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05/18/2021 15E Council packet distribution for the Yakima Housing Action PlanBUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDASTATEMENT Item No. 15.E. For Meeting of: May 18, 2021 ITEM TITLE: Council packet distribution for the Yakima Housing Action Plan SUBMITTED BY: Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager, 509-575-6042 Joan Davenport, AICP, Community Development Director SUMMARY EXPLANATION: The complete record for the Housing Action Plan is being distributed to City Council members in this agenda packet. This packet is also available in color online at: hftps://www.yakimawa.gov/services/planning/hap/ Please bring these materials to the public hearing which will take place on June 1, 2021. STRATEGIC PRIORITY: Neighborhood and Community Building APPROVED FOR SUBMITTAL BY THE CITY MANAGER RECOMMENDATION: ATTACHMENTS: Description Upload Date Type D Council packet— Housing Action Plan 9/7/2021 Cawr Memo 2 VAI(P" UOUSN6 AC�ftON MAN Yakima City Council Ov Pen Record Public e,rin�-y Junel,2021 EXHIBIT LIST Applicant: City of Yakima Planning Division File Numbers: SEPA#007-20 Site Address: City-wide Staff Contact: Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager CHAPTER AA YPC Findings and Recommendation CHAPTER BB YPC Recommended Housing Action Plan RWITIff,"M =1 3 YAKMA HOUSING ACUON MAN r r AA YPC Findings and Recommendation DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Joan Davenport, AICP, Director PImining Divisimi lm Joseph Calhoun, Manager 129 North Second Street, 2"' Floor, Yakima, WA 98901 ask-planning@yakimawa.gov - www.yakimawa.gov/services/planning V01 i . 11 k a L :j IF WHEREAS, The City of Yakima was awarded a grant from the Washington State 2 mg t 14 ev-51 (R-2019-118); and WHEREAS, the purpose of the HAP is to create a set of concrete steps to meet loca: housing needs: and WHEREAS, the HAP process included public engagement through a Technical Advisory Committee, public survey, interviews with local housing developers, meetings with the Community Integration Committee, press releases, social media, and other outreach efforts; and v 94 WHEREAS, On April 14, 2021 the City of Yakima Planning Commission held a stu session on the HAP; and i I_FLTWA_1AWU_,_tA11b1Ut:1[ LIM n0julng Action rian, ana a recommendation to the Yakima City Council; No 0 1 - # I , - I APPLICATION # SEPA#007-20 APPLICANT: City of Yakima Planning Division PROJECT LOCATION: City -Wide FINDINGS OF FACT Planning Commission adopts the findings of fact from the staff report and staff report supplement, attached hereto as Exhibit A and Exhibit B, respectively. addition to the above -listed Exhibits, the Planning Commission enters the following findings of fact based on testimony provided and subsequent discussion during the public hearing: EMMEMEMEEM Corey Baldwin — 012304 181st Dr, Snohomish, WA. Mr. Baldwin represents Shelt Resources, Inc. which is an affordable housing developer/operator. Recently purchas Englewood Gardens in Yakima, a senior housing community. Financing for afforda housing is very competitive in WA. Wants to make sure that RFP's are timed wi 2pplication cycles such as housing trust fund or housing finance commission. Mo resources in recent years have gone to the Seattle area, the rest of the state needs equitable share of resources. ............. CONCLUSIONS 1. The proposed Housing Action Plan is consistent with RCW 36.70A.600 and the requirements of our Department of Commerce Grant. _ • • � • i i i = ' is `. � • 'i '' � "... � • J ±� 0 ,. Planning Div6ioll City of Yakima g Division Recommendation Housing Action Plan TO: Planning FROM: .694ph Cklftun, Planning Manager 146uslog.,, FOR MEETING. i FILE NUMBER: SEPA#007-20 0 �b) Develop stro**O�Jnqreasa«* housing rr a a..k Consider strategies to minimize displaoernent of . .residents �Stx "p ra -Satisfied.- ,;... - priority isk Ariaksis and several 2M m Additional language on the relationship 044kto other plans MEM" 10 5. P890 13: Strategy 1. Update cityreguisdons to remove barriers to innovative housing types. Add clarifying text and additional exempl", 1. Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. m a 3' • • is i ♦:. •ll. 12 7. Page 28: Strategy 10. Add more permanent supportive housing Add clarifying language on potential partners, MENEMBaia. Z 13 :wx S..wAli Strategy 11. Coordinate.:: ng . Add 6140"g anguago to lboUs . z that and change:c C0000wo$N�seasonalfennworkef housing as severe -winter shelters. 9. Page 32: Strategy 13. Continue to support education programs on homeownership. Simplllying language to be more generalized. 10. Page 33., Strategy 14. Revise parking standards in key areas. Minor chap — City should be Load, not Partner for this strategy I I. Page 39: Strategy 17. Give grantafloans to directly support small businesses. 14 Add mixed -use aspect to tie Me strategy to housing. Description. Support sma1(bUsjP4sses and cultural ancho to help them invest In thelf space and 4aop Up Wth rent, 0000�� help to connect businesses with these lenders, 12. Page 46: Strategy 23. Encourage micro -rated and flexible cultural apeoe design General Comment- consider combining with Strategy 17 13. Page 63: Implementation 'rho Vakfma county Homeless cowition and Horq&jc$s N*lMrk of Yakima County will be added as Potential jewliners to strategies wh#fo StsblliV is Me Objective, 14. Page 76: Monitoring Adding additional clad&ing language Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . ----- Elio Key Indicator V Annual Production rate of ADU, duplex, townhome, smallermw*Oy (49 units or less), and m4ramly units overall. This reflects the goal of incre4ftlhi� mix of houeftooldetio �61100w � am IR Ec • • • r: �v i�'., • N a • • 9. 1 1 is M a W• i 3W i S i,.. a k •C :t '.Y i � [ NN �. ::� • F i t fi., C 9 k' _ d M .,. * 4 .:. h it ..f ps •:. +fiW et: 16 DEPARTMENTOF COMMUNI'lY DEVELOP�,IENT Joan DavinipM, AICI�. Director H Riling DiviNion yffon, AN WAA Aw;ph Calhoun. i\l-thagur 1291\11rdi Swond ArQ4 1�0 Floor. Yakima. N11A 98901 a-qk.pI;mninS(�i?yakima%va.gov - %vw%v,yakima%va.,gllvlsti-vicusiplannint, Housing Action Plan TO: City of Yakima Planning Commhijktri FROM: Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager SUBJECT: Housing a006 Plitt FOR MEETING OF: April 28,2021 FILE NUMBER: SEPA9007-20 Yakima Manning Commission (YPC) consideration and public hearing of a Housing Action Plan (HAP) This document is intandeq, tosu, -- It'A - A � ; Q -pt d includes addit6n4l 0*0 *� and analysis reo i ad prior to the April 28, 2021 ubl' I;m 1) Esther Magesis, Yakima County Director of Human Services, provided comments on April 23,2021. * Question about ownership roles, lead agency, partners, etc. Staff R"pon" — " h*V* added some clan ing language to Objftffv" and Straleo" to ols6fy the C#y Load and Part Lead strotogisa a YCCC not a falth-based organization Staff Response — Strategy 33 Implementation will be edited to remove the YCCC as a potential partner Page &U.'Implementation 'A Co'klwrale Aah based V 0 Multigenerational housing is not listed as an option under Strategy I Staff Response — the staff report includes additional text related to mulfigenerational housing N 0 Conoern about fee waivers Impacting funds for affordable housing 2) Rhonda Hauff, CEO Yakima Neighborhood Health Services. provIded coTTTrp-Tt-q aT 4.tAl I No a Comments included revised text relatadto a YNH example program Staff Response — text has bow updated to MfAwt changes made by Rhonda Hauff. 3) Gv*n Clear DOE Envircnme,&--&P&Aj, FVwftU0%U-N- DOE provided a link to their interactive dirt map — thelbi#pdf#of land occupied L by 13 as a 0"ffoi*'Ecologly can plov property is impacted by arsenic and lead from historic orchard use. peaticides. i6junfil a- v. en"a partneroorseveratparm Mead strategies. HAP DeSu nt-s- Adding Appendix F — Provng Ho using for Future Households by Income the k o W pqf"�a co 41 �mpa: . - , L111 "IMANNA el*14. 18 20 YAKIMA HOUSING ACTION PLAN EXHIBIT LIST wow u# adim Ytan 20 Contents Introduction .... .............. ....... __ ........... Plan Organization ................. ....... ....... ___ ...... ............. ...... — 8 Developing the HAP ... ...... ....... ....... ......... ___ .......... 9 CommunityInput........... __ ..................... ..................... .......... 9 Technical Analyses .......... __ ..... ........ 10 Objectives and Strategies ... ...... ........... .... 17 Priority I Strategies ........................ ........ .... 18 Priority 2 Strategies .......................... ........... ...... ....... 30 Priority 3 Strategies ..... ................................. __ ....... ... 43 Implementation ...... ........ .......... ........ _._.,_,_._70 Monitoring...... ................................................ 87 Key Indicators ............ - ...... .......................... 87 Appendices....................... - ....... ....... ................................................ 88 A Community Engagement ................. .......... .... — ........ __ ....... ... 89 B Housing Needs Assessment ................................................................................... - 96 C Policy and Regulatory Review., .............................. ........... ........ _,__ .... . ... 144 D Potential City -owned Catalyst Sites ........ __ ............ 184 E Displacement Risk Analysis ..................................................... ........... 185 F Providing Housing by Future Income...... ........ ......... 190 DRAFT May 2021 21 MTITO-rd Exhibit 1. Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 ............................. __ I I Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2012 in Average Home Values, Average Rents and HUD Median Family Income ................................................................ ___ 12 Exhibit 3. Cost -Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 ................ ..................a,,,.„, ....__ .......... ........ 13 Exhibit 4. Household Tenure by Cost -Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 ......... ___ ..... 14 Exhibit5. Housing Types .................................................................................................. ...... 19 Exhibit 10. Current and Desired Housing Types ........................................................... __ ..... 92 Exhibit 11. Community Housing Needs: All Survey Responses ............................................ 93 Exhibit 12. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by White and Hispanic/o or Latinx/o Race or Ethnicity .................................................. 94 Exhibit 13. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Income Bracket.............. 94 Exhibit 14. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size ................ 95 Exhibit 15. Population Change 2010-2040 .............. ... - ... .... - ....... 145 Exhibit 16. Progress on Comprehensive Plan Population Targets ....... 145 Exhibit 17. City of Yakima Council Districts ....................................... ....... 146 Exhibit 18. Dwelling Unit Capacity Under Current Zoning .............. ..... 147 Exhibit 19. Vacant, Infill, and Agriculture Acres in City Limits by Zone ................. .......... 148 Exhibit 20. Yakima Zoning Map .......................................................................................... Exhibit 21. Vacant Acres 200 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District ....... Exhibit 22. Vacant Acres 100 feet or more from Sewer Infrastructure by District ....... Exhibit 23. Total Vacant Acres without Sewer by District .......... Exhibit 24. Housing Change 2010-2040 ....................................... Exhibit 25. Housing Supply 2010-2040 ............................................................ Exhibit 26. Permitted Dwelling Units by Type and Year ............................... Exhibit 27. Permitted Dwelling Types 2015-2019: Share by Dwelling Type Exhibit 28. Permits by Dwelling Type 2015-2019 ........................................... Exhibit 29. Permits by Year and Zone* .......................................................... Exhibit 30. Permits by Zoning District .............................................................. Exhibit 31. Single Family Permit Values and Affordability Chart ................ Exhibit 32. Single Family Permit Average Values and Affordability Table Exhibit 33. Townhome Permit Values ............................................................. .148 .149 .149 .150 .150 I ........ 153 ........ 153 DRAFT May 2021 4 11MOSOM 22 Exhibit 34. Housing Element Goal and Policy Review.... ........ ...... 157 Exhibit 35. Housing Element Implementation of Programs and Action.... .... 166 Exhibit 36. Land Use Element Review ............................... ....................... ......... 170 Exhibit 37. City -owned Sites .................................................. ................ ___ ... ..... 184 Exhibit 38. Eviction Rate, City of Yakima .. ......... ......... .......... ___ ....... _,__ ... 187 Exhibit 39. Social Vulnerability Index Ranking, City of Yakima ...... __ ........ ............ ___ 189 DRAFT May 2021 is 23 Affordable Housing. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if the household is spending no more than 30% of its income on housing costs. A healthy housing market includes a variety of housing types that are affordable to a range of different household income levels. However, the term "affordable housing" is often used to describe income -restricted housing available only to qualifying low-income households. Income -restricted housing can be located in public, nonprofit, or for -profit housing developments. It can also include households using vouchers to help pay for market -rate housing (see "Vouchers" below for more details). American Community Survey (ACS). This is an ongoing nationwide survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau designed to provide communities with current data about how they are changing. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. We use data from the ACS throughout this needs assessment. Area Median Income (AMI). This is a term that commonly refers to the area -wide median family income calculation provided by HUD for a county or metropolitan region.' Income limits to qualify for affordable housing are often set relative to AMI. In this report, unless otherwise indicated, AMI refers to the HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI). Integration Committee was appointed by the City Council in 2017. The purpose and intent of the community integration committee is to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement; diversify the city government and workforce; provide additional review of policies, ordinances and resolutions if requested; and give a voice to all Yakima residents. Or 2017-034 § I (part), 2017). Cost Burden. When a household pays more than 30% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "cost -burdened." When a household pays more than 50% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "severely cost -burdened." Cost - burdened households have less money available for other essentials, like food, clothing, transportation, and medical care. g y/j DRAFT May 2021 1V 24 TPTITWOM Household. A household is a group of people living within the same housing unit.2 The people can be related, such as a family. A person living alone in a housing unit or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit are also counted as a household. Group quarters population, such as those living in a college dormitory, military barrack, #r nursing home, are not considered to be living in households. Aousehold Income. The U.S. Census Bureau defines household income as the sum of t-�%-_ income of all people 15 years and older living together in a household. Income- Restricted Housing. This term refers to housing units that are only available to households with incomes at or below a set income limit and are offered for rent or sale at a below -market rates. Some income -restricted rental housing is owned by a city or housing authority, while others may be privately owned. In the latter case the owners typically receive a subsidy in the form of a tax credit or property tax exemption. As a condition of their subsidy, these owners must offer a set percentage of all units as income -restricted and affordable to household at a designated income level. Low-income. Households that are designated as low-income may qualify for income - subsidized housing units. HUD categorizes families as low-income, very low-income, or txtremely low-income relative to HUD area median family incomes (HAMFI), with consideration for family size. See the table below. HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income Very Low-income 50% of HAMFI or less Low-income 80% of HAMA or less Median Family Income (MFI). The median income of all family households in an area. Family households are those that have two or r DRAFT May 2021 V Wasisam zn Vouchers (Tenant -based and Project -based). HUD provides housing vouchers to qualifying low-income households. These are typically distributed by local housing authorities. Vouchers can be "tenant -based," meaning the household can use the be "project -based," meaning they are assigned to a specific building.3 Universal Design. Universal design is "the design and composition of an environment that it can be accessed, understood, and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, or ability."4 When integrated into the built environment, universal design principles ensure that residents who are aging or who have a disability are not blocked from accessing housing and services. I ,orrno,e �m|o/n '. DRAFT May 2021 Vi .' ' ' OXANQE&A BB-1 26 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Introduction Introduction This Housing Action Plan (HAP) is the City of Yakima's plan for promoting affordable housing options for all community members across the city's neighborhoods. Affordable housing has many implications for Yakima. Housing has a demonstrated relationship to improved life outcomes for children. Yet many young families with modest incomes face staying in the community that has been their home for years. Workers who serve the community cannot afford to live near their jobs and face longer commutes, adding to regional and local congestion. The HAP's goal is to increase affordable housing opportunities for all households to improve community and economic health. The Housing Action Plan's six objectives are: A. Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. P. Create and preserve affordable homes. C. Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate- income households. �D. Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. E. Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. Fo Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. The Housing Action Plan is a five-year strategy that supports and guides city actions and existing long-range planning, including the 2024 update of the City of Yakima's 2040 Comprehensive Plan. The HAP is intended to supplement and inform existing documents, including but not limited to: * City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis 0 City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan 2040: Housing and Land Use Elements 4 City of Yakima Consolidated Plan 2015-2019 * Yakima County 5-Year Plan to Address Homelessness 2019-2024 a Yakima County Farmworker Housing Action Plan 2011-2016 1-0 11 1111111 1 - III DRAFT May 2021 7 27 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Introduction Development • this HAP is supported • • state -funded grant to enable communities• • their housing --• and develop strategies to address those housing needs. The HAP is • upon the best available data and broad • conversation around: Yakima's current and future housing -.• Yakima's existing housing policies and regulations. Plan Organization The Housing Action Plan is organized as follows: a Developing the HAP. This section includes the following: Summary of community input received for the Housing Action Plan. Description of the key findings from the analysis of housing needs in Yakima. Findings from an evaluation of the city's land capacity and housing policies in Yakima's adopted Comprehensive Plan, zoning, and land use code that implements these policies. a Objectives and Strategies. This section lists the six objectives that address community input, needs assessment findings, and policy review findings. Detailed strategies that nest under each objective are also included. a Implementation. This section lists strategies, fimelines, resource requirements, mrljuej=� Monitoring. This section includes key indicators that the City will use to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes. f i r DRAFT May 2021 8 28 Developing the HAP Developing the HAP The Housing Action Plan was developed between March 2020 and April 2021. The HA� benefited from the expertise and guidance of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC); interviews with stakeholders; and a communitywide survey (which captured 531 responses). Information and perspectives collected through the community engagement process provided additional insight about how specific challenges affect the lives of residents, especially those populations that are not always represented in these conversations. See Appendix A for a full summary of the community engagement activities. The HAP also used a wide range of quantitative data to help identify the key needs and challenges among Yakima residents and workers. Policies and regulations were also analyzed to inform strategies. Key findings from the engagement and analysis are presented below. See Appendix A, B, and C for a full summary of engagement activities, needs assessment, policy and regulatory review. Community Input The City of Yakima talked with residents as part of the HAP process to better understand barriers to securing affordable housing as well as residents' ideas for improving housing. The City conducted public engagement over the course of the project and heard from more than 500 members of the public and stakeholders. Engagement activities include& Broad communitv outreach and enaaaement: 00 nish. Affordability 300 Targeted outreach to families supported by La Casa Availability Hogar, including 144 confirmations and google Homelessness responses Qualify of housing 79 community leaders and service providers contacted Safety, crime, drugs, and gangs to help spread the word. 2 Spanish -language media outlets advertised the project. 11 Outreach including social media posts, press releases in English and Spanish, reaching 70 community contacts. There were 751 -page views on the City website. DRAFT May 2021 9 WN292%um 29 City of Yakima Housing Action PICS D/eveloping the H141 ee Need for a greater diversity of housing types, including infergenerafional housing 4 Interviews with local housing developers Shortage of housing and rising costs I detailed survey of the TAC, Anti -displacement policies Quality of existing housing I Meeting -in -a-box hosted by a TAC member. Institutional racism, income inequality, and 3 meetings and consultation with the Community geographic segregation Integration Committee (CIC). Support for first-time homebuyers 7 phone- and email interviews with members of the Transitional housing and mental health CIC. supports S phone interviews with members of the Yakima City Housing development challenges related Council, Mayor and City Manager. to lack of infrastructure 3 additional interviews with community leaders. The above input informed strategic objectives, shaped specific implementation steps, and provided insight into what key barriers needed to be addressed. Technical Analyses Like other communities across Washington, the City of Yakima faces a critical need for more affordable housing. The City of Yakima Housing Needs Assessment evaluated tht current housing supply and summarizes housing needs across the full spectrum of household types and income levels. Below are key findings from the Yakima Housing Needs Assessment. The City of Yakima has grown since 2010, with a current estimated population of 194,440 residents. The city is expected to continue growing and is projected to be home to 110,387 people by 2040. Compared to Washington State, the City of Yakima has a slightly larger proportion of younger residents (Under 5 and under 18) and a slightly smaller proportion of residents between 50 and 69 years of age (20% between 50 and 69 in the city vs. DRAFT May 2021 10 30 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing t he HAP HOEMOM Yakima is ethnically diverse. The City of Yakima's Hispanic or Latinx population comprises 46% of its population, compared to 12% statewide. The younger population in the City of Yakima is far more ethnically diverse than the older age groups. This is particularly apparent in the student population. In 2019, 13,069 (80%) of students at Yakima School District identified as Hispanic/Latino. Reflecting its ethnic diversity, Yakima has a high proportion of residents who speak a language other than English at home. Approximately 37% of the city's total population speak a language other than English at home, compared to 19% statewide. The average household size in Yakima is 2.71, slightly larger than the statewide average of 2.55. While the average household size is larger relative to the state, more than half (58%) of the city's residents live in single or two -member households. Renters are more likely to be single -person households than owners (Exhibit 1). =1 There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes for sale are extremely low - below 11%. When vacancy rates are so low, people looking for new homes have fewer options, increasing competition for t limited supply of units available. This drives up both rents and housing prices, I DRAFT May 2021 31 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP * Local housing prices are rising faster than local incomes. The median home value in Yakima has risen by 33% between 2012 to 2019 while average rents increased by ®. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective buyers. See Exhibit 2. * In the lost 3 years, the city grew by an annual average of 530 new residents, a greater annual amount compared to 2010-2017 at 386 persons per year. To achieve its growth forget, the city will need to add about 745 persons per year over the next 20 years. * The average household size in Yakima is 2.71.6 If applying a 2.7 household size to the remaining population target, about 5,517 dwelling units would be needed between 2020 and 2040. Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2012 in Average Home Values, Average Rents and HUD Median Family Income 40% N 20% 19% 100-- 008-0. 00/0 -20% 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 —Average Home Value Yakima —Average Rent Yakima —Median Family Income Yakima County Sources Zillow, Febajary 2020: HUD Income Limik 2019. 13F!ZK, 2020. Cost Burdened Households 8 Many households in Yakima are cost burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all DRAFT May 2021 12 32 Developing the HAP households in Yakima were cost burdened. Cost -burdened households spend a large portion (over 30%) of their available income on housing costs. This leaves le money available for other important needs like food, transportation, clothing, an education. With rising housing costs, the number of cost -burdened households In almost certainly increased during the past few years. Cost burden is not evenly distributed across households. For example, renters are more cost -burdened than owners. Nearly 50% of renter households were cost - burdened, compared to about a quarter of all homeowners (Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 4). Needs are greatest among low-income households. About three fourths of all households with incomes below 50% of the county median family income are cost - burdened. Nearly half of these households are severely cost -burdened, meaning they spend over 50% of their income on housing costs (Exhibit 3). While there are lo income households living in neighborhoods across the city, the greatest concentration of low-income households is in eastern Yakima, and many of these Sources: HUD CUAS (based onACJ5-ypursshmo|os) 20l2-2016;DLRK'2020 DRAFT May 2O2| 13 33 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing Ihe HAP JUJJ,JJX,JIIEI['=I;1 �! All ��63% Households EW= �� �� � 1 0 Severely Cost -Burdened 0 Cost-Bu rdened Renters MEN= 490%, Not Cost Burdened SzI vvners m� 75% Not Colculat Several groups may have special housing needs or supportive service needs, such residents experiencing homelessness, residents with disabilities, and older residents. Given the city's proximity to a large seasonal agricultural workforce, farmworkers cc] also have special housing needs that differ from the general population. Low -wage workers are traveling long distances to jobs in Yakima. Over 7,000 low - wage workers commute more than 50 miles from their home to a workplace in Yakima. That is nearly a quarter of all low -wage workers in the city. Many of these workers may be living outside of Yakima due to housing affordability or the inability to find suitable housing in the city. There is considerable need among elderly residents. There are 5,400 elderly persons living alone in Yakima. About 42% of these residents are cost -burdened and 22% are DRAFT May 2021 14 34 ml Developing the HAP Yakima needs more housing diversity. Over 65% of all housing units in Yakima are single- family homes. Not all households require or can afford that much space. For example, about 30% of all households in Yakima are singles living alone, yet only 5% of housing units in Yakima are studios and only 13% have just one bedroom. Increasing the diversity of housing options available will increase housing supply and provide more choices for residents seeking more affordable housing that meets their current needs. Countywide there is a shortage of seasonal farmworker housing. There are approximately 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker housing provided throughout the county, despite over 23,700 migratory jobs available in the busiest summer months.7 identifying safe and high -quality housing for seasonal workers is an importaapt* address in Yakima County. The Housing Policy Framework Evaluation reviewed and evaluated the current City Comprehensive Plan Housing Element, as well as other elements, regulatory incentives, _rL types and units, achievement of goals and policies, and implementation of the schedule of programs and actions. Overall findings from the review and an evaluation *f land capacity, infrastructure needs, and housing activity are presented below. The policy framework evaluation found the City of Yakima could improve its policy implementation in these respects: Identify funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise 'undevelopable' parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). DRAFT May 2021 15 35 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Explore incentives for projects that construct new senior housing such as: reducet.' parking requirements, clustering of units, variety of housing types. is Consider expansion of the Multi -Family Tax Exemption (MFTE) into areas outside of the downtown core. Consider revision to parking standards, especially for high density residential and in the downtown core. a The City has more than twice the housing capacity needed under current zoning (an approximate capacity of 14,500 dwelling units versus a need of about 5,500 dwellings). About 38% of the current capacity is for single-family dwellings, about 16% is for multiplexes and townhouses, and 46% is for dwellings in multi -family and mixed -use districts. Most of this capacity is in the western part of the city. iT-tost vacant land is zoned R-1, with relatively less in other zones. Some land is �-i agricultural use and planned for future residential or non-residential uses. infrastructure Evaluation There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city and about 25% of it is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represent about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. The City has demonstrated that it can produce both quantity and diversity in housing. Based on OFM data, since 2017 Yakima has produced 648 dwellings, or 216 dwellings per year, a little lower than the need between 2020-2040 at 295 units per year.8 However, based on permit data since 2017-2019, the City permitted 1, 145 ne! new units, which would be 381 units per year, above the 295 units per year needed. The City is allowing a range of housing types including more affordable missing middle (plex, townhouse, etc.) ownership and rental housing, and apartments, DRAFT May 2021 16 1 9 i 36 Objedives ancl Strategi Objectives and Strategies Six objectives were identified for the HAP based on a synthesis of the findings of the technical analyses and stakeholder and community engagement: A. Housing Supply: Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. Ba Affordability: Create and preserve affordable homes. Cn Homeownership: Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate - income households. D. Older Adult Options: Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults, EA Stability: Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. F. Anti- Displacement: Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. All strategies are identified as being City- or Partner- lead, which is further defined as follows: City Lead: Priority Strategies where the City is identified as the lead will be implemented by the City of Yakima. This will include, but not be limited to, review and modification to ordinances (zoning, subdivision, environmenfal review, etc.); review and modification of the Comprehensive Plan 2040; and analysis and modification of city policy for city -owned property, code enforcement, utility connections, permit review, fee structures, etc. Partner Lead: Priority Strategies where Partner is identified as lead will be implemented by a variety of local partners with City support as available. It is anticipated that local partners will be able to point to Partner -Lead strategies in t HAP when seeking support for grant funding, developing projects, and i mplementing their programs. DRAFT May 2021 17 37 Priority I Strategies The following six strategies are top priority for the City of Yakima: 1, Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing -types. 