN FLOODIPLAIN IN FLOODPLAUN GRAND TOTAL l 6@ 28 89 2 37 07 44 Ol D 08 01 llY 4 8 8 8 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 99 213 312 h zO 44 117 7 105 l05 24 l.29 ("';|' nl � MEnx� 2020 Document I Appendix�Table of Exhibits 149 �m U - 169 Most of the vacant acres not yet hooked up to sewer regardless of distance to infrastructure is located in District 7 followed by District 5. Per the tables above, more vacant land is in proximity to sewer in District 7 than in District 5. See Exhibit 59. Exhibit 59. Total Vacant Acres without Sewer by District COUNCIL NOT IN IN GRAND DISTRICT FLOODPLAIN FLOODPLAIN TOTAL 1 263 20 283 2 124 51 175 3 193 158 350 4 58 58 5 356 213 569 6 289 61 350 7 714 294 1,009 2020. Housing Permits and Housing Variety The City has demonstrated that it can produce both quantity and diversity in housing. Since 2017 Yakima has produced 648 dwellings, or 216 dwellings per year, a little lower than the need between 2020-2040 at 276 units per year. See Exhibit 60 and Exhibit 61. Exhibit 60. Housing Change 2010-2040 45,000 42,083 40,000 34,887 35,652 36,916_ 36,5" 3S,000 30,000 ?5,000 20,000 15,000 000 5,000 0 2010 2015 2017 2020 2040 Prop-012d OEM, :ill Document I Appendix:Table of Exhibits 150 1m Exhibit 6l. Housing Supply 2OlO-2V4O 2010-2017 2017-2020 2020-2040 Net New Housing 1,031 648 5,517 �no/ce- {>p^�� [�|!P� 2�/2�/� Annuo|ly, nnostc]vvellin() unitshove [>**nsingl* fonnily, [>utth*rehov* consistently [>**n duplex permits, and an increasing number o[ multiplexes and multifamily, particularly in 2019. See Exhibit 62. The City is allowing a range of housing types including more affordable missing middle /plex, townhouse, etcj ownership and rental housing, and apartments. See Exhibit 63 and Exhibit 64. Exhibit 62. Permitted Dwelling Units by Type and Year TYPE 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 TOTAL Single Family 114 107 98 144 89 544 Duplex 26 26 40 02 70 96 264 3&4 3 O O 3 36 35 77 5~ V V n 15 616 681 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- KlobVoHmmc 15 lO 18 15 16 74 - ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Tuta|New 153 157 140 200 352 1,590 Demolitions* 40 29 27 48 55 199 nnnoaioe'm;| '*pctts' |f |n'ox' o^ci *���od�ng exp�md,'penu|n0perrnt� therefolt� o�v»ououiJ0 prone den`oEshmuun;fi� boihm�vernvzb/lmhon`es 'Soo/cm: '-)tyoYYox�n:o' 8'P�?x2O2O� m�ow|D000mnni | Appendix�Table ofExhibits � 151 171 Exhibit 63. Permitted Dwelling Types 2015-2019: Share by Dwelling Type 3% 15% *Singe Family 39% RB Missing Middle •Multifamily •Mobile Homes it; oe: CIy of ima, BE ';'(Y)(), Exhibit 64. Permits by Dwelling Type 2015-2019 900 SOO 700 600 SMobile Home 500 •5 + 400 111 3 & 4 300 MEM Duplex 200 1111111111111111111111111 100 Single Family 1M0 2015 2010 2017 2018 2019 i /Ct ‘i()kir2020, About half of the dwellings have been developed in the R-1, R-2, and R-3 zones combined. However, in 2019 larger numbers of multifamily dwellings were permitted, predominantly in commercial mixed-use districts, particularly in GC, B-1, and CBD. See Exhibit 65 and Exhibit 66. :111 Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits 1.52 172 Exhibit 65. Permits by Year and Zone* ZONE 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 TOTAL R-1 94 100 76 89 52 411 R-2 30 35 22 108 124 319 R-3 9 1 22 67 100 199 RD 1 2 0 0 3 6 SR 16 11 11 6 4 48 CBD 0 0 24 7 2 33 CC 0 2 4 71 435 512 B-1 0 0 0 0 80 80 M-1 2 2 2 3 2 11 SCC0000O0_,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, itanzgrumattattattattatatatatataturrxmattattattattatatartmciatutztattatztatatrirrattattattattatuturn===========6r3==========ramontattattattatzt itztvi,N,;ziatazzattazzattattatattattazzt,r4==========mt.,,yziatztattattatztattatiVIZattattattattatUttar”,tittattattattattattaK,U....,==atatattataataZiz3222tattattattatt ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Note: teDillers lesuu Feruitsil 62-does not eel- out Oemciitio:ists includes pee-nits: eixstepieliscisite ifistrit iiiiixipireisli ore peneing, or need adistitioncs information, hosed ce: gece„,:setets peiusitt, Source: City or Yakima. BERK 2020: Exhibit 66. Permits by Zoning District 600 500 400 '....1 III Mobile Homes 300 11111 a Mu I ti f a m I y Missing Middle a Single 200 Family 11111 100 111 111111 1111111 111111 1111 rimi 0 R-1 R-2 R-3 RD SR CBD GC 81 M-1 SCC rolli Document I Appendix:Table of Exhibits 0 153 173 Based on household income estimates from 2018, just under half of all households in Yakima have incomes high enough to afford an average cost home - $245,000, and 62% had incomes high enough to afford a Bottom Tier home - $162,000. More than two thirds of the single-family homes were valued at the average or bottom tier home price affordable to about half or more of Yakima households. See Exhibit 67 and Exhibit 68. Exhibit 67. Single Family Permit Values and Affordability Chart 111S0-5162,000 S163,0004245,000 al S246,000+ 1 7% 31 % „.„ Exhibit 68. Single Family Permit Average Values and Affordability Table VALUE SINGLE FAMILY HOMES VALUES RANGE PERMITS 2015-19 $04162,000 94 $163,000- 296 $245,000 $246,000+ 173 The value of townhomes per unit is less than single-family homes. About three homes are above the bottom tier home value and 86 are lower. See Exhibit 69. Exhibit 69. Townhome Permit Values TOWNHOME AVERAGE VALUE UNITS 6 $35,490 16 $38,347 3 $7515 4 $73,515 :1 11 Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits 1.54 174 TOWNHOME AVERAGE VALUE UNITS 3 $74,083 $86,386 2 $89,100 3 $91,345 6 $93,853 4 $94,756 5 $97,970 B $138,671 15 $162,261 3 $173,965 of' ,: vvc) BERK 7070 In addition to permits identified above, two accessory dwelling units were permitted between 2015 and 2019. As of 2020, the City received four permits; there are two pending as of September 2020. The permits relate to properties in fine R-1 and R-2 zones. Po icy Eva ua-ion This section considers the growth target evaluation and permitting results above, as well as community survey results to consider the progress in the City's Comprehensive Han Housing and Land Use policy implementation and how well the policies relate to the Yakima Housing Needs Assessment. The policy review considers the following evaluation criteria in terms of success/productivity in achieving the housing units and capacity, and the status and achievement of goals and policies. The relationship of the goals and policies and the housing needs assessment is also referenced. Evaluation Criteria Success in attaining planned housing types and units • P#: Count of relevant projects built since 2017 or in pipeline • D#: Dwelling capacity in projects built since 2017 or in pipeline Achievement of goals and policies Al Document AppendIxt Table of Exhibits I 155 175 • Goal and policy — progress in implementation: o E: Early/initiated • fv1: Moderate progress/maturing implementation through funding/code/program development • C: Completed • Compatibility with GMA Law & Rules and CPPs since Adoption: • R: Retain, still compatible and valid • U: Update to recognize recent city initiatives, clarity, or ease of implementation Linkage to Housing Needs Assessment and HAP Objective • V: Valid, continuing need for goal/policy to meet identified gap in HNA and/or HAP Objectives or City Vision/Comprehensive Plan • A: Amend to address gap in HNA or HAP Objectives'''. • I: Indirectly related to HNA or HAP Objective Housing Element Policy Review Exhibit 70 lists each policies in the Housing Element chapter, fine data and information considered, and the relationship to the evaluation criteria. The City has implemented policies around housing preservation, supply, and diversity, and its permit trends show the range and numbers of dwelling units increasing. The City's community services program supports housing quality and construction though its funding must be prioritized as it is limited. Most policies directly support the findings of the housing needs assessment; a few on design or on services could be more clearly written. The main consideration is funding to implement policies that are early or moderate in their implementation status. )Strateg1ee shoud locus on tour pioets isues- :rstiS Deve:openerst: Promote Hoene enesshp for Los, to •ee-se-sees income tar-PP:1s; !Pear cksble Senior HOUflp; ceps Permanent Supper:Ise or fesePtionce Houssirel :1 'Document AppendIxt Table of Exhibits I 156 176 Exhibit 78 Housing Element Goal and Policy Review 'a c "� o � c 0 = � � � � u z Adopted ��oo|and pn�ty cu — ��� n "0 O � v a �� w � u y � oOn �5 ^( � mu T � »� � GOAL 5.1.ENCOURAGE DIVERSE AND AFFORDABLE HOUSING CHOICES. 5.1.1. Monitor Monhor market rate and 0oontitofive: Updated land capacity shows }4 V oKnn]abl, housing needs, Review and Growth more than sufficient for target adjust land capacity for housing Capacity and illustrates range ofhousing development and redevelopment based types. See Exhibit 54. on housing needs. 5.1.2. Promote the preservation, S[ permits Single family units have been &^ V improvement, and development of single- S[ home developed for market rate family homes inYakima. repair purposes, See Exhibit 62.Tha program City'sJnni*,/0sub|ndHome repair program was established over 2D years ago.The average grant awarded bapproximately $5888 per home over olifetime. |n20l9, 74 homes were sr,ved/' 5.1.3. Encourage mixed use infiU Number of MU From 28l5-28lY, four mixed use k{ V development, particularly Downtown and projects projects were completed inthe in commercial nodes, Nonoberof CBD zone, creating 33dwelling on|b |n28lYTheG� ond8 DU` � , _ lzona, mwlargermoltifamily projects. See Exhibit 6xL ............... 5.1.4. Facilitate small lot sizes, Nornbernt The City allows zero lot M V condominiums, cluster/ng and other projects *[ line/common wall single family options that increase the supply of each type developments that have been affordable homeownership options and Average developed |n the R'| and R'? the diversity of housing that rnep, the bedrooms for zones,Townhorncs have been needs n( aging, young prnf*oinnoLand new S[and developed |n the R'2, R-3GC, small and large households, k^[ and RD zones. Multifamily Subsidized development in the 8Czone includes oportmentswith dodio on|b o for�en�n ' |, 2,and 3-b*dnonrn units (The Lodges), Units specifically developed for seniors not recently achieved. CJyof Offic,m Devek`pn`ent Se,rJcm ndRepo't2Olv: hM;c/ sen4cs5/ns|nhtnrhnnd'devebpnoent'servics5/fi|es/YsopEnd'2U19.pdf. m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � 157 177 n c n � 0 � � �a ��� � z Adopted [�vv|and Pvncy �� CD~�� c c zc �� `� U � n 0 �� = � « oo �� < — + o < mu Data on bedrooms not available in consistent format.City has developed o trucking approach to address this for future years. 5,1,5, Allow accessory dwpl ling units in Number of See 6ro*ih Target discussion k{ V single family zones tn Increase the sulAQUsond above including permit trends. of affordable huudn0 unh` and to help location While just tv/oADUswen* existing homeowners remain iotheir permitted hn28l5-28l9,1 here are homes, four permits submitted in2Q2O and two pending ADUpermits anticipated. 5.16. Allow manufactured homes on Code present. The City allows both C V individual lots in residential zones in Manufactured manufactured homes on accordance with the provisions of state homesodded properties (l3 permitted over and federal law. Apply development and orreplaced. 20l5-20lY) and inparks (10 design standards equally tomanufactured permitted in lost 5ycoo), housing and other residences. 5.1I Promote the improvement o| Programs in Comprehensive improvements }4 V existing mobile home parks \v meet place, units tnnoonofoctored home parks health and safety standards and quality nf replaced, have not been made. Units have life needs u(rr5iden\s, Pork been replaced individually.One infrastructure park did expand to add -six improved. units, but only that expansion area was upgraded tocurrent standards. 5.1.8. Encourage and inccntivbe Number of Bicycle Apartments constructed kX V affordable housing to development. units built ot |n28\Y includes 4Oof08 units for below 30% homeless/low income (8lzone). AM| by The Yakima /emor/ developed income bond. by the housing authority|n28l9 prnvidas4| units nf housing for homeless and low-income veterans (R'2Ione). 5,1,9, SuppnAprnpvsal`for affordable Spread ofunit There have been o range ofunit M V assisted and market rate housing based types using types, both ownership and vn the(vUnwingcriteria; permit data. rental,across zones.See Exhibit " Dispersion cd affordable housing 0mskzy 6& throughout the City permitted Developments in the " Convenient access tntransit housing on commercial and mixed-use map nftransit areas are more well-served bv m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b 1 158 178 C -at' 0 CD c Ito - 0 c o C D ..7 0 0.) el < 15 Tj ''' 0. 0- I-0 Et' Adopted Goal and Policy > w 0 i,— u co c ° c i IT 7-.) u ,c co p c l c > o .6 ei , — o 0 E o M a. _,4 0- a ° o o c < n I 1- • A range of unit types stops (if transit, and there has been an • Ownership housing when possible available). increasing share of units in these • Long-term affordability Housing with zones,40 long-term See discussion under 5,1,8.The affordability affordable apartment agreements, developments have long-term affordability agreements, 5.1.10. Remove barriers to development Document The City adopted Ordinance No, M V of affordable and market rate housing. 2019 2019-044.It reduced permit • Maintain a zoning system that allows ordinance for review types for housing, a wide range of housing types and rezones and increased SEPA threshold densities. SEPA tools, exemptions,adopted an infill • Use creative SEPA tools such as Compare fees exemption, and modified exemption thresholds, infill and to cities of densities including reducing mixed-use exemptions, or planned similar size/ limits in densities in multifamily actions to encourage housing and make up in and mixed-use zones. streamline permitting, Eastern City fees for a Preliminary Plat • Ensure that City fees and permitting Washington? are similar and lower than similar time are set at reasonable levels Review target eastside communities of similar so permit review population or role in counties: they do not adversely affect the to actuals if • Kennewick: 11,080+ $33/loi, cost of housing. City has data. max. $2,160 • Spokane Valley: $2,324+$40ffot • Wenatchee: $1,700+ $45/lot • Yakima:11,720 5.1.11. Encourage a range of affordable HNA stats on More affordable home M V homeownership options and provide affordability- ownership types are being built access to education for first time buyers. sales price of including common wall single recently family and townhouses.See permitted Exhibit 68 and Exhibit 69. homes Between 2015-2019, the City added 2 homeowner units in its first-time homeownership program. (Page 18 Annual Anion Plan, Draft 2019) See Pcklma Oiiv Mcp and cPlcic zoning and ParvP: layers: htlps:;//ii5.yakimmva.ciowc'Ty map;. 5vA El w iii Document 1 Appendix:Toble of Exhibits I 159 179 n c n � 0 � � �a ��� � z Adopted [�vv|and Pvncy �� ~�� c c zc �� `� U � n 0 �� = � « oo �� < — + o < mu 11.1lPartfdpa/e |nefforts to secure Document Due t* limited federal funding, [ V land available for affordable housing. C ify and preference for other participation. programs, the Ci/y's2O2O-2O24 Consolidated Program does not ontic|poteocqobiUnn. 5.1.13. &| ox/ for mrl|-drsigned Report nn |o2Vl8, [uk8ridgc Inn & Suites [ V brmworker housing recognizing the City recent was converted into housing for ofYakima's role as the primary city in the form*orker opto88Oseo5ono|kzrnoworkeo. agricultural Yakima valley with the housing The Yukinnu Housing Authority greatest mn0, n( housing opportunities, projects (a.g. operates about 44fornownrkar urban infrastructure,and public services. hotel housing units and l6 units for conversion), seasonal fu'mwo,kn' housing, Status of design code. GOAL S.2.S`[ PRBSERVBAND IMPROVE EXISTING RESIDENTIAL NE|GHB0RLI 5.2.1. invest io and improve quality o| City programs Policy i5 broad and could be U A life in existing neighborhoods, regarding improved |v assist in qoukw. implementation. The City has opxnommtn replace streetlights io neighborhoods.The City has mapped pavement conditions, sidewalk problems, safe routes tv schools, and bicycle connections and areas nf improvement to help prinhtizn r#hds�/.The City has also idenhhednon'nnotorized improvements that improve wu|kohi|ty, mobility,and drainage in its capital facility p|uos,-/ Ci/y ^�op� h8;c//nb^okknovv000v/c��n�o;/ Pk`nnNgGo|��� hM;c//n|�^okkno^owo"/nnho|/on;�/KNnkno|��oUe�/�de�h�no|�op;�d=�t7o28l7s�8o�tdf9�e7ctsodf2 s�o9� ' Cop�o� Foc|!JNepkzn2Ol h8;c//^w^^ok|mo^ sen/ir:s5/;hnninn/9s5/2Ul4/l2/Final-CFP' 2U17 U525'C-LEAN.pdf. m��|Dncownn� � �pppnak�Tahk� nf[xhih|b 1 160 180 n c n � 0 � � �a ��� � z Adopted [�vv|and Pvncy �� ~�� c c zc �� `� u n 0 �� w � o = � « oo �� < — + o < mu 5,22, Support programs that Improve Housing repair See discussion under 5.z.z. kX V and preserve Yokima's existing housing and C|P stock. investments, 5,23, Seek ak,rnadv,`, when feasible, Unclear, Unclear,qualitative. Over the U A tn demolition and removal of units from qualitative. 2Dlo'2DlY period the City saw housing stock. lYY units demolished about l*% nf the units permitted. |tis unknown if the units demolished were replaced innew developments. 5,2A, Encourage maintenance and Identify See discussion Linder 5.1.2. k{ V preservation of existing housing. Maintain number of the City^sHousing Repair Assistance households Program for low- and moderate-income served and homeowners, dollars per co[ito invested. --- ............... -------...............--- ............... ------ ............... ---...............------- ............... ---...............-------...............--- ............... ---- GOAL s`3.ENSURE xNADEQUATE SUPPLY OP HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS, 53.1, Prioritize the provision n( fair Average |n addition to the development k{ A sham housing opportunities to al values based of affordable and special needs economic segments o(the population and *npermit housing described under 5.l�8 those with special needs. valuations. the City has allowed o variety of housing types that are available ot different price points.See Exhibit 67. Single Family Permit Values and Affordability Chart to Exhibi| oY, lll Support development o| new Zones/acres Retirement homes are o|bvvedin ^4 v units arid the operation nf existing units allowing all residential zones except R-1 for housing persons with special needs o|kzchnd and commercial and mixed-use such as the disabled and elderly, Promote housing or zonec universal drdEn principles in nrA and senior housing. Universal design not adopted rehabilitated housing to ensure housing is Units built for yet; however, the City has o dedEnrd for all persons and abilities. seniors, provision tn allow for reasonable disabled. accommodations and waiver of Status of building code requirements|o design code. ensure access to housing that meets the needs of the disabled. m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � 161 181 n c n � 0 � � �a ��� � z Adopted [�vv|and Pvncy �� CD~�� c c zc �� `� u n 0 �� w � o = � « oo �� < — + o < mu (Yk{Cll0Y.118Reasonable occononoodotionsproceo) 5.33. Support Supportprograms that offer City funding The City restricts unlawful k4 V assistance tn homeless individuals and (human camping nnsidewalks; to assist families. services, the homeless, the City worked CD06) ond with Yakima Union Gospel City Mission,TronstnnnYakima participation. Together, Yakima Neighborhood UNA, Schools? Health Senicrs, and mv|tip|a Related to City departments us part ofo need toskforceto help homeless find iden/aied� shelter, food, and se,vice$/�' The Nombernt City has been working towards shelter beds, building more affordable number of housing oso longer term kzniKcs solution. Bicycle Apartments assisted. constructed hn2OlY includes 48 nfD0 units for homeless/low income (K-lzonn).The Yakima Armory developed bythe housing authority inZ0lV provides 34 units *f housing for homeless and low-income veterans (R-2lone), 5,3A, Support programs and housing Housing repair The City offers aspmor/u|sab|od ^4 V options that allow the senior population programs- emergency rehabilitation program oo to age in place as their housing needs Seniors served. fix life and safety issues that would change. Supportive otherwise displace these elderly and services frail homeowners into care facilities o, (meals on risk homelessness.the City ofYakima wheels) and Office o/Neighborhood development households Services assist approximately zon served, Senior/Disabled low comoderate income Homeowner units a year with Cous Single Family Rehabilitation program. Housing repair prog,omc see discussion under �] l hM;5://vvvvvv ,oNmovvonnv/noedkx/new5,�o�k�nrce'he|p+hnnns|e�+�nd'�hs�epfond'�er�cs�/ m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � 162 1 82 C -at' 0 (1) c c o c " C o .> • 0 0.) (1) < 15 0 a 14 E Z (1) Adopted Goal and Policyu. — u co +c c5 u ,c co o • E c > o 01 Lei — 0 0 (1) — lE 11. a. o o o c _2 cm cix GOAL 5,4.ENCOURAGE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION,AND MAINTENANCE OF HIGH QUALITY HOUSING, 5.4.1. Promote sustainable Code status. Policy language is undescriptive U V,I development practices in housing Not a HNA of what sustainable means. It development, gap. Could could include access to open review in space and walkable strategies. communities, as well as healthy building materials, energy efficient equipment, and indoor air quality. 5,4.2, Use transitional densities, design Existing Code The City applies site screening M V,I and landscape standards to ensure Not a HNA standards as a buffer between housing is compatible with existing gap, Could uses, Design standards are not character and planned goals, review in widely applied. strategies. 5,4,3, Encourage development of well- Land The City has adequate housing M V designed new housing in coordination capacity. capacity. See Exhibit 54. with population growth, employment Housing built growth,and transportation goals. versus demand (vacancy). 5,4,4, Coordinate future housing Sewer and There are vacant acres that M V development with capital planning and water service require extension of sewer investment, gap areas infrastructure to be served, See and Exhibit 57 to Exhibit 59. Densities investments. are limited until services are Code status available;see YMC 15,05.030, for concurrency. 5.4.5. Implement utility standards that Same as Addressing strategies to M V encourage infill development. above, advance infrastructure at a level that can help advance housing construction,The City does have a program to fund public facilities for low-and moderate- income households. Another program to advance all types of housing (market rate and sv AEI w 111 Document Appendix:Toble of Exhibits I 163 183 n c n � 0 � � �a ��� � z Adopted [�vv|and Pvncy �� CD~�� c c zc �� `� u � n 0 �� = � « oo �� < — + o < mu affordable) could assist|n providing for housing. 5.�6. Ensure[neuremuhimoda| public and Review transit See Policy ll.9 for transit; transit k4 V private transportation options are |n relation tn serves higher density areas. City available for new and redeveloped zoning density. standards address street housing. standards for new development, See 5.z.z for investments m non- motorized impruvemeou. 5.4.7. Promote complete streets and Cndedotos. Yakima has adopted o ^4 v \uib to inlrrcnnn,u Yakimo'` Lower priority complete streets policy hnYMC neighborhoods and promote w/alkahilky. for data 8.96. See cz./for investments m onolysb: not o non-motorized improvements. MNAgup Miles ofnew streets and trails and sidewalks. 5,4,8, Promote safe, ener8Y efficient, Lower priority City applies state energy code. M V and healthy hous|nD attainable to very for data Sustainable building practices low-, low-, and moderate-income analysis: riot o have riot been implemented|n huusehuNs, Explore measures tu improve UNA gop� regulations. indoor air quality and foster construction Consider methods that reduce dust, mol and air focusing future tuxics concentrations in the homes, survey for HAP on design topics, --------------------------------------------------------------- ............... ------------------- GOAL s`5.FOSTER ACARING COMMUNITY THAT NURTURES AND SUPPORTS INDIVIDUALS,CHILDREN, AND THEIR FAMILIES, 5,5.1, Make human senTcos more Indirectly The City offers o wide variety M K inclusive and accessible `n the Yakima related |o community services including community, HAP, Discuss housing repair for exiishng `wlthTA[. residents,and |ond|ord4enoni counseling.For new housing opportunities, the City helps fund public facilities that benefit low and moderate income residents, The City also acquires property m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b 1 lou 184 0 "0 -0 C 445 sC C in 0 > C0 0 . Adopted Goal and Policy u.1 m .— C C ir > ,c +c ,c 0 0 0 0 0 0 T) C 2 •:( a. zi to help construct homes under federal funding.The City helps develop affordable housing through a Community Housing Development Organization (CHDO).Some programs hove been cut back due to limited funding tag. having to strictly prioritize housing repair funds).44 5.5.2. Identify opportunities and Indirectly This broad policy could mean U A develop strategies that are proactive and related to advanced assistance to preventative in their approach to human HAP. Discuss households prior to their services needs. with TAC becoming homeless.See 5,3.4, 5,5.3, Allocate City general funds and Indirectly See Policy 5.51 E V seek federal and state funds to offer related to human services that the City can best HAP.Discuss provide to address a spectrum of with TAC community needs, 5.5.4. Consider human services Code The City has a code E V objectives in developing City regulations abatement enforcement program and a and codes. For example, enforcing code and loss of transparent"Yak Back" requests abatement may mean making people housing stock, to assure quality neighborhoods homeless. Ensuring there are community and and safety;the City also offers resources to assist these residents, before assistance programs to address housing they are abated, is critical, offered to and facility repair, addition of households. streetlights, and graffiti removal:5 5.5.5. Cooperate with school districts Indirectly The City cooperates with service Nt V and non-profit human service providers to related to providers such as with the identify needs and effective delivery of homeless task force.The City ok0ncks Draft 2019 Annual Action Report, Hit:ales "Idictue Ia The rimitttud suck:teal ituttilrctrueni funcit. from HUD, tne Ctittt attic:um° nas cut a number of programs and commies to serve a arowra number of SeniartDIscnored homeowners witn severe emergency repass such as; no near no power, no water no sewer. and d&erbrcried roots That nave become insurance concerns Thai mcv lead to cancellation.' it See Code CC'r :JiianCE,': https://www.yakimawa.goviservicesicodesicode-compliancei.Yak Rock Recutetts: https://nis.yakimawa.goviportaliapps/Viewiindex.htmktappid=bb906efd6d2d4e87007dd93b9060298d. See Commuulty SenAce: https:/Jwww,yakimawa,qovJservicesJneiqhborhoockdevelopmenrt services/community-service/. svlsi ifilliDocument I Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 165 185 C 1) 0 c Ito c 5 c .> 0 O a 3 a .2 E z (1) Adopted Goal and Policy > u c c 7:) u ,c > .6 o o DC lE o 0- o o o c o. n services to individuals, children, and HAP. Discuss also works with the school families. with TAC districts such as on the Comprehensive Plan policies and capital facilities plan. 5,5,6, Educate the community about HAP helps The City engages the E V and promote affordable and special needs accomplish community through its housing housing and human services facilities and this. and land use plans.The HAP programs. Conduct early and ongoing process has included community public outreach and communication engagement. during program or project review and apply appropriate conditions of approval that address community concerns such as traffic congestion, public service provision, or environmental quality. The Housing Element has an Implementation Strategy. See Exhibit 71. Most of the strategies have been implemented on an ongoing basis. Exhibit 71. Housing Element Implementation of Programs and Action Implementation Action Type Desired Result Implementation of Item the schedule of programs and actions City of Yakima Strategic plan, updated • Data on housing • Regularly Consolidated Plan periodically, that provides an inventory and needs updated. Most assessment of current and • Inventory of affordable recent is 2020- projected housing needs, housing providers 2024, housing market trends, • Increase in affordable inventory conditions, barriers to housing providing affordable housing, a list of current providers,and a five-year strategy for providing affordable housing. A Ten-Year Plan to Report on local efforts and • Data on homelessness • Last version End Homelessness: A strategies. • Decrease homelessness adopted in 2012. Five-Year Update • City developed more coordinated homeless support 411 Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 166 186 |nopkcmcnto0on Action Type Desired Result Implementation of Item the schedule vf programs and actions and response to udd/nu honoe|ru^"* ^« Annual Action Plan Plan for use of federal funds, Investment in ^ Latest plan, 2UlV. for CDP[) and HOME updated annually affordable housing Investment needs and community Partnership Funds, development needs 2016 Yakima County Strategic plan <oropp,noching " Housing needs data for " The plan does not Formv/orkerMoosing issues related tokzrm*orker seasonal and year- appear updated Action Plan, 20ll - housing /ovnd [u/n"*v/keu dnrn20l6, 2016 " Increased housing " The City has dobility for formwnrkao allowed use nfo hotel for seasonal fonnworkar housing. " [urnnwo,knr housing is provided bythe Yakima Housing Authority and by producers if participating in the U'2Aprogram. lon7ng Code, YMC Regulatory low *nhousing " Ensure code aligns xAth " City made TiUcl5 development, amended qs goals and needs inthe extensive code needed community updates ln2D\7to oddreoborden �o " Remove bon�,s|o affordable housing omo^1ob|e housing. Senior/Di5abled City Cityhousing program " Increased investment in ^ Some programs Persons Home Repair administered through the neighborhoods have been cut Ppngrorn Office nfNeighborhood , Aesthetic back due tn Development tn those who improvements limited funding hMpu//w^w+oNnnowoonv/noed|o/new5/�o�k'force'hs|p+hnnoe|e�+�nd'�hs|�epfood'�er�cs�/ ^ h8;c//^w^^ok|noo^ono"/nnsd|o/ns^�/pod|dpo�|nn'�oonh��ok|noo'onnoo�honns|eu'cnon�/ ^ hMpu//w^w+oNnnowoonv/media, new5/w;'comem/�bnsal|, m files, dtes/mAd'Moc'Monoe|so'Fod|it�' RsWs^ nonnittss'Ne^5-R Flea 5s;df m%Dncownn� � �pppnak�Tahk� nf[xhih|b 1 167 187 Implementation Action Type Desired Result Implementation of Item the schedule of programs and actions qualify (income and asset (e.g.having to restrictions) strictly prioritize housing repair funds).4i Exterior Paint City housing program • Increased investment in • Program administered through the neighborhoods Office of Neighborhood • Aesthetic Development to those who improvements qualify (age and disability restrictions) Homeownership City housing program • Increased • The City also Through New administered through the homeownership acquires property Construction Office of Neighborhood to help construct Development to those who homes under qualify (income restrictions) federal funding. The City helps develop affordable housing through a Community Housing Development Organization (CHDO). Tenant/Landlord Office of Neighborhood • Improved * The City offers Counseling Development Services tenant/landlord landlord-tenant program to assist either tenants relationships counseling, or landlords with disputes and • Education on legal advice on reaching support for those in agreements or seeking legal need support Lot Acquisition A City program within the - New housing stock • The City also Program Yakima Target Area that - Neighborhood acquires property provides funds to purchase bts revitalization to help construct for residential development homes under projects. Lots must be • New infill development federal funding. residentially zoned, have Yokinla'5 Draft 2019 Annual Action Report, ir!dicales "[d]due io ihe irnitea Federal Er!tiHement tvr!ds from the City Ya',:;rna hC13 C i 0 ri inbe of programs and contThwe 3 if) growThIg nmia=s1 of Senia /Dsabeci homeowners with severe emergency repaIrs suc h as: no heat, no power, no water, no sevier ono: delerloro:ea: raals Irat nave scame ins;:rance concerns Thc: may ISM; to cancellation.' :11Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 168 188 Implementation Action Type Desired Result Implementation of Item the schedule of programs and actions vacant or substandard buildings, and be developed within 12 months of purchase. Downtown A City program designed to • Special valuations for • Between 2007- Redevelopment Tax provide increased residential eligible improvements 2019 27 market Incentive Program opportunities.This program is in residentially deficient rate units were (YMC 11.63) intended to stimulate new urban centers. constructed with multi-family housing and the the MFTE rehabilitation of vacant and program,59 underutilized buildings for multi- family housing. n ry,;b:k-::.tc b:ec /prof:le0orc# vizh orre/MFTE sh boarcl-fincliDcsn'occro' sv NI w 111 Document Appendix:Toble of Exhibits I 169 189 Land Use Element Evaluation The Land Use Element is evaluated with similar criteria as the housing element. See Exhibit 72. The City has implemented the 2017 Comprehensive Plan with areawide rezones as well as processed docket applications to change zoning, such as from R-1 (single family) to R-3 multifamily. Policies regarding diverse housing types have largely been implemented with flexibilities integrated into the zoning code in 2019. Other than landscaping, policies regarding design standards are early in implementation, and could assist in improving compatibility and character. Policies addressing incentives for affordable housing are also early in implementation. Some policies are broad and more difficult to determine implementation. Only one policy appears to be a barrier to missing middle housing: "F. Discouraging The conversion of single-family detached structures to multi-family structures except where they conform to density, design, and parking standards for the applicable zoning district." Exhibit 72. kind Use Element Review S aro m42 'so g 0 < s. g0CCn. J m c vn = r, v c 00 42 0 0 al E — ag 0- .c o 17) c 4 o) CL GOAL 2„3, RESIDENTIAL USES. PRESERVE AND ENHANCE THE QUALFTY, CHARACTER AND FUNCTION OF YAKIMA'S RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOODS. 2.3.1. Provide for a wide Land capacity by There is a sufficient land capacity M V variety of housing types within zone allowing unit across zones to meet growth targets, the city to meet the full range types. See Exhibit 5 4. of housing needs for Yakima's evolving population. ;ill Document AppendIxt Table of Exhibits I 170 190 "6 � EL� 0 6 "��� � � � Z � _ � � � � �� U £ � � � � O > � o � � o � « oo � IM am & A,ces»om dwelling units Code status. Accessory dwelling units were limited NVU VYA |4DV>.Allow for |n2D\5-2Dl9 but more recently have attached and detached Number built. been increasing, ADU'5in all 'esident�| Based on the updates to the Zoning districts provided size, Code,the lost bullet onowner design,and other occupancy should bnremoved. provisions are included to promote compatibility with surrounding uses. Additional considerations may include: m Reduce the minimum lot size for lots qualifying for anADU, m Allow free-standing ADU'`provided lots retain usable open space and units minimize privacy impacts tn adjacent properties. m Provide anowner occupancy requirement (owner must live in primary home o/ADU) 8, Standard single family, Relate toland The majority nfunits in land capacity C Y Continue to allow for oopocitym are for detached single family.See detached single family Exhibi|54, dwellings inresidential districts. m��|Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l7l 191 "6 � EL� 0 6 "��� � � � Z � _ � � � � �� U £ � � � � O > � o � � o � « oo � IM am C, Small lot single[amilv, Code status. |n the zoning code lot sizes nf6,088 NVU V Allow for small lot single square feet are allowed. For family development (lots De»dty »f»*p/ attached housing smaller lot sizes of smaller than 6'0O0 development by J,588to4,888 square feet are square feet)inspecial zoningclidrirt oUov/cd. circumstances, (Achieved including: dendUes.) m Within a master planned development nnsites over two acres |n size |n applicable zones, provided the development incorporates traditional neighborhood design concepts and conformity with district density requirements, m0ninfiU sites inK'land K'J district provided they comply with traditional neighborhood design concepts.Consider reducing the [at size minimum for small lot single family(n the K'I district oo5,000d[and 4,U0Usf|n the K'3 district, m��|Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l72 192 "6 � CL� 0 6 "��� � � � Z � _ � � U £ � � a � O > � o � � o � « oo � IM am [\ Cottage housing.Allow Code status. Cluster development bo|lo*ed |n M V the development cf City zones. Cottage bnot specifically cottage housing(a called out, Unibbm|tifany. cluster cf small homes around u common open space)inresidential zones, provided special design provisions are included to ensure a pcdeuhan'nrienoed design, inclusion o[ common open space, and strict cottage size limitations. E. Duplexes.Continue`o Number built. Duplexes have been developed. See C V allow duplexes in Exhibit 62, appropriate residential The City recently adopted ozoning zones, provided density update which allows duplexes on standards are met, corner lots in new R'l subdivisions as Consider incorporating on outright permitted use—See YMC design standards that Ch. \l84,Table 4l emphasize a pedestrian- oriented dedgnandthr inclusion n[usable open space. F. Townhouses.Tn*nhnusos. En»ourage Status ofcode Zero lot line b allowed such cis }4 V the development of incentives. |v*nhvo`ez See [xhibito2. townhouses in the K'Z Number built. and K'3 zones and commercial/mixed-use zones asa^efficient term nf housing. Design standards should emphasize pedestrian- oriented design,fa�ade articulation, and usable open space, m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l73 193 "6 � CL� 0 6 "��� � � � Z � _ � � � £ � � � > � O � o � � o � « oo � IM am {; Senior and assisted Status ofcode Retirement homes are allowed |n all M V housing, Encourage incentives. n*ddendo|zones except R'land these housing types in Number built, commercial and mixed-use zones, the R'Z and R'3zones The City allows for more housing styles and zones and and types that would be affordable commercial/mixed-use |*all ages,There are no recent ogn- zon*s, Design standards naddcied housing projects|nrecent should emphasize years, pedestrian-oriented dcsi5n,fapode articulation, and usable open space. K Walk uu apartments and Status ofdesign There were about 34noo|r0ono||y k{ V stacked flats. Encourage code. Number homes permitted inR-2 and none in these housing types in hoilK R-Jin20l5-2020, However missing the R-2 and R-3zones middle attached housing was developed �� h |h � 2O� d aodcomoner,ia|/m�x*d- o zones un use zones. Design 122,'nspecti,e|y. standards should emphasize pedestrian- oriented design,fa�ade articulation, and usable open space. L Live-work Live+mnrkunits. Status^fcode. Uve work b allowed hncommercial w V Promote opportunities Number built, and niIxcd-osn zones,The City does tn combine live and not track these unit types now but workspaces in can dosoln the future. commercial and mixed' use zones, lIl Preserve and enhance code status. The City provides landscaping and site K« Y established residential design requirements, but design neighborhoods. � guidelinesdt dd limited. � an � ana, �o,� A. Ensure that new development is compatible inscale, style, density,and aesthetic quality tonn established neighborhood. m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l7u 194 "6 � CL� 0 6 � � Z � _ � � U £ � � a � O > � o � � o � « oo � Im am Ei Protect the character of Rezones Following the 