2. Make strategic investments in infrastructure. 3. Encourage rent -to -own opportunities and sweat equity programs. 4. Expand and update down payment assistance programs, 5. Develop, acquire, or sell surplus or Linder -utilized city property, 6. Incentivize landlords to improve the qualify and maintenance of housing. Please use the below key to interpret the summary table under each strategy heading in the following pages. WA TOWNE INVESTMENT EFFORT Short-term $ Minimal investment 0 Minimal effort at Mid-term $$ Moderate investment So Moderate effort (z) (1,,,) Long-term Significant investment 0 6 * Significant effort Major investment M W52293m= 38 Obiectives and St�cltegi(mm I . Update city regulations to remove barriers to innovative housing types. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city Affordability Housing Supply Older Adult Options Stability Anti-Displacernent Description. Most housing in the City of Yakima is single-family (65% of all housing inventory) or multifamily of three or more units (22% of all housing inventory). Supporting innovative housing types and arrangements will more fully meet the needs and preferences of Yakima's community members. For example, community engagement revealed that many Yakima residents seek multigenerational, senior, and more affordable housing opportunities that these types of innovative housing can facilitate. There are a wide variety of housing types that help reduce housing costs and fit into a small-town character. Each is defined below. 393330G== Examples of innovative housing types include: Tiny homes are small dwelling units on a foundation or on a carriage with wheels with between 150-400 square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable compared with traditional site -built homes. They may be located on their own lot, serve as an accessory dwelling unit, or be located in a village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park. Their small size and cottage like nature make them compatible in single-family areas on their own lot or as an accessory dwelling unit. They may offer temporary or long-term housing for seasonal workers such as in a manufactured home or RV park. Senate Bill (SB) 5383, passed in May 2019, legally permitted tiny houses as permanent dwellings in Washington State; as a result, the State Building Council adopted International Residential Code standards that apply to tiny houses, effective in November 2020. SB 5383 also expanded IRCW 58.17.040(5) of the subdivision statute to allow the creation of tiny house villages such as through a binding site plan and stops cities from prohibiting tiny houses in manufactured/mobile home parks. House Bill (HB) 1085, passed in 2018, also allows local jurisdictions to remove minimum unit size limitations on detached houses. DRAFT May 2021 19 39 Congregate housing "sleeping rooms" are often in the 140-200 square -foot range and may include private bathrooms and kitchenettes. Shared facilities include kitchens, gathering areas, and other common amenities for residents. A small efficiency dwelling unit (SEDU) is a very small studio apartment including a complete kitchen and bathroom. Typically, the units will be as small as 220 square feet of total floor space, as compared to 300 square feet for the smallest typical conventional studio apartments. Microhomes are more affordable apartment units, and could be located in commercial, mixed -use, and high -density multifamily zones. Modular homes are structures that are built offsite, then transported to a permanent site. They differ from manufactured or mobile homes in that modular homes are constructed to meet the same state, regional, or local building codes as site -built homes, while manufactured homes adhere to national HUD code standards.9 Co-op housing is a form of shared housing in which a cooperative corporation owns housing, and residents own stock shares in the corporation and participate in jovernance of the cooperative.10 Shared property, usually including a common house, is part of what defines this type of housing. These spaces allow residents to gather for shared meals, activities, and celebrations as well as the collaborative work -equired to care for the spaces. Multi -generational hoimes are designed to provide space for multiple generations living together under one roof, with each generation benefiting from their own separate space and privacy. The design of the home is similar to a single-family residence in outward appearance with an interior layout designed around comm areas with separate spaces for the different family groups. I Other related dwelling unit types include cottages - a cluster of small dwelling units, generally less than 1,200 square feet, around a common open space - and zero -hot line development, which allows a zero or minimal setback normally required within a particular zone thus promoting efficient use of buildable land. Zero -lot line development is common with townhouse developments and may also be designed as an attached single-family home. The City of Yakima has made several changes recently to encourage the above housing types. Tiny houses on an individual lot are currently treated f he some as a regular single-family home. The City has also updated its definition of multifamily - ----- --- - DRAFT May 2021 20 40 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies development to include any residential use where three or more dwellings are on the same lot. This can be 3+ tiny homes, a duplex and a tiny home, or other combinations, A new manufactured home can be placed anywhere a single-family home can locate, consistent with state law. However, process and level of review for these housing types can be improved. For example, to build a tiny home on a new smaller single lot (smaller than the city's current minimum lot size requirement of 6,000 SF) one must go through a Planned Development process. Streamlining and simplifying the review process for smaller housing types can further support encourage these housing types. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Housing like tiny homes and modular housing is often less expensive to develop than traditional, single-family homes. These cost savings could help encourage and facilitate the development of more housing that can also be more attainable for households with lower incomes. This housing is often also more suitable for small households, for whom Yakima currently has a shortage of housing options. Cooperative single-family homeownership. Yakima, like many communities in Washington, also has a shortage of farmworker housing. Innovative housing types can provide formworkers with high -quality housing that meets local codes, but at a lower cost to developers. Considerations. Additional options to encourage tiny homes, micro housing, cottagc homes, multigenerational homes and others include: Allowing for different zoning/density options to incorporate the above -listed housing types. tensity/massing and review process: Consider allowing a higher number of units than typical for the zone, due to smaller home size or where legacy pesticides are present. Some density increase is essential because the units are smaller and usually more expensive to build on a cost/square feet basis. Consider applying a maximum floor area ratio limit or an across the board allowed density for tiny houses, for instance one tiny house per 1,200 square foot of lot area. Consider reduced development standards such as lot coverage and setbacks for multi -generational homes. Design elements. Provide design standards in a manner similar to cottage housing clusters: • Consider providing design standards for both common open spaces and semi- private open spaces for individual cottages. • Permit construction of a shared community building to provide a space for gathering and sharing tools. • Play close attention to how parking can/should be integrated with tiny house DRAFT May 2021 21 41 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies Example Communities W 1-1111111-1-- ; "- , . Haystack Heights in Spokane is an intergenerational village that is close to downtown with clustered townhouses and flats to maximize efficiency, interaction, and green space. Designed to include 39 units spread out among four buildings, the development includes spaces to share skills and facilities. DRAFT May 2021 22 WSIUMSS= 42 2. Make strategic investments in infrastructure. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City Affordability Housing Supply Stability Anfi- Displacement Description. The Housing Needs Assessment found there is a housing shortage in Yakima. Increasing the overall supply of housing is one way to address this housing shortage. A key strategy to expand housing supply is to support the availability of sufficient land with infrastructure to respond to demand for more housing units. This includes identifying funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise 'undevelopable' parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home that cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). Strategic selection of infrastructure priorities in the capital facilities element can also help support the city's housing program as one cost associated with development is the cost of upgrading existing or developing new infrastructure to serve development. Gaps Addressed. There are two types of gaps in Yakima: 1) lack of sewer in growing areas to the north and west and 2) existing developed neighborhoods with poor infrastructure and little to no amenities. This often included an incomplete street grid system and no curb, gutter, or sidewalks. Many of these areas are still on septic systems. There are some gaps in the extent of municipal water and sewer systems in particular that should be addressed to advance City goals for revitalization in already developed areas as well as future development areas. There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city, about 25% of which is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represents about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. Considerations. The policy review found that adding sewer infrastructure, especially in District 5, can expand land available for development or redevelopment. Infrastructure improvements in existing neighborhoods (sidewalks, streets) especially those highlighted in the displacement risk map as at high risk of displacement is a key consideration. State laws allow community revitalization funding to be applied to infrastructure investments. Cities may also initiate �atecomer's agreements and help fund extensions. Latecomer agreements allow a property owner to request that a municipality contract with them to extend street or utility improvements; the owner can recoup a portion of their costs to install the new facilities from others benefiting from the infrastructure DRAFT May 2021 23 43 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies extension. A property owner who benefits from the infrastructure put in by the "first in" developer then contributes their fair share for connecting to the facility. Latecomer agreements are a way to share the cost of building infrastructure and can be a helpful JAZ%—it-Tu- to development. Statutes authorize counties and cities to have a process to contract with owners of real estate for the construction or improvement of street projects; counties or cities may also participate in or finance all the costs and become the sole beneficiary of the reimbursements for streets. In 2013 and 2015, the Washington State Legislature made changes to latecomers' laws to require a municipality or district to contract with the owners of real estate upon request to extend water or sewer service where it is a prerequisite to development. The legislative changes also allow counties or cities to participate in or to initiate latecomers' agreements for utilities. Facilities must be consistent with all applicable comprehensive plans and development regulations (e.g., consistent with comprehensive water system plans, sewer plans, infrastructure standards and specifications, etc.). The applicable statutes for counties and cities have similar requirements regarding: 1) initiation of the improvement by the owner of real estate or by the municipality, provided the improvement is necessary for development; 2) determination of the beneficiaries in a reimbursement assessment area; 3) notification of property owners in the reimbursement area and a process to request a hearing (RCW 35.72 and RCW 35.91 only); 4) recording upon approval; and 5) reimbursement collection over a 15- 20-year period (roads shorter, utilities longer). The City of Yakima has a latecomers agreement ordinance - YMC1-C1'1f-,1,,,,7 -,67. Regular updates to this ordinance as well as strategic marketing of these regulations can help support housing development. DRAFT May 2021 24 44 3. Encourage rent -to -own opportunities and sweat equity programs. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 1) (9- $ Affordability Homeownership Stribility Anti-Displacerrient Description. Traditional rent -to -own opportunities are a contractual agreement between a landlord -seller and a renter -buyer that grants the renter either the option or the obligation to purchase the rental home for a pre -determined price prior to the txpiration of the lease term. In some cases, the agreement terms include a rent credit, in which the tenant pays rent above market -rate, but the landlord reserves a portion of the rent for the tenant's future down payment. Traditional rent -to -own contracts fend to be financially risky for renters, as they can include upfront fees, higher rents, and on obligation for the tenant to pay for repairs and upgrades; all with the possibility that the deal can be terminated and additional costs forfeited if the tenant misses a rent payment, is evicted, or violates the agreement in any other way. However, in the wake of the Great Recession, some municipalities have created publicly backed rent -to -own programs for foreclosed properties. I I In cases where a nonprofit or public agency takes on the role of landlord -owner, such programs provide a unique opportunity for renters to build credit and make steps towards homeownershi# without leaving their community. Program rules vary but the overall concept of sweat equity is to build new affordable homes or renovate distressed ones with the help of the people who will live there. The hours the buyers volunteer help save on labor costs and can be calculated to function as a down payment on the property. The buyers must also qualify for the mortgage. Habitat for Humanity is an example program. Gaps Addressed. Publicly backed rent -to -own programs can help create more affordable homeownership opportunities and bring these opportunities to more households that have been traditionally excluded from homeownership, including BIPOC households. Similarly, sweat equity programs are designed for lower -income "ff. • I "t'i T 6W�rK* n W 6 s iu #.fford to own a home. DRAFT May 2021 25 45 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies significantly more protections for renters than •i traditional rent -to -own contract arrangements. Due to the limited amount of HOME Investment funds that the City • Yakima receives, combined with the limited number of qualified • personnel, compared to the much larger entitlement amounts rewarded to the larger entitlements, the City has limited resources to directly build homes. City efforts since 2013 hove concentrated on supporting its housing partners with gap financing on multi- family units for households with low to moderate incomes. The City currently partners with the Yakima Housing Authority and Habitat for Humanity who build homes. DRAFT May 2021 26 46 Objectives and Sfrategill 4. Expand and update down payment assistance programs. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES 7i—io. T. b_15y_ Horne"7717W7 Padner G CO, 00 Stability Anti- Displacement Description. Because saving enough money for a down payment can take many years, and economic displacement pressures push households to relocate long before they save enough for a down payment, down payment assistance programs offer no - interest or low -interest capital for qualified buyers. Many programs support first-time home buyers and can be accompanied with home ownership education courses to support financial preparedness for first time homeowners. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the community by helping renters who want to invest long term in their neighborhood to purchase their first home. Considerations. The City of Yakima had a "down payment assistance program" that was cancelled due to widespread fraudulent practices by some local lending institutions, realtors, and others. Identifying a roster of community -based organizations who can work with the community to apply eligibility and property selection criteria is one way to improve the program implementation. DRAFT May 2021 27 47 5. Develop, acquire, or sell surplus or under-utilized city property. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City 00 Affordability Housing Supply Stability Anfl­Displacernent Description. The policy review found that the City of Yakima owns some under-utilized lands that could be suitable for housing development. These public lands could be donated or leased to affordable housing developers to reduce development costs and to make projects more financially feasible. Under IRCW 39.33.015, the City could also discount or gift land that it owns for "public benefit," defined as affordable housing up to 80% AMI. The Cil Of )"(DkiPlU -,i�;L -L�!�2r 1 .79 addresses the use of surplus property for affordable housing and establishes a transparent process to dispose of properties for affordable housing when properties are considered surplus to the city's needs. Gaps Addressed. By making more land available for affordable housing, including different types of housing, this strategy would help increase the housing supply in Yakima. The new affordable housing units could also serve older adults or very -low income populations. By relieving the cost burden and creating a greater diversity of housing, this strategy could support affordable homeownership. Considerations. This strategy is best suited for communities that may own surplus Ian The City of Yakima has identified properties that could be considered as surplus property to donate for affordable housing or sold. 12 1 DRAFT May 2021 28 lll!i�MIIII 48 6. Incentivize landlords to improve the quality and maintenance of housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city 0 (D• Affordability Housing Supply Stability Anfi-Displacement Description. While maintenance regulations discourage landlords from offering substandard housing, incentives can reward landlords that provide high -quality, well - maintained rental properties. Examples include providing landlords who meet the criteria with access to technical support, access to forums with city officials, fast - tracking of permits, reduced fees for municipal services, free or reduced cost equipment, free advertising of available rentals, and discounts at local merchants/contractors. Incentives that reward landlord who rent to lower -income residents or voucher holders have also been found to increase housing choice. The City could reduce permit fees for repairs or improvements and support programs that provide funding to cover security deposits and cost of damages and interest free loans for rehabilitation efforts. Gaps Addressed. incentives for landlords to improve rental housing helps ensure that ilenter households have access to safe and decent housing, while also supporting landlords in maintaining a high -quality rental housing stock. Weatherization incentives can ensure that the costs of outdated or inefficient utilities do not fall on renters. 1`110-TIT-1 7Tn iefertife exiSTIng resources ana SYSTeMS T# provide incentives that are low-cost to the City. Successful incentives are based on 4iologue with property owners, landlords, and renters. This dialogue will help the City understand current gaps and shortcomings in maintenance of rental properties and how incentives could best help to maintain high -quality rental housing. Examples Through its kn0jri,corrie w5111__ theriza fical Pacific Power partners with local agencies to provide free weatherization services to income -qualifying homeowners and renters living in single-family homes, mobile homes or apartments. Based on the home's needs, a variety of measures can be installed to lower electric bills while keeping homes comfortable. offers participating landlords' reimbursement for short-term vacancies and minor unit repairs when they rent units to a low-income renter with a housing voucher. To be eligible, a landlord must participate in the Landlord Recruitment Campaign. The threshold for repairs is up to $300 and not more than $1,000. DRAFT May 2021 29 49 In 2018, the Washington State Landlord Mitigation Law (RCW 43.31.605) became effective to provide landlords with an incentive and added security to work with tenants receiving rental assistance. The program offers such incentives as reimbursement for required move -in upgrades, up to 14 days' rent loss and reimbursement for damages caused by a tenant. Priority 2 Strategies The following nine strategies are second priority for the City of Yakima: 7. Create design standards for mulfifamfly and mixed -use development. 8. Improve permitting and environmentall review (process. 9. Expand need -based rehabilitation assistance,. 10. Add more permanent supportive housing, I I. Support seasonal farmworker housing as severe -weather shelters, 12. Ensure code enforcement does not displace residents. 13. Continue to support education programs on homeownership, 14. Revise parking standards in key areas. 15. Partner with local nonprofits and housing providers. Please use the below key to interpret the summary table under each strategy heading in the following pages. Key TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT G Short-term Minimal investment 0 Minimal effort CQ Mid-term Moderate investment 09 Moderate effort Long-term Significant investment 00 0 Significant effort Major investment DRAFT May 2021 30 50 Objectives and Strategi 7. Create design standards for multifamily and mixed -use development. LEAD TIPMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city (D $$ 00 Affordablilly Older Adult Options Description. Well -crafted design standards help to expand housing choices while minimizing impacts to adjacent uses and reinforcing the character of the area. They mitigate impacts of density, building massing/scale, parking and vehicle access areas, and service elements. Design standards can be used to promote compatible "infill" development in the downtown core, business districts, and neighborhoods, to incrementally transform automobile -oriented neighborhoods or corridors into more A,ewob "vo sites consistent with the community's on. Universal design is a key element to integrate with design standards. Universal design creates an environment accessible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability, o disability. Universal design features include the layout and design of the home as well specific features within homes. Typical layouts that accommodate universal design include locating a bathroom and bedroom on the first floor and others. Specific features include handrails or grab bars in the bathroom, doorways sized to fit wheelchairs, a wheelchair -accessible kitchen, and a step -free entryway into the hom] Gaps Addressed. Yakima does not yet have design standards for commercial and multifamily development. The City does allow " 13mixed use buildings" as a class I can help the City set expectations for quality and affordable design in new development ,#.nd prioritize investments in existin-q neighborhoods lackine infrastructure, recreation, and *ther features. Addressing design quality can also increase the acceptance and com�#tatibilito of new housin�*,. i9ke-s- �Ibwortin_ g, housin_#j_t-V,#,,e varietp. Demand for universal 4esign is expected to grow as the community ages. I - Considerations. Balanced design standards should promote good design without imposing prohibitively costly standards on new developments. Design standards should focus on form to ensure housing scale and site design is compatible with surrounding neighborhoods. Form based standards that should be prioritized include floor -area - ratio, fa(;ade articulation, building massing, height, and bulk, and trees/shade. Integrating development and design standards as complementary standards can help DRAFT May 2021 31 51 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies balance design with feasibility. Allowing scaling of standards based on the form of the building rather than the number of units is also a key consideration to avoid discour• _•IinQ small units on small for modified parking standards, smaller unit sizes and different combinations of attached and detached units. mm• =� Consider an approach that utilizes clear minimum standards but offers strategic flexibility with clear guidance in how alternative designs are evaluated. Such an approach offers a good mix of predictability and flexibility and can be tailored to fit the community. Ultimately if offers a community the opportunity to say no if the design doesn't meet the intent while offering applicants flexibility to propose alternative designs. Craft design standards to offer choices in how to conform with particular design provisions, whether it's the techniques to articulate a faqade or how to add desired design details to storefronts. Such provisions allow greater flexibility in design and the ability to better control construction costs. Provide plenty of photos and graphics to effectively illustrate the standards. Consider providing multiple good examples so applicants understand there are several ways to meet the standard. Likewise, providing bad examples can be very effective tools at communicating "what not to do." Such illustrations should clearly communicate the standard or standards. Similar to form -based approach, some factors to consider in developing design standards: * Pay special attention to the review process and staffing resources and needs. * Make sure the required design features are economically feasible. * Consider the standard's usability by staff, applicants, and the community — * Test key elements of the design standards prior to adoption to ensure that — DRAFT May 2021 32 52 8. Improve permitting and environmental review process. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECUVES CRY r.") $ Do Affordability Housing Supply Description. Providing an efficient, predictable, and user-friendly permitting process can encourage new housing construction by reducing potential confusion or perception of risk among developers as well as lowering their administrative carrying costs. Many City practices facilitate permit processing and provide clarity and speed for applicants, such as the free of charge pre -application meeting, and an on-line permit building permit portal. The City did extensive work on the permit process in 2019 by simplifying permit levels for housing unit types, creating an infill exemption under the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and raising maximum exemption thresholds under SEPA. The City provides monthly and annual permit summaries to track progress. There are potentially other ways in which the City can improve the clarify, speed, and consistency of the permit review process, consistent with legal requirements." Gaps Addressed. Improved permitting and review add clarity and certainty to the development process. This can translate to higher interest in development in Yakima and improvements in affordability. Considerations. Adaptive management through permit procedure audits or studies and refinements can help ensure that permitting improvements are continuous and effective. This could identify additional policy and process changes to improve permit review timelines and communication. DRAFT May 2021 33 53 Objedives and Strategi 9. Expand need -based rehabilitation assistance. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Padner (9 GIP Affordability Housing Supply Older Adult Opflons Stability Anfi- Displacement Description. Rehabilitation projects for existing housing supports community longevit Need -based rehabilitation assistance helps low-income residents, people with olisabilities, and older adults to make needed home repairs and safety upgrades by *ffering favorable financing terms or time -limited tax abatements to qualified homeowners. The City currently has two programs that address need -based -ehabilitation. Continued support and expansion of this program is necessary to me the community's housings needs. 0 The City offers a Senior/Disabled emergency rehabilitation program to fix life and safety issues that would otherwise displace these elderly and frail homeowners into care facilities or risk homelessness. the City of Yakima Office of Neighborhood development Services assists approximately 100 Senior/Disabled low to moderate income Homeowner units a year with CDBG Single Family Rehabilitation program. The City's Senior/Disabled Home repair program was established over 20 years ago. The average grant awarded is approximately $5000 per home over a lifetime. In 2019, 74 homes were served. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the communit— Rehabilitation projects that address weatherization and energy efficiency I improvements can improve long-term affordability for homeowners by reducing monthly energy costs. I W*=* 1-40 1 -1 W -I M L410 OXOME4 T-3 #FFCT*77771,7777FI-71#17 4" and RCW 84.38 provide for property tax deferral for homeowners with limited incomes. Awareness of these programs is also an important component of success. Local housing websites should provide information on state and local programs for home repair assistance and help with energy bills to increase awareness and expand the reach of existing programs. DRAFT May 2021 34 54 10. Add more permanent supportive housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner (D Q-) $$$$ 00 Stability Anfi-Displacement Description. Permanent supportive housing programs provide households with a �*termanent, subsidized hojxi��,*ityr= income towards rent), along with supportive services, such as health care, mental health treatment, and substance use disorder counseling. Permanent supportive housing is more expensive than other homelessness interventions but has been shown to be highly effective in reducing homelessness and use of crisis services (such as shelters, hospitals, and jails) among the highest -need households experiencing homelessness. Because of the associated reduction in use of crisis services, permanent supportive housing has been shown to be cost-effective. Gaps Addressed. Permanent supportive housing can bring together housing with supportive services that build independent living and tenancy skills and address the issue of chronic homelessness. It is also a cost-effective solution which has been shown to lower public costs associated with the use of crisis services. Considerations. Communities are almost never able to provide permanent supportive housing for all households that need it; need outstrips supply, and many individuals who need permanent supportive housing will not receive the service. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local providers/developers of homeless services to ensure that any plans for permanent supportive housing are consistent with the countywide plan for homelessness services. Example Programs �,,Jeigjibr_�rho�:)d Health S(-,,..,fvis, offers permanent, supportive housing though a program called Master Lease. The program is based on relationships local landlords who lease with the program to house those experiencing homelessness. Once housed, clients receive regular case management from trained staff who support the participant's decision -making in their path to self-sufficiency. Through the recently completed Rhonda D. Huff Resource Center, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services also offers temporary and permanent supportive housing for up to 37 people and provides case managers who connect residents to services, legal aide, employment, and other basic needs. DRAFT May 2021 35 55 11. Support seasonal farmworker housing as severe -weather shelters. LEAD I 0A ELI N E INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner C9 00 Affordability Housing SUPPIV Stabifliy Anfl- Displacement Description. Yakima County is home to more than 20,600 year-round agricultural jobs with more than 23,700 migratory jobs available during peak months. There are 4,637 beds available for seasonal workers in Yakima County. These beds house temporary farmworkers during peak times of agricultural production. As such, they are primarily used in the spring, summer, and autumn with comparatively little demand for these beds in winter months. By coordinating with operators of these facilities, public agencie! and/or nonprofits could potentially secure additional winter shelter beds for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Some housing providers have already started to use vacant seasonal farmworker housing for other purposes during the winter. Gaps Addressed. This strategy has the potential to provide additional shelter beds for individuals and families experiencing homelessness in winter when the need is greater due to severe weather. .......... —f�;- *t full capacity during the winter months. Farmworker housing facilities that receive public (state or federal) funds for construction or operations may be restricted in who they can serve. Advocacy with the legislature to remove these requirements will be needed. For example, the Department of Revenue's (DOR) policy is that any use other than formworker housing during the winter in the first five years would make a property ineligible for the sales tax exemption provided for farmworker housing. DRAFT May 2021 36 56 alm Objectives and Strategies Case Study. Yakima Housing Authority Creative Use of Farmworker Housing to Help Residents Experiencing Homelessness During the winter of 2016-2017, Yakima Housing Authority YHA initiated a creative use of the Cosecha Court apartment complex, located in the city of Granger, to meet the needs of both seasonal workers and residents at risk of homelessness. Cosecho Court was funded primarily through the U.S, Department of Agriculture (USDA) Section 514/516 Farm Labor Housing Loan and Grant program, with smaller amounts from the Washington State Housing Trust Fund and the HUD Community Development Block Grant Housing Enhancement program, Given the limitations of the funding that limits occupancy to agricultural workers, the Yakima Housing Authority initially had been forced to close Cosecha Court when the agricultural season ended. The facility was not used during three of the coldest months of the year even as the community struggled with a severe shortage of housing and acute homelessness. YHA worked with the USDA and state agencies to get permission to use Cosecha Court as temporary housing for residents experiencing homelessness, a purpose outside its funded mandate. Working with two local service providers, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services and the Northwest Community Action Center, the housing development was able to address, in the short term, homeless residents' need for stable housing, In total, the program sheltered 89 individuals, including 49 children, for 1,914 bed nights. The program has other benefits, such as relieving the burden on local churches, which typically provide temporary housing for residents experiencing homelessness, Source: htlqs Idt)se, , L-- t) 1V DRAFT May 2021 37 57 12. Ensure code enforcement does not displace residents. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city G G ss to Affordability Stability A witi- Displacement Description. Some residential rental units have code violations which impact the safety and health of occu�#tants. In some cases these vacate the structure to allow for extensive repairs. These code violations are often caused by deferred maintenance or negligence by the property owner. The City code enforcement would only cause eviction as a last resort if it is a life safety issue. The City works with community members and exercises a flexible approach to code enforcement when able. However, code enforcement could unintentionally cause the eviction of the tenant household from its residence. Using a phased code enforcement process allows owners more time to secure financing and complete upgrades, reducing the likelihood that owners are forced to sell, or landlords are forced to Gaps Addressed. Code enforcement plays an important role in ensuring that housing is safe and well -maintained. Considerations. Code enforcement can trigger displacement. Code enforcement policies should balance the advantages of providing property owners flexibility and leniency in reaching code compliance with the need for equitable code enforcement, In the absence of carefully considered policies for phased code enforcement, enforcement discretion may advantage certain groups of owners above others. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as tool developed to identify vulnerability to hazardous events nationwide. The index was developed to assist public health and emergency response experts to identify areas o extra concern in the event of a shock such as a natural disaster. Many of the included variables, however, relate to housing vulnerability as well: poverty rates, identifying minority communities, and housing issues like crowding. Not all factors captured are relevant to identifying displacement risk, but they help paint a picture of neighborhooi IMMEEM Results identify areas in Yakima with high vulnerability concerns. Over half (56%) of Census tracts have concentrated populations of lower socioeconomic status. Yakima city is also home to many people of color and non-English speaking residents, who also disproportionately face displacement risk. The map in Exhibit 35 (Appendix E) shows the areas of Yakima with higher concern for displacement risk. These neighborhoods in East Yakima and smaller neighborhoods to the north and west of the city should be of particular focus for outreach and anti -displacement policy implementation. DRAFT May 2021 38 mamwwam= 58 1 :1 MO Oblectives and Strategies 13. Continue to support education programs on homeownership. LEAD TIMELINE WELT ENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner G G $$$$ 00 Homeownership Stability Anti- Displcement Description. Many residents have needs for housing support programs that extend beyond mere production of units. First-time homeowners face several barriers to own homes, such as little or poor credit. Homeowner education helps residents prepare for the yrocess of *,urchasinx a home and the challen�ges of beinzW a new homeowner. T-�rt City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) currently works with Habitat for Humanity to educate through "certified" first time homebuyer classes, counsel credit, and assist to secure financial assistance. Continued support for this program is necessary. r'. Gaps Addressed. Promoting programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers will address barriers to homeownership. Research indicates that low- an*. moderate -income homebuyers might stand to benefit most from these programs. Considerations. Community members benefit most from homeownership education ,#l.nd counseling when the available support is customized to their needs, easily wccessible, and offered early in the process. Many first-time homeowners can face unexAected Costs stru le to ccams. Education and counsel should address these issues. Community input also indicated the need for counsel to be offered in culturally competent ways. Example Resources/Programs The NeighborWorks Center for Homeownership Education and Counseling (NCHEC) Training and Certification program offers practitioners certification to demonstrate advanced level knowledge and professional competency. Certification requirements include a level of training and examination, adoption of the National Industry Standards for Homeownership Education and Counseling, adoption of the National Code of Ethics and Conduct, and continuing education. Training towards NCHEC certification can be obtained through NeighborWorks Training Institutes (NTIs) and regional place -based training (PBTs). DRAFT May 2021 39 wwla:: 59 14. Revise parking standards in key areas. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City G Affordability Housing Supply Older Adult Opflons Description. Yakima currently has minimum parking standards for residential buildingS.15 Current parking standards require 1.5 or 2 stalls per multifamily unit (depending on density) and 2 per single-family detached dwelling. Parking facilities add substantial cost in the development new housing, whether it's surface or structured parking. Reducing parking can be an important way to increase affordability. Parking needs also vary by location and household type. Senior households, for instance, may have less need parking. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Decreasing development costs by revising parking standards could help encourage and facilitate the development of new housing. Areas in the city near transit can support and benefit from higher -density multifamily housing. Revising parking standards has particular potential to increase housing available near transit where cars are less necessary. Increasing available housing near transit is also especially helpful when providing housing for older adults and people with disabilities, both of whom may have limited physical mobility or be unable to drive, Considerations. There are several elements to consider when revising parking standards. These could include: * Relating multifamily parking to the number of bedrooms. * Counting on -street parking toward parking ratios. * Adding additional parking tools for alternative compliance, such as contracting with car -share providers, providing transit passes to residents, shared use parking, and off - site parking. * Reducing or eliminating parking requirements in areas such as the historic downtown where on -street parking serves needs, especially for change of use and redevelopment, to ensure historic and compact downtown character can be retained. * Lowering parking requirements in areas with higher transit service as well as in areas targeted for redevelopment and affordable housing. DRAFT May 2021 40 9• 1 . :: 60 Objeclives and Strategies * Adopting rules that allow third party sharing/rental of parking spaces to help even out parking supply and demand. * Allowing developers to reduce parking stalls if a parking study by a certified transportation planner or engineer demonstrates minimum impacts to surroundings. * Updating bike parking requirements concurrently and distinguish between short- term and long-term bicycle parking. * Allowing residents of multifamily housing with designated parking stalls to be able to rent their parking stall if they are carless. One potential drawback is that reductions in parking requirements could prompt residents to *wrk their cars on streets, erodinA on-strxet if-L41 V _V districts. The City should also carefully consider the needs and impacts of revised parking standards on formworkers or inter -generational families who depend on cars to access work. Example Communities Eliettsbuy N,,' t )i­IJr!.,!Lf,, D_�h 15,550 - Senior assisted housing requires less off-street parking than senior housing, single family homes, duplexes, or townhomes. The City also allows on -street parking adjacent to the site to count towards parking requirements for non-residential uses, which could benefit mixed -use but not solely residential development. K 0 C6d [8,36 - Off-street parking requirements for senior or disabled housing can be reduced if public transportation is directiy available, essential services are within 1/2mile of the site, and a notarized agreement to provide additional off-street parking if the housing is no longer restricted to senior or disabled persons. Business in the central business district are also allowed to count adjacent on -street parking towards their parking requirements. " Pros M ntc1 (11 Cod"'_""� ch, 18,95 - Allows on -site parking variances for projects applying for earned increased density by providing affordable housing. a Bellevue Municipal Code 20,25A,070 and 29.2.0...,128 -Studio and 1-bedroom units affordable to 80% AI in Downtown have reduced minimum parking requirements of 0.5 stalls per unit. The percent of compact parking stalls may also be increased for buildings containing affordable housing (up to 75% in non -Downtown zones and up to 85% in Downtown zones). DRAFT May 2021 41 WNSMSIMM a 15. Partner with local nonprofits and housing providers. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJEC11VES Padner j$ Affordability Housing Supply Stability AM!- Displacement WIT • W organizations, and non-profit developers to pursue common goals and to identify ways to work together. This could include identifying property, creating incentives, developing housing assistance programs, supporting grant applications, code enforcement, property owner assistance, and other programs that help to increase affordability and reduce homelessness. Faith -based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and a desire to use those resources for the public good in line with their congregation's values. Gaps Addressed. This strategy can help to increase housing supply, support affordabon- homeownership, and support middle -income rental housing, senior housing, c •I SMIESEMEEMS Case Study: Veterans Supportive Housing and Service Center An old U.S. Marine Corps Armory in Yakima is being turned into a veteran housing and service center by the Yakima Housing Authority (YHA). The adoptive reuse project, which is currently under construction, includes new construction of 5 apartment buildings for 41 supportive housing units serving homeless veterans. The land and existing buildings were conveyed from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to the Yakima Housing Authority. Veterans will not need to pay more than 30% of their income for rent. The project includes on -site services, such as primary care, dental, job resources, and case managers. The project was funded through grants, donations, the state budget, and the City of Yakima. Considerations. This strategy works best when the City reaches out broadly to identill local organizations, resources, and housing needs of groups including people with disabilities, older adults, or people who are homeless. I House Bill 1377 works as an incentive to build affordable housing on faith community owned land. Faith communities who use their land to create homes for low- and middle -income residents with incomes below 80% AMI receive a density bonus. A density bonus allows a developer to build higher, build more units, or build units with more floor space than normally permitted in that area. Density bonuses are valuable in that they allow more to be homes created which can make it easier for affordable projects to become feasible financially. HB 1377 also stipulates that units must remain affordable for 50 years. DRAFT May 2021 42 I Biel" I i2q I a] 62 Priority 3 Strafegies The following 22 strategies are third priority for the City of Yakima: 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for affordable housing, 17. Give grants/loans to directly support srnafl businesses. 18. Engage with local employers to support workforce housing, 19. Consider a levy or sales tax for affordable housing. 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build transifionall housing, 21. Expand landlord and tenant assistance, 22. Address mobile home parks that are dilapidated. 23. Encourage micro -retail and flexible cultural space design, 24. Support third -party purchases of existing affordable housing, 25, Explore "Right to Return" policies for promoting home ownership. 26. lncentivize senior housing, 27. Support aging in place services, 28. Minimize barriers to development of housing serving multiple populations. 29. Put in place Just Cause eviction protections. 30. Consider the strategic acquisition of existing multifamily housing. 1. Recalibrate the Multi -Family Tax Exemption (MFTE) program. 32. lncenfivize backyard cottages and cottage housing, 33. Collaborate with faith -based organizations on temporary housing and permanent supportive housing, 34, Provide tenant relocation assistance. 35, Provide customized housing assistance through a Housing Navigator program, 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to SeH / Sale Ordinance, 37, Put in place community benefits/development agreements. DRAFT May 2021 43 ra 21119figm 63 Objectives arid Strategi WHIIN•IR HIRININIII•I III I 1" III I I 1 -1 4 - - MAL R9�401049111111111I: Key WHINE INVESTMENT EFFORT (3) Short-term Minimal investment 41 Minimal effort Mid-term Moderate investment 00 Moderate effort og Cc) Long-term Significant investment 4p 0 9 Significant effort Major investment DRAFT May 2021 44 64 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for affordable housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city Q) (9 $$$ 00 Affordability Housing Supply Description. Fee waivers or deferrals reduce the up-fronf cost of construction for Tesidential development. Utility connection fees and project review fees can bring hig-h costs for residential properties. Waiving or deferring some fees for income -restricted units can be an incentive to encourage the development of income -restricted w.ffordable units. Gaps Addressed. By waiving or deferring fees, the City can support affordable homeownership, middle -income rental housing, older adult housing, and very -low income housing in Yakima. Considerations. This incentive is most effective when combined with a larger incentive package for affordable housing. POrt Townsend allows for deferral of system development charges, building fees, and utility connection charges to serve single-family or multifamily residences for low-income households. If there are mixed income proposals, the deferral is in proportion to the proportion of units that are proposed to be affordable. Up to four single family dwelling units per applicant per year are eligible or up to $10,000 for multi -family developments. The deferral is subject to an agreement specifying the waiver/repayment period, criteria for waiver, reporting requirements, and a lien. allows for a reduction in sewer system development charges (Ss) if a senior or low-income housing project demonstrates lower average water consumption. Pie'e (",,p�urilyRegulatory incentives for affordable housing at 80% or less of the Pierce County median household income include expedited permit processing (building permits, subdivisions, road and design review), fee waivers, bonus units, and alternative open space and parking standards. The County assumes shared equity when units increase in value, which is recaptured at time of sale to fund price reductions for additional units. DRAFT May 2021 45 W Objectives and S�rssfegies 17. Give grants/loans to directly support small businesses. LEAD TIMELINE MISESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city (9 0_1 $$$$ 00 Affordability Stability Anti-Edsplacernent Description. Support small businesses and cultural anchors in mixed -use buildings to het'i them invest in f heir space and keep up with rent. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps with affordable housing in the community by supporting small businesses and helping them to make rent costs. Vacant commercial space in a mixed -use building may result in higher rents for residential tenants. Restrictions on city funds can make it difficult for local governments to support small businesses. Instead, communities are using federal and private funds that do not have the same strict restrictions on use of general city funds to support rent and operating I costs f im_*Usbo;�v and the City could help to connect businesses with these lenders. DRAFT May 2021 46 waz�� 66 18. Engage with local employers to support workforce housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city C AffoWablflty Housing Supply D Description. While employer -provided housing is not the norm in most industries (agricultural work being the notable exception in the Yakima area), employers have air work sites. Engagement with employers can encompass a variety of tactics, including consultation on zoning changes, housing incentive programs, and more. Gaps Addressed. Engagement with local employers can help to facilitate the production of new housing units, addressing the overall shortage of housing units. Certain programs, such as linkage as can help to address more specific housing needs, such as the need for more affordable housing units. Considerations. Ongoing dialogue with existing major employers can be an effective tool. Prior to implementing new policies or fees related to commercial development, the City could engage with the business community and employers to understand Yakima's advantages and disadvantages as a development site. Partnering with employers on housing issues can sometimes present a "chicken -and -egg" problem, a-i T VT V VVS irl rtTV1r11c11q*._es ri =p that employers adding jobs will bring more resources to the region, enabling more public investment in housing. DRAFT May 2021 47 UMMUSEM M Objectives and Strafegill 19. Consider a levy or sales tax for affordable housing. LEAD 11MEHNE INVESTMENT EFFORT i OBJECTIVES City Q 0 ('9 $$$$ see Affordability Houshig Supply Description. The City could provide direct project funding through local taxes, fees, and levies to encourage production of income -restricted affordable housing. A local housing tax levy is authorized through RC W 84.52.105 and allows up to $0.50 per $1,000 of property tax to be allocated toward affordable housing serving very -low income households if approved by the majority of voters in the taxing district. IBC W 821,114-1- 40, introduced as Substitute 1­113 1406 in 2019, authorizes counties or cities to redirect up to 0.0146% of the sales tax currently16 collected by the state to fund affordable housing programs serving households with income below 60% of the county AI and within specific categories, including: individuals with mental illness, veterans, senior citizens, homeless families with children, unaccompanied homeless youth, persons with disabilities, or domestic violence victims. Counties or cities which participate are not imposing a new or additional tax on consumers but redirecting funds from existing tax revenues toward affordable housing initiatives. This increase must be approved by a ballot measure with simple majority. At least 60% of the revenue must be used for constructing affordable housing, constructing mental and behavioral health -related facilities, or funding the operations and maintenance costs of new units of affordable housing and facilities where housing - related programs are provided. The remaining funds must be used for the operation, delivery, or evaluation of mental and behavioral health treatment programs and services or housing -related services (L-1C_"VV 82,1 L-5,30). The funds can also be used for rental assistance to tenants for cities with a population at or under 100,000.17 A housing trust fund is a specific fund that receives ongoing dedicated funding to support housing affordability. Gaps Addressed. This addresses the lack of affordable housing and also supports affordable homeownership, middle -income rental housing, senior housing, and very -low income housing. w-m No M ffm TIA two =- � � g rasy ffmyem i I le, h "N' I �'0' DRAFT May 2021 48 WIEWMAM 68 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies income -restricted affordable housing where the community would support such a tax, fee, or ballot measure. Coordinate city funding with other known funding sources can maximize impact. Working with community groups to develop information about ballot initiatives and to demonstrate the connection to the types of housing needs in the community is an important element of success. For a housing trust fund, leveraging 4r.dditional funding from state or national programs can maximize the benefits of the *.ollars raised. Example Communities Elk".-F t""jLJ[on I-4o', 2017- 23. In 2017, voters in Ellensburg approved a 0. 1% sales tax to support affordable housing projects. The tax passed with 61% in favor and is estimated to bring in $450,000 to $500,000 a year. The City has implemented an )sing.t-.,oLiIC( sion to administer the revenues generated by the sales tax for housing and related services. On November 13, 2019, the Affordable Housing Commission recommended two affordable housing development proposals be provided City assistance through affordable housing sales tax funds and City -owned surplus property. The Breezy Meadows project proposal at Bender and Water Street, and Addison Place on South Pearl Street will be forwarded to City Council for their approval. 0 JLeav Ordinance 1608� In March 2020, Leavenworth City Council adopted Ordinance 1608 authorizing the sales fox revenue and funding provisions for HB 1406. Money collected from the tax will be used for affordable and supportive housing and rental assistance (cities of less than 100,000 can use some of the funds for rental assistance). The City estimates the tax will bring in about $16,000 per year. 18 dne! wot q'y ,T,18a26-dfe7., Uc9 b396-83dEck c5696d.htrn1, DRAFT May 2021 49 69 NJ* Em. too 0 , 1 0 1 0 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build transitional housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner (9 G $$$$ 000 Affordability Stability Description. Transitional housing includes apartments or congregate housing where there is a limit on how long a household can stay, typically 24 months. Allowing transitional housing in more areas can increase the supply of transitional housing so that it meets the scale of iee*,. 11111!11 Il Ii III I Jill Considerations. Transitional housing projects can sometimes be controversial among neighbors, and thus difficult to site. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local lead agency for homelessness services to ensure that any services. DRAFT May 2021 50 NINIZESERM 70 Objechves aid Strategi 21. Expand landlord and tenant assistance. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City Partner (D (9 see Affordability Homeownership Stability Anti-Displacernent Description. In areas where housing affordability is a growing issue, housing agencies have coordinated efforts to provide comprehensive Landlord and Tenant Assistance through policy and programming. Programming assistance comes in many forms, including tenant rights education, trainings for landlords and renters alike to understan4 local rental policies, etc. Other actions to provide assistance include offering low .wnd I##*Ior*1s. The City of Yakima currently offers Tenant/Landlord Counseling through the Office of Neighborhood Development Services program to assist tenants and landlords with disputes and advice on reaching agreements or seeking legal support. The Dispute Resolution Center of Yakima and Kittitas Counties is also a local resource. Continued support for the Office of Neighborhood Development Services program is necessary. Gaps Addressed. Expanded assistance for landlords and tenants can increase their awareness and familiarity. If addresses the lack of oversight of rental housing and can maintain the quality of rental housing. Considerations. Using an ombudsman as a single point of contact can work well as a trusted point of assistance. Example Communities The Cit, Of Tukwfla requires that all rental units be licensed and inspected; owners of residential property should obtain a Rental Business License annually. The City provides access to renter rights information on the Rental Housing Program webpage. Examples include a 'Renter's Tips Sheet,' redirection to the 'Tenants Union of Washington State'webpage, and 'Know You Rights' information. The City of Tukwila's Code Enforcement Team works with property owners to ensure o The Portland Housing Bureau, Renter Services Office (RSO) operates a helpline and provides technical assistance and information. The RSO is a resource for both landlords and tenants. The City has adopted the Fair Access in Renting (FAIR) ordinance as of March 1, 2020; RSO offers free trainings to renters and landlords to learn more about the ordinance. Rental property owners are required to register their units annually through the Residential Rental Registration Program and Schedule R. DRAFT May 2021 51 WNWHANORM R r4cmM9 IMO, M a , I 22. Address mobile home parks that are dilapidated. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner 00 Affordability Housing Supply Homeownership Udeir Adult Options Stability Arai -Displacement Description. Mobile homes are often an affordable option for renters and homeowners. There are various types of mobile home parks, which may be owned by a single entity or community -owned through a Resident Owned Communities (ROC) designation. Mobile home parks that are disinvested and lack proper infrastructure are often at risk of being acquired, which would displace residents of these communities. Addressing much needed repairs and upgrades can help to mitigate displacement of vulnerable residents and ensure improved safety and quality of life. Gaps Addressed. Mobile home parks meet the needs of those who want to live in a detached single-family home but often cannot afford the associated mortgage or rent payment. Considerations. Partnerships with non -profits experienced with mobile home rehabilitation may be necessary to address improvements and preserve housing. LEMEME=_ a CASof Orec's. 'W";Manufactured Manufactured Housing Cooperative Development (MHCD) A Center is one of nine Certified Technical Assistance Providers (CTAPs) under the national ROC USA network. ROC USA is a nonprofit that provides technical assistance with specialized purchase financing for resident cooperative corporations. CASA of Oregon delivers pre- and post -purchase technical assistance and helps manufactured homeowners secure the financing needed. 0 The City of Auburn Home Repair Program Provides grants for minor and emergency repairs, including for mobile homes. The City offers $7,000 grants paid directly to contractors. a The City of Kent Home Repair Assistance Program offers home repair services to low - and moderate -income homeowners, including mobile homes. Mobile homes must be built in 1976 or newer with HUD certification in order to qualify and gross income must not exceed 80% AML Grants include a $5,000 limit for mobile homes. W The King County Housing Authority Weatherization Program provides weatherization services for homeowners, including mobile homeowners. An income threshold must be met to access free services. The King County Housing Repair Program provides grants up to $8,000 to mobile homeowners who need to make quality of life repairs to their homes and do not own the land or pad where mobile home sits. Grants do not have to be repaid. DRAFT May 2021 52 WSIUMMEM 72 23. Encourage micro -retail and flexible cultural space design. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City 011 Cl) $ 00 Stability Anti- Displacement Description. In some cases, displacement occurs when smaller retailers and cultural spaces that anchor communities disappear from neighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. Ensuring affordable commercial spaces in neighborhoods as new development come in can help reduce displacement. Considerations. Preserving existing affordable space is most effective for maintaining affordability. If new space must be built or adapted, it works best to design the ground floor with nontraditional commercial uses, such as a flexible space for different types of businesses and arts organizations. DRAFT May 2021 53 W52051= 73 City of Yakima Housing Action PICS Objectives and Sfrateg"I 24. Support third -party purchases of existing affordable housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner (9 G Affordability Housing Supply Homeownership Stability AM!- Displacement Description. Community -based organizations, non-profit organizations, and community land trusts can be important property owners in neighborhoods. Under RCW 35.21.685, public resources can be used to empower trusted institutions to preserve or create affordable housing and spaces for community -serving organizations and businesses. The City could help these institutions in land and property acquisition efforts to preserve affordable housing and prevent displacement in neighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to address the lack of housing supply in the community. The Housing Needs Assessment found that renters in Yakima face higher affordability challenges than owners. These challenges are not always solved by new construction since new homes are largely intended for the higher end of the market. Cities can partner with community -based organizations, non -profits, and community land trusts to add to the inventory of long-term affordable rental housing by purchasing existing housing with low-cost units. Acquisitions of this type is a faster and lower per- unif-cosf than new construction of affordable housing. When acquisition is targeted in opportunity -rich areas this can increase equitable access to housing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public dollars. Setting goals for the location, quantity, and type of units created or preserved through this strategy can help ensure limited public dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensure the longevity of impact from these investments. DRAFT May 2021 54 74 Objectives and Strategies 25. Explore "Right to Return" policies for promoting home ownership. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner CY, (311 Q9 Anti -Displacement Description. A "Right to Return" policy helps to reverse effects of past physical displacement by providing down payment assistance for first time homeowners who can prove that they have been victims of displacement. These policies can prioritize cases of displacement by direct government action. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses homeownership gaps. Considerations. Right to Return policies work by giving highest preference for housing support to those who can show that they were forced to move in the wave of displacement that occurred to make way for new development, including recently constructed streets or other development. These policies can also be designed to give preference to current or formerly displaced residents preference for income -restricted housing. Example Communities * Portland's "Right to Return" policy allows tenants, mainly minorities, to move back to communities that they were displaced from. An important aspect of the "Right to Return" initiative is the J�_yThe Preference Policy is an effort to _ address the harmful impacts of urban renewal by giving priority placement to applicants who were displaced, are at risk of displacement, or who are descendants of households that were displaced due to urban renewal in North and Northeast Portland. The Portland Housing Bureau (PHB) funds the development of affordable rental housing, homeownership opportunities, and down payment assistance for first-time homebuyers. When any of these opportunities become available in North and Northeast Portland, PHB will open the waitlist for those interested in the housing opportunity. Priority status is given to households who owned property that was taken by Portland City government through eminent domain. Eminent domain is the right of a government agency to take private property for public use and relocates and/or compensates the owner of the property. Examples of eminent domain action include the construction of Memorial Coliseum and the expansion of Emanuel Hospital. * Austin has also indicated its intent to develop a Right to Return and Right to Stay Program for East Austin. DRAFT May 2021 55 WSIUMISM ER 01'WASW72A Objectives and Stmtegi 26. Incentivize senior housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city G 00 Housing Supply Older Adult Opflom Stability Anfi,Dlsplacernent Description. Cities have several tools at their disposable to incentivize the production o? new housing for older adults by private developers and builders. These include the authorization to waive or reduce impact fees for senior housing, the ability to offer density bonuses for buildings with units reserved for older adults, allowing a greater variety of housing types in existing zones (e.g., cottages, duplexes, etc.), offering property owners tax exemptions when constructing multi -family housing (MFTE), and more. Gaps Addressed. The strategies highlighted here all address the need for additional housing that meets the needs of older adults, particularly as a segment of the population ages over the next 10 years. Considerations. In implementing any new policies, decision -makers should consider th6 .olbility of the policy both to incentivize the production of housing that meets the *ffordability needs of older adults, but also the social needs (e.g., proximity to family) #.nd housing design and layout needs (e.g., mobility considerations). DRAFT May 2021 56 Ussiamm 76 Objectives and Strofegies 27. Support aging in place services. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner $ 00 Affordability Older Adult Options Stability Anti-Displacenrient Description. Aging in place refers to the ability of individuals to remain in their home as they age. Older adults often have different physical, social, and affordability needs than young in their home. Examples of services that support aging in place include meal delivery programs, home aides, shuttle services, social events through community centers, mobility modifications to homes (such as installing ramps), and senior property fax 6xemptions (available statewide in Washington). The City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) supports aging in place through services 1#7 #,r#,v4rrTg7#44r�� vt-uy1r#-r #Ider residents. Continued support of this program is necessary. The City can also consider refinements to the program such as: a Connecting older adults to affordable and trustworthy contractors for home maintenance and modification assistance 0 Grants that target older renters for assistance. Older renters living in market -rate apartments are often responsible for making any accessibility improvements they need. They may face the additional expense of restoring units to their original condition when they move out. I C; Ts 71 1. r I NMI tie Meet for additional housing units for older adults in the years ahead by allowing some older adults to remain in their current homes for longer. Considerations. Aging in place will not meet the need of all older adults, so any plan to support the housing needs of older adults must consider a range of housing types, including congregate housing, mulfi-generafional housing, and ADUs. If is also important to leverage the experiences of existing service providers to maximize the efficacy of any new aging in place service programs. Engage with older adults in the community to fully understand the needs and preferences of this community. DRAFT May 2021 57 0 28. Minimize barriers to development of housing serving multiple populations. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES City $ 00 Affordability Homeownership Stability A nti- Dispi a co� nent Description. Housing providers often build housing that serves multiple populations to increase financial stability and local support for the development. For example, a housing development may include units for agricultural workers, people with disabilities, large families and people experiencing homelessness. Regulatory barriers should be reviewed to ensure they align with these practices and do not unintentionally add time and cost to the development process. The key barrier identified by stakeholders is wher. a use is defined as a "Mission" 19when services are open to the public at large. Uses tha� are defined as "Mission" uses are only allowed in General Commercial (GC), Central Business District (CBD) and the Light Industrial zones .7aps Addressed. This strategy can help to increase housing supply, increase affordable DRAFT May 2021 58 M��� 78 Objectives and S rategi 29. Put in place Just Cause eviction protections. 1EAD 11MELINE MVESTMENT EFFORT City $ 00 AffordabUlty Stability Anti-Displacernent Description. Washington requires that tenants receive at least a 20-day notice when asked to leave a property, but the state low does not require landlords to provide an explanation. Cities may pass Just Cause eviction protections that require landlords to provide tenants with a legally justifiable reason when asking them to vacate. Legally �ustifioble reasons could include failure to •ao on time or owner's desire to occupy the unit. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to protect tenants against displacement and poor housing conditions. Considerations. This protection does not prevent displacement, but the Just Cause eviction requirement supports rental stability and provides a legal recourse for resiclen-�i who are asked to vacate without justification. It is important to be clear in city code about what reasons for asking a tenant to vacate would constitute just cause. If is also important to make sure that this information about the Just Cause protection is circulated widely so that tenants are aware of this protection. Example Communities In Seattle, landlords must have I of 16 "Just Cause reasons" if they want to end month -by -month rental agreement. Landlords must give you a written notice commonly called a "Notice to Terminate Tenancy" and state the specific just cause, The amount of advance notice depends on the specific just cause reason. In general, the notice period is 20 days before the end of a rental period unless otherwise stated below. DRAFT May 2021 W 79 30. Consider the strategic acquisition of existing multifamily housing. LEAD TWELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES 77'Aff=,bility Housing Supply City C9 C9 (S) Stability Anti -Displacement Description. This strategy uses acquisition to provide income -restricted affordable housing. When the acquired housing is in neighborhoods with amenities such as open space, good schools, and other public infrastructure it promotes equitable access to neighborhoods that may be otherwise out of reach for low-income residents. Community -based organizations, non -profits and community land trusts can be important property owners within a neighborhood. Leveraging public resources to community -serving organizations and is authorized with RCW 35.21.685. The City of Yakima's resources can assist these institutions in land and property acquisition that preserves affordable housing and prevents displacement within a neighborhood. Gaps Addressed. The Housing Needs Assessment found that renters in Yakima face hiAher affordabilitkvA io new construction since new homes are largely intended for the higher end of the market. Cities can partner with community -based organizations, non -profits, and community land trusts to add to the inventory of long-term affordable rental housing by purchasing existing housing with low-cost units. Acquisitions of this type is a faster and lower per -unit -cost than new construction of affordable housing. When acquisition is targeted in opportunity -rich areas this can increase equitable access to housing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public dollars. Setting goals for the location, quantity, and type of units created or preserved through this strategy can help ensure limited public dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensure the longevity of impact from these investments. Example Communities/Programs The has taken advantage of the flexibility granted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Moving to Work (MTW) program to pursue multifamily acquisitions as a means of increasing units in high -opportunity neighborhoods (with high -performing schools, public transit, and jobs). King County has acquired mixed -income properties in high - opportunity areas through bond financing and other private financing tools. Under Washington's state authorizing legislation, KCHA can issue bonds directly, not dependent on the county government. In 2016, King County agreed to provide KCHA with access to the county's triple-A credit rating. This type of credit DRAFT May 2021 60 WSHINSUM ME enhancement is valuable to housing authorities that may not have strong, independent issuer ratings. Since 2016, KCHA has acquired more than 2,000 units of housing. M Launched in 2006, the New ,York CRy,,,� Honfur-I(I provides funds to developers to acquire and preserve affordable buildings which might otherwise be sold to speculative investors. The fund provides flexible loans for vacant sites or occupied buildings, preclevelopment, and moderate rehabilitation to developers committed to the creation of new or preservation of existing affordable and/or supportive rental housing. 13,692 units have been created or preserved in 82 projects through this fund. DRAFT May 2021 61 a ObjecHves and Strategi 31. Recalibrate the Multi -Family Tax Exemption (MFTE) program. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES MAVW�1�1 CIS, 09 rD Affordability Housing Supply Description. The Multifamily Tax Exemption (MFTE) is an incentive program that enables cities in Washington State to waive a portion of property taxes for housing builders and developers that are creating multifamily and income -restricted housing in designated areas. 20 The City of Yakima established its MFTE program, called the Downtown Redevelopment Tax Incentive Program, in 2006.21 The program applies to the residential target area established in the City's central business district, approximately centered around the intersection of the BNSF railroad tracks and Yakima Avenue. Through the downtown redevelopment incentive, Yakima can grant a property tax exemption for residential or mixed -use development that includes at least four units of multiple -unit housing. So far, the City has attracted about 51 units under the program. There are currently 24 units receiving the exemption; 27 units have completed the tax-exempt period and are now fully taxed. Downtown Redevelopment Tax Incentive Program Area Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs more housing for small households and with incomes below 50% AMI. Recent changes in the MFTE program from SHB2950 also allow the program to be used for the of residential buildings. Considerations. As a voluntary orogram, the DRAFT May 2021 62 82 Objectives anc*_77egii including: 0 Expand the MFTE to more areas in the city to encourage denser growth in areas with the greatest capacity and significant challenges to development feasibility. The program could also be expanded to areas where more multifamily is desired. 0 Use the MFTE to encourage more rental or ownership housing. The MFTE programs applies differently to buildings with rental units versus ownership units. a The City could consider other possible conditions to attract desired housing such as senior affordable housing. a State low does not limit the type or size of units that may qualify. i a stut.,Jy_ ysly ARC, about 75% of the units created between 2007 and 2018 using the MFTE are studios or one bedroom. At least four cities have enacted local policies to encourage larger units: Seattle, Bellingham, and Shoreline encourage large units by applying stricter affordability requirements for smaller units. All three require that units with fewer than two bedrooms be affordable lwer incme threshs. This hs the effect f lrinthe mximum monthly rental price fr smaller units. Ii ooldaooweg a o Proforma analyses of sample projects can help estimate the developer's expected return on investment under different scenarios. This can be helpful to calibrate requirements such as percentage set -asides and affordability levels to maximize the benefits without discouraging use of the incentive by developers. Some additional 04-n- &4i-t-g the MFTE program and opportunities on the City website, and layering MFTE with other the overall effects. Although the program can help address Yakima's housing needs, the City may lose potential future property tax revenues. Additionally, affordable units may be at risk of losing their affordable status both at the end of the MFTE period and during its existence these units is one method for preserving affordability. DRAFT May 2021 63 NEESE= 83 32. Incentivize backyard cottages and cottage housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city i aAffordability Housing SuppNy Homeownership Oldedull Options Stability Anti-Displacernent Description. Cottage housing refers to a cluster of small dwelling units, typically less than 1,200 square feet, around a common open space. This arrangement offers a neighborhoods, and their smaller size makes them more affordable than a typical c-in, le-familirA residence, Like cottaAe units (both attached and detached) provide housing alternatives that increase the capacity of residential neighborhoods. The City has put in place several modifications in 2020 to expand the zones in which these homes are allowed and simplified the overall process. Creating pre -approved ADU plans is a potential way to further incentivize these smaller housing types. Gaps Addressed. Providing cottage housing and backyard cottages helps to diversify the housing stock, increasing housing supply for individuals and families with different needs. Backyard cottages or accessory dwelling units can also be a helpful option for multi -generational families. These units may serve as rentals providing additional incomt for homeowners or as main unit extensions that offer privacy for older or extended family members. They offer affordable options to renters and can assist homeowners in need of additional income to avoid displacement. Increasing the diversity of the housing stock also supports affordable homeownership. Considerations. Some density increases may be needed for cottage housing in single- family areas since these units are smaller and can be more expensive to build on a cost- per-square-f oot basis. The typical density increase is two cottages per one traditional single-family home. Applying design standards and a maximum floor area ratio limit can ensure these units fit well into the applicable single-family contexts. It is important that the approval process for the units is not overly burdensome. DRAFT May 2021 64 NINSANUM 84 33. Collaborate with faith -based organizations on temporary housing and permanent supportive housing. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Padner G (D Affordability Homeownership Stability Anti - Dis pla c eai e, nt Description. Faith -based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and have a desire to use those resources for the public good in line with their congregation's values. Several faith -based organizations in Yakima operate affordabl't housing projects and housing programs for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. By partnering with faith -based organizations, the City can draw on the valuable experience these organizations have in providing services to individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Gaps Addressed. By partnering with faith -based organizations, the City can help to address the needs for temporary and permanent housing for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. See Strategy 15 for additional information about partnering with faith -based organizations. Considerations. Faith -based organizations have a unique set of strengths and resources that are important to partner with to provide services to those experiencing homelessness. Several policy provisions are uniquely available to faith -based organizations to provide shelter. For example, HB 1377 grants faith communities a density bonus for developing homes for households with incomes below 80% of AI on their land. While these partnerships are important, it is important to consider how the City will approach any policy differences with faith -based organizations. For example, in 2018, th_y 42L, carne uinder hrg,� for contracting for shelter services with a faith - based organization that had a policy of not hiring LGBTQ staff. The City's hiring policies prohibited it from contracting with organizations that discriminate based on sexual orientation in hiring. To maximize success, the City should broadly reach out to identify local organizations, resources, and existing temporary and permanent housing programs. It should also fully explore any potential policy conflicts with faith -based organizations before entering into contracts. DRAFT May 2021 65 W 34. Provide tenant relocation assistance, LEAD TIMELINE MVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES Partner (_ C9 $$$$ 600 Affordability Stability Aril Displacement W housing units to build newer housing. This process can displace existing tenants. Under WAC 365-196-835 and RCW 59.18.440, local governments can pass an ordinance to I-equire developers, public funds, or both to provide relocation funds to displaced tenants. Gaps Addressed. This strategy provides relocation assistance to displaced tenants and improves housing stability. Considerations. Tenants at or below 50% of county median income, adjusted for family size, qualify for these funds. Resident relocation assistance resulting from public action is required (details are in RCW 8.26). It is important to be clear about who qualifies for tenant relocation assistance, what is covered, and who pays the amount. It is also important to ensure that information about tenant relocation assistance is easily available to all members of the community. Two of the most important federal programs that fund affordable housing are the HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) and the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. Both HOME and CDBG are important resources in the local development of homes and communities. While sharing similar goals related to improving the living conditions of low-income families, each program has specific 17MMEM Due to the limitations of as Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) investment regulations, City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) is only able to provide relocation assistance when a property is acquired and/or displaced with Federal Funds through specific program guidelines. Housing assistance is provided through the developers as subrecipients as program guidelines allow. To implement these types of programs and/or strategies through ONDS, a measure of "Administrative costs" would need to be financed through sources other than "CDBG or HOME admin" such as general fund in order to remain CDBG and HOME Investment program compliant. DRAFT May 2021 66 86 35. Provide customized housing assistance through a Housing Navigator program. LEAD TWELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES PurtneT 0 Ok 011 SASS Affordability Stability Anti- Displacemeril Description. Housing Navigators work with both landlords and tenants and offer customized assistance to reduce barriers through supports such as search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Examples of customized assistance include providing information on amenities and resources across neighborhoods, facilitating neighborhood tours, preparing individuals to be tenants on the private rental market, identifying barriers to renting, budgeting, preparing materials needed for rental applications, support during the housing search process, referrals to units, and providing flexible funds to help families overcome additional costs associated with moving. Gaps Addressed. The needs assessment revealed that there is a need for housing - community. Since barriers in the housing search process are an important driver of residential segregation, providing customized assistance in housing search could reduce residential segregation and increase upward mobility. Considerations. This program will need significant resources to operationalize. Partnerships with locally based housing providers and organizations will be necessary for implementation. Housing Navigators will be most successful if they have background/familiarity working with property management firms and other for -profit entities, landlords, social service providers and the rental housing sector in Yakima, havd knowledge of local rental housing resources and social services, and have cultural competence. Example Communities King County's ��s to is a housing mobility program offered to eligible families from the Seattle and King County Housing Authorities' Housing Choice Voucher waitlist.. A key feature of this program is the use of hosing navigators who provide customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Evaluation of the pilot program, and interviews with participants, revealed that barriers in the housing search process are a central driver of residential segregation by income. The customized assistance that addresses each family's needs in a specific manner from emotional support to brokering with landlords to financial assistance was critical to the program's success, DRAFT May 2021 67 M 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell / Sale Ordinance. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES city G (Dl $ 00 Affordal I Ity Stability Anti -Displacement Description. A "Notice of Intent to Sell" ordinance requires owners of multifamily buildings to provide official notification to tenants and local housing officials. The #rdinance could apply specifically to properties with rents at or below certain incomt levels. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses the lack of affordable housing supply especially for low- and moderate -income populations. Considerations. The notice gives public authorities an opportunity to plan for a potential purchase of the property, in the interest of preserving housing serving low- or moderate - income residents. The ordinance also serves as a mitigation measure for residents by providing additional time for potential moves. Seattle's NL LLtj ordinance reauthorized by Council in 2019, provides the City with information about the intention to sell residential rental property with at least one unit rented at 80% of Area Median Income (AMI) or below. The City, in partnership with the Seattle Housing Authority and community partners, can use the notification information to evaluate properties and deploy a range of property preservation tools, including incentives and acquisition. The notice can also help residents seek tenant protections and relocation resources if necessary. DRAFT May 2021 68 lllr• rMllilll 88 Objectives and Strategies 37. Put in place community benefits/development agreements. LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT OBJECTIVES CRty (D G (+R $ 00 Affordability Stability Anti -Displacement Description. Development agreements or community benefit agreements are voluntary, negotiated contracts between developers and municipalities. These agreements specify the public benefits that the development will provide, along wi each party's responsibility. They support affordable housing, affordable commercia space, community gathering spaces, and other public amenities. I INq0*90"I owl "11 91 a M Considerations. Examples include developers agreeing to build out ground floor space for small businesses and cultural anchors, making it more affordable for them to get int#, new spaces and gradually afford market rent with time. DRAFT May 2021 64 1—W Implementaticl Implementation The HAP establishes a framework for aligning efforts across the city, coordinating with partners, and measuring progress. To support an effective implementation program, this section includes: * A comprehensive listing of strategies, timelines, resource requirements, responsibilities for leading the tasks, and partnership opportunities. This matrix will also support the City's budgeting and implementation processes and provide a mechanism for assessing progress and maintaining accountability. * A timeline summary for implementation of the specific actions identified in this report. Strategies are categorized by short-term (1 -2 years), medium -term (3-5 years), and long-term (5+ years) implementation timelines. The information in this section is duplicated in the timeline section below, in which the strategies are grouped by the anticipated timeline instead of priority. Key WELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT G. Short- $ Minimal investment 0 Minimal effort 09 CY term $ $ Moderate 0 Moderate P 3 01- G) Mid-term investment OOS effort Long- $S$$ Significant Significant term investment effort Major investment co (0 DRAFT May 2021 70 Priority I Strategies STRATEGY LEAD TMAELIN E INVESTMENT EFFORT �. 1. Update city regulations to remove city 00 We" barriers to innovative housing types. GO 2. Make strategic investments in city 0 0 infrastructure. 0 DRAFT May 2021 71 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Im.rilementation STRATEGY LEAD, TIMELINE NVES-MENT EFFORT 3. Encourage rent -to -own opportunities Partner ( J-1- 0 0 � VV and sweat equity programs. 4. Expand and update down payment Partner 00 00 'V IV V V assistance programs. 5. Develop, acquire, or sell surplus or city 0 00 under-utilized city property. 6. Incenfivize landlords to improve the City 00 V, V/ quality and maintenance of housing. a DRAFT May 2021 72 111101*11,0191 , : Priority 2 Strategies STRATEGY LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT 7. Create design standards for multifamily city ok and mixed -use development. 8. Improve permitting and environmental cjry 0 so review process. 9. Expand need -based rehabilitation Partner E 00 assistance. 10. Add more permanent supportive Partner 00 00 housing. 11. Coordinate seasonal farorker Partner Go, 00 housing as severe -weather shelters. 12. Ensure code enforcement does not Cif 00 displace residents. N AFT May 2021 73 Implementation STRATEGY LEAD POTENTIAL PARTNERS MEELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT 13. Continue to support education Partner programs on homeownership. 14. Revise parking standards in key areas. Preen w 15. Partner with local nonprofits and Partner 0- housing providers. DRAFT May 2021 74 rC11 u ]:sl City of r ♦ Housing Priority 3 Strategies STRATEGY LEAD _TIMELINE INVESTMENT _ EFFORT 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for City affordable housing. 17. Give grants/loans to directly support city small businesses. 18. Engage with local employers to support workforce housing. ` 19. Consider a levy or sales tax for „,,lty O G G affordable housing. 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build transitional housing.' er �� 21. Expand landlord and tenant city 0 0 assistance. DRAFT May 2021 75 �• r City of Yakima uiAction Implementation STRATEGY LEAD POTENTIAL PARTNERS WELINE is EST ENT EFFORT r.lbir�i.7 C�7�r11\ e Ica_s f,l_c 1 .ikifl"1J CGJ"li 22. Address mobile home parks that are P r K dilapidated. 23. Encourage micro -retail and flexible city cultural space design. 24. Support third -party purchases of Partner $ existing affordable housing. 25. Explore "Right to Return" policies for city promoting home ownership.�� • • s City Partner cif O O f Y ww CQ --_e i >1 0 DRAFT May 2021 76 DOC I -1 Implementation STRATEGY LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT 29. Put in place Just Cause eviction iiy 00