28l7Comprehensive [ V single-family accomplished. Plan rezones*ee conducted for neighborhoods by consistency and to allow more focusing higher intensity opportunities for housing and mixed land uses close 1v osez commercial and community services and transit. C. Prioritize the upkeep Identify City The City has op,nnnzmtoreplace k{ V and improvement of programs. streetlights in neighborhoods.The City storets, ddcwa|ks, has mapped pavement conditions, landscaping, parks, sidewalk problems, safe routes to utilities,and com/nu^fty schools, and bicycle connections facilities inestablished and areas ofimprovement to help neighborhoods, prioritize efforts.,/ The City has also identified non-motorized improvements that improve *o|kobi|iv, mobility,and drainage|n its transportation improvement program and capital facility p|on.o The City adopted o Bicycle Master Plan.The City has contracted with o consultant to create oPededhon Mosier Plan,due for completion |n 2021. D. Maintain neighborhood Code The City has o code enforcement k{ V upkeep through strict enforcement program and o transparent "Yak City code compliance. actions/type, Back" requests to assure quality neighborhoods and safety; the City also offers programs to address housing and forTlity repair, uddition *f streetlights,and guz#fiiremovo|/m Mop� hMpc. dt�noop/ P|onn|ngGoUmry� hM;c//n|�^okkno^owo"/nnho|/on;�/KNnkno|��oUe�/�de�h�no|�op;�d=�t7o28l7s�8o�tdf9�e7ctsodf2 s�o9� serv�s5/;hnn�n/�s5/2Ul4/l2/��o��FP' 2017 �2�-C LEAN.;dC mueC000p�ooc�� hM;c//vvw^vok|n�o^onnv/�en4cs�/code�/cnde'cnno;Uonce/ yok �oc� Reqoe��� m��|Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l7� 195 "6 � EL� 0 6 Go or Z � _ � �� � � £ � � a � O > � o � � o �� « oo � IM am E. Carefully review Not applicable. The City has conducted oneowide C V proposed land use Application rezones con sidenivviththe designation changes to review, Comprehensive Plan, Annually,the more intensive City has odncketm residential designations, This policy assists with site-specific mixed-us*,o/industrial. rezones. Specifically; mProposa|s should conform tolocntiona| criteria set forth for the desired designation in the applicable policies under Goal Il mb the site physically suited for the proposed designadnn7 mb the desired zone one of the implementing zones nf the land use designation (per applicable policies under Gna| lI)? m Avoid spot zones ur similar changes that may create instability with the surrounding neighborhood, F. Discouraging Obouumging the Potential barrier, Consider amending policy,This U V conversion ofdng|c' precludes missing middle. family detached structures to multi- family structurescxoept where they conform tn density,design,and pa/king standards for the applicable zoning district, hMpc//nbvok|movvonnv/portal,o;ns/Nsw?|ndsx.htnn|�o;pk1=�,,t90osfd,d2d4e�7o07dd93�,,9U,o29�ld. See Cornnoon;+'yServce: h8pc//vvvvw^okknovv000"/5sr"ices, ne|nhtnrhood'ds"s|opnnsnt- servics5/connnnonit,'5en4cs/ m��/Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b 176 196 "6 � EL� 0 6 Go � Z CL � U £ � � a � O > � o � � o � « oo � Im am 6` Allow home occupations Indirectly related Unrelated tn housing strategies. C V that would not generate to HAP. excessive traffic,create parking problems,or degrade the livability n/ appearance nfthe neighborhood, 2.3.3. Create Ceo/ewolkob|r Indirectly related See Policy 5,l.9 for transit, Yakima has k^ \( | residential neighborhoods with to HAP, Discuss adopted u complete streets policy in safe streets and good withTAC Yk^C0.Y6. See 5.2.z for investments m connections tnschooh, parks, "vn'mmodzed |mProvcmcnts, transit, and commercial services, A,Construct sidewalks along See above. See above. H Y, | all new residential streets. 8.Provide strcrtscapc See above, The City has street tree standards kX X | standards that create safe (YMCU.77) Yakima Tree Board has and walkable streets within developed o Tree |nventn9.-14 residential developments. [ P/omore small block sizes See above. City subdivision block sizes are to be }4 \( | to ensure good connectivity no less than 25O feet and nngreater and reduced walking than l,OOO feet. (YK^Cl425D5O) A distances between gradation of block sizes has not been residences and schools, codified but city range parks,and services. accommodates policy. Specifically: m Low density residential: Blocks between 400- 8OO feet long are appropriate. m Mixed residential: Blocks See above. See above. M \( | between 30U'660feet long are appropriate. m Provide for through See above. Tobeimplemented. [ 1, V public through block connections for large hM;5://vvvvvvvoNnnowonnv/sen4csu;|onn|nn/�oNnno'hes'�oopd/ m��|Dncownnt I Apppnak�Tahkenf[xhih|b � l77 197 dl 01-0 a V, r• 173 r, ,cii Gicco) 3 E z 0/ O. 2 0 g C c 0 u C > 0 0 0 ILI IA .2 = -le CI. 0 0 C < 4 cn residential blocks. • Commercial and mixed- See above. To be implemented. E I, V use designations: Configure development to provide pedestrian connections at 300 to 660 feet intervals. Configure development to provide vehicular connections at 600 to 1,320 feet intervals. Allow flexibility for private internal streets to meet connectivity objectives, D.Provide for usable Indirectly related Per ParkScore 65%of Yakima E I, V publicly accessible to HAP. Discuss residents live within a 10-minute walk parkland within walking with TAC, of a park,55 City equity study has distance(1/2 mile)of all Location of new considered investment in parks across new residences. housing proximity districts. City maintains a parks plan. to parks, 2.3,4. Consider new design Code status, City has updated zoning E, M V standards for small lot single Lower priority for standards to allow for smaller lots. family development to data analysis: not The City can require common gracefully integrate these uses a HNA gap. open space as a condition of into existing neighborhoods in Consider focusing approval for Type 2 or 3 review. ways that maintain general future survey for neighborhood scale and HAP on design Design standards for character. topics. transparency and FAR are not yet fully implemented. Key concepts to consider in the design standards: « A covered entry facing the street. • Minimize the impacts of garages and driveways on the streetscape. 7 See: http5://porkserve.tpLorci/mappinn/index.Mm8TCily811=8.381/1/11) svAMI Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 178 198 dl 1.5 a I?.dl iur1 2 c Z--E > o g 0 IA = _Nd 0- = o o c 0) • Provide usable open space on all single-family lots. • Consider a maximum floor area ratio to better ensure that homes are proportional to lot sizes. • Minimum amount of facade tra nsparency to promote more "eyes on the street" for safety and to create a welcoming streetscape, 2.3,5. Consider new design Code status. Design standards available for F V standards for new multifamily Lower priority for parking and landscaping, but development to promote data analysis: not other standards not yet in place. neighborhood compatibility, a HNA gap. Parking standards could be enhance the livability of new Consider focusing evaluated for rightsizing, such as housing,and enhance the future survey for linking to bedrooms, if there are character of residential and HAP on design high rates of available street mixed-use areas. topics. parking, and in areas with Key concepts to emphasize in frequent transit service. the design standards: • Emphasize pedestrian oriented building frontages. • Emphasize facade articulation consistent with neighborhood scale. • Integrate high quality durable building materials and human scaled detailing. • Provide for usable open space for residents. • Provide compatible site edges and sensitive service area design. Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 179 199 T) " gs E c 3 E z a ' O. 3 — 0 0 IA0 SQ 0 0 C 4 tx • Provide for vehicular access and storage while minimizing visual and safety impacts of vehicles. • Integrate landscaping elements to soften building elevations, enhance neighborhood compatibility, and improve the setting for residents, 2.3,6. Allow some Not an HNA gap. Such uses are allowed in the M V compatible nonresidential uses residential zones; while there are in residential zones, such as landscape standards, other appropriately scaled schools, design standards are limited, churches, parks and other public/community facilities, home occupations, day care centers, and other uses that provide places for people to gather. Maintain standards in the zoning code for locating and designing these uses in a manner that respects the character and scale of the neighborhood. 2.3.7. Explore the Code status, The City increased permitted types of M V development of zoning innovative housing in 2019. Use of density incentives to help meet bonuses, MFTE, Between 2007-2019 27 market rate housing diversity and units were constructed with the MFTE requests for affordability goals. program,56 variances, Examples could include The City could consider other residential density bonuses, incentives and bonuses, variations in allowed housing type, or flexibility in regulations, if a proposal meets community goals for affordable,senior, size-limited, or other types of innovative n::rxf.://r);;b:k::.tc b:ec us:cm prof:le0orc# vizh orre/MEI E sh boarcl-tin rxicro' sv 411 Document Appendix:Toble of Exhibits I 1 80 200 SI r• -0 CI E c E z EL 2 c c >. 0 > 00> t 71:g IS 4.1 o us te) 0 Z 0 — -Ne Ls 0 13 c 4 CD housing. If not permitted outright or through discretionary review processes, consider providing for these incentives through pilot programs or other innovative me a SU res. Other Elements The City's Capital Facilities Plan was created in 2017. Some of fine specific capital improvements will be outdated in 2022. The City could update it with infrastructure investments in amenities and walkability to address policies on neighborhood quality or to unlock some land for development distant from sewer (e.g. latecomers' approach with City leading; see below). Regulatory Incen-ives and Barriers At the time of the Comprehensive Plan update, the Existing Conditions Report (2017) identified some findings about the City's development barriers. As well, the City has recently reviewed its success in amending its code to add missing middle housing types and remove regulatory barriers. In 2019/2020, the City adopted regulations that accomplished: • Adding or amending unit type allowances and revising density limits: The City added allowances for Duplexes on corner lots administratively. Multi-family development up to 7 units per acre is allowed in the Rd zone. • Modifying environmental regulations: The City adopted an infill exemption relying on the EIS prepared for the Comprehensive Plan in 2017. The City also adopted the maximum SEPA exemption for single family and multifamily uses. • Streamlining the permitting or development approval process: The City modified the levels of review for several housing types to have more administrative approvals. Reviewing the status of Comprehensive Plan Housing and Land Use policy 411 Document Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 181 201 implementation, areas for additional implementation to support housing needs include: • Revising development standards such as off-street parking requirements: Parking is about 1 .5 stalls per multifamily unit and 2 per single-family detached dwelling. The City could consider relating multifamily parking to the number of bedrooms. The City could also consider counting on-street parking. As well, the City could consider higher transit service areas in determining stall requirements. • Addressing infrastructure gaps or inadequate infrastructure: there are two types of gaps - 1 ) lack of sewer in growing areas to the north and west and 2) existing developed neighborhoods with poor infrastructure and little to no amenities. This often included an incomplete street grid system and no curb, gutter, or sidewalks. Many of these areas are still on septic systems. There are some gaps in the extent of municipal water and sewer systems that should be addressed to advance City goals for revitalization in already developed areas as well as future development areas. There are state laws allowing community revitalization funding. Cities may also initiate latecomer's agreements and help fund extensions:7 • Implement quality design: Most of the policies around design are only partially implemented. As noted in the Comprehensive Plan Existing Conditions Report, Yakima is the only city among Washington's most populous cities that does not have design standards for commercial and multifamily development. The City can set expectations for quality and affordable design in new development and prioritize investments in existing neighborhoods lacking infrastructure, recreation, and other features. Addressing quality design can increase the acceptability and compatibility of denser housing types. • Addressing incentives more holistically beyond the METE to attract affordable and senior housing: The City has only attracted about 27 units under the program. The boundary is focused on downtown. The City could consider other possible conditions to attract desired housing such as senior affordable housing. The City could also consider if other areas beyond Downtown would be candidates as urban centers around which to encourage housing. This could include other subarea centers where multifamily is desired. in 2013 and 2015 Ine ‘Ivosrin.g.ton Slate Legisialure rraJe changes :atecorners :cv,s v.3 require a ci;s1;;ct tc cuni;act wflh the cyyner:. cf real esicle uDan rec.uest Ic e2clend woter ter II :5 Cl pretequ;sPe.tC de.ueoprl The ç.hcfliie c c.rqe oISO cAChni C,c)OrIIeS01IC; or io loteco,ners ogreen.c nis for I.:III:III:Is Fc.c can ni Ail) on opp:icabe c omprei;ensi-e plans and deve:opment e o consiient th c ompre he n ,oter sy“em picAn'5, '5e\ver ciory5 infrmThctLe '5tancorch ono.' soecticolk.T:ns, etc. 'Document Append :Table of Exhibits I 182 202 The Community Survey and Technical Advisory Committee has also noted some areas for review that can be carried forward for considering in the Housing Action Plan objectives and strategies. LincHcs This policy framework evaluation has found the City of Yakima could improve its policy implementation in these respects: • Identify funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise lundevelopable' parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand, i.e. an existing lot with a SR cannot add an ADD unless water and sewer is available. • Explore incentives for projects that construct new senior housing such as: reduced parking requirements, clustering of units, variety of housing types. • Consider expansion of the METE into areas outside of the downtown core. • Consider revision to parking standards, especially for high density residential and in the downtown core. :1 'Document AppendIx:Table of Exhibits I 183 203 D ii Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites Exhibit 73. City-owned Sites CITY OWNED PROPERTY I „ Yakima City Limits -.1. LU City Owned Properties Parcels ml . Rivers/Waterbodies srmrm csy m Yakru,2020 .1/''''. 1 _ ti./i ._ i 7,-7 ...," .,‘ ' "•.-._, A „ ilf— '. . - i ilte ,C.7'2,.. G ; tr''% 1 : . 3' c ':: tr-,- & \ 4,...L.„. „... _, : — F.\ - & ',1 Z 4 r_ : 1 — ".-.4"le ,: Lri . CI .. --„,4 Lmosaa,r, LVALAirm)uoinvoH. A 4 - -/--14, 1-"LL t 0 D.. i 2 1— :11Document 1 Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 184 204 E // *ispl,cement Ftisk An.Iysis Displacement refers to instances when a household is forced or pressured to move from their home against their will. Direct, physical displacement occurs in cases of eviction, The termination of a tenant's lease, or public land claims through eminent domain. Physical displacement can also occur when a property owner decides to renovate units to appeal to higher-income tenants or when buildings are sold for redevelopment. Another cause might be the expiration of an affordability covenant and resulting conversion of the unit to market rate housing. Economic displacement occurs when a household relocates due to The financial pressure of rising housing costs. Renters are more vulnerable to economic displacement, particularly those who are low-income, although some homeowners can experience this as well with significant increases to property tax bills. Cultural displacement is the result of fractured social fabrics. When physical and/or economic displacement affects community businesses and a concentration of racial or ethnic minority households, other households who affiliate with the affected cultural group may begin to feel increased pressure or desire to relocate. This analysis evaluates displacement from two perspectives: 1 Monitoring the count and rate of evictions paints a picture of the intensity of physical displacement in Yakima. Available datasets do not tell the entire story, as they only capture court-filed evictions and will not include residents who are priced out of units or who are asked to vacate a unit outside of The court system. Despite These limitations, data can highlight if evictions are common or at a high rate relative to county averages. 2 Understanding social factors that make a household more vulnerable to displacement is one way to understand areas of the city that could be hardest hit by residential displacement. Tools such as the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), assist with this effort. Proactive engagement with identified neighborhoods is an important step to avoiding or mitigating displacement That can result from policy changes and new development. Combining results of the eviction analysis and the vulnerability mapping tools, neighborhoods in the eastern part of the city are the highest priority for anti-displacement work in Yakima. These subareas contain economically and socially vulnerable households who may benefit from additional engagement and anti-displacement policy efforts. :1 'Document Appendix Table of Exhibits I 185 205 Evicions A count of evictions reveals that between 550 and 600 households face eviction every year in Yakima County. Eviction rates evaluate the number of evictions against the total number of renters within a given Census tract. Local reporting estimates that the city of Yakima ranks second in Washington state for highest eviction rate. See Exhibit 74. Residential eviction is very disruptive for the social fabric of a household and moving costs add to the financial burden of a family struggling to afford rent. Eviction can result in people living in poor housing conditions or even experiencing homelessness. The impacts of eviction can last for many years. It can affect a households ability to rent other apartments, find jobs, or qualify for federal assistance. :1 'Document AppendIx:Table of Exhibits I 1 56 206 Exhibit 74. Eviction Rate. City of Yakima I EVICTIONS , ; '‘. . ,....... El Yakima City Limits / Eviction Rater 2016 \`,, / ............ IN 2.51% -3.01% r ; ., 2.01% 2.50% ...., ,„ .,. 1,44% -2,00% , j.,, ......., 1,43%;Ycikimu City Overall v f ‘1*/f—, • 0.00% -0,50% .„, . ..,... . ..„, t•Sso,,,,,,E.,:ai,i tt.,,2014,,,,,,,ig,e,.4.•.ste,061- :::v.. Ci=1 Tract ,,luhyr,...,,ktia- .....4)••..i•324. WeEer C402,01 Trod giniiii4 S's Cit;.......1 3 p •f. Eggay e vit ion ‘142:20 Rai.=1.19% Census rad t ... .. ........44444 ----. ........Rate.3.4 1 . ' Census 9:132 4:42.4 ...7 211111114444...........41%. ...............4 .44.4.424.1114444actial211111111134 ttita.11,t,4 iiiiiiiii , ,, 444111341111494iiti4S,11333111111, Census Trod Ftoi....2f534.,.4:4:4:42. ......44. .. Census Trod 231111.444.Eliieydi79all1111111121 5,Eviction 44-AidiStagt.Py•••••••••* ..16.02;4.2Iittio it 1444211142,41,41,424444444.44.444444144441444814 Retie=1.23% :We•;;;.,.14 aiOSV44•••• s ral44141142% .------ ittrsWg'44 • 'na= * Ntacs Census Tract 44......'•%%44 4,Eviction gip Census 7.,.<4 a Census Tract Raie.1.16%e Census Trott 4%4:...* 15.0i,EVitii4ft_Ezian. .30mozavntemommon 7,Eviction 44a, Rote=1.87% Census Trott tta,, 444444444. 1,4-4.M..T.R.4444.44.4% Eafe.1.30% ....... ...% Eviction Rate.a ...........40gOviciton......4.4.44.0 4444... '.%St, 1•2::::::::, . 'it ..,.... *****,... ( ralliglis StE0• 1. • Census tract Census Tract 1.-.41.Eviction , 45 Evistio. Rote.1.53% 4.44:4, Rote. . 7% Rota....t% eeeus Census Census tract I 1/14,49 n 12.02,Eviction t F7,4aViction Rate. .3a-% Rate.1.29% . Census Tract itto.„37% 5::;e1-1.1i;... . . . Census Tr.1......3 --, .Crenn ISWir:.e. lig 13,Evictrort . LL Rote=1.3 r% ( . It) Q.....=._--rmil 'Miles 20i.:Rpe : Evictions Lab, 2020, bERK, 2020. Social Vulnerability The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a tool developed to identify vulnerability to hazardous events nationwide. The index was ggi,Is %it Doc u men t 1 Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 187 207 developed to assist public health and emergency response experts to identify areas of extra concern in the event of a shock such as a natural disaster or chemical spill. Many of the included variables, however, relate to housing vulnerability as well: poverty rates, identifying minority communities, and housing issues like crowding. Not all factors captured are relevant to identifying displacement risk, but they help paint a picture of neighborhood demographics. Results identify areas many areas in Yakima with high vulnerability concerns. Over half (56%) of Census tracts have concentrated populations of lower socioeconomic status. Yakima city is also home to many POC and non-English speaking residents, who also disproportionately face displacement risk. The map in Exhibit 75 shows the areas of Yakima with higher concern for displacement risk. These neighborhoods in East Yakima and smaller neighborhoods to the north and west of the city should be of particular focus for outreach and anti-displacement policy implementation. :1 'Document AppendIx:Table of Exhibits I 188 208 Exhibit 75. Social Vulnerability Index Ranking, City of Yakima SOCIAL VULNERABILITY \ INDEX ---1 0 Yakima City Limits `,. . ...., SVI Overall Ranking ,... 11 .9 to 1.0 , .8 to .9 .7 to .B _. i .6 to .7 )L r C../ .5 to .6 .5 or Under Surc.e:CX, ()I.i:4-fiati oi US Cerwa Amoornn :211,,Allty5,14rir xrs'.4c4Ins,co.4,4z I-rrt unv OP4Y1 ‘ 53.7.70034We .. IV 3-.7 0171'a Tajo i'v •SVI Mint) iti kni. , ENE e S 0.4,7 4.36 ei . 33077000400 2HxHxHx4cxoccxoxox45ZZZZ:0 99 4504.*.1 S.Vt A1100.30/ 90005 .7 4 Ns.•05:05 -59 . 303593'9 lc.195.101k 5900 004.394-9/10C9 53CY77 1602 • • (syl A1920.37) I 53077000800 (319 495.0.47) 53077009991 trial (SVC/91.0.33) . 30770;374S 93077002902 53077001000 WI'. try (991-X13.0.617 (SW!4155.43.611 3307700 0 •33099. 33! 4.0;0 11.Y40E/199414910 530053 C i 7..0592 109159/5-4059t iiiiiiiiiiic Eft/ '49/3*W5) 5 * 7,24.702 laetWilki On CSVI 15-9012) 33077001100 go num l) (SW/AII/30.651 1 5317 001400 53077003902 33077001391' ''WI (SW!A4190.61/ csvi An=o1s) . . • ‘, . , I In, o i 2 t- t? bill :an ,./(:);:roc>: '\.,oc:;a: Ju:nrrob:::h indw. 2020*. E000„ 20/0 :ill Document I Appendix:Table of Exhibits I 189 209 F // Providing Housing for Future Households by Income The HNA gap analysis indicated a need for ownership/rental housing at all income levels. Based on the City of Yakima's adopted growth targets up to 5,517 dwelling units would be needed by 2040. As new households are added to the city, if Their incomes are similar to today's share of household incomes, about 45-51 % of future households would need housing affordable at 80% AM I or lower. See Exhibit 76. This table may help the City prioritize different strategies over time and is meant as information if the City were to add households in a similar share as the present make up. It is not a set of targets. Exhibit 76. 2020-40 Growth - Household Need by Income Level Household Income Distribution Need per Net Future Need per City Net Future 2013-2017 ACS Yakima County Units with Household Units with Household County Share Percent City Shares Share Percent Shares Applied Applied Extremely Low-Income (s 30% MFI) 10.8% 594 15 1% 833 Very Low-Income (30-50% MFI) 14 Ouic ;70 15 3% SL-b Low-Income (50-80% MFI) 19 7% 1,089 20,155 1,109 Moderate Income (80-10070 MFI) 114 631 10 6% 584 Above Median Income (>100% MFI) 44 2,433 38,9% 2.145 TOTAL 100.0% 5,517 100.0% 5,517 Document AppendIxt Table of Exhibits I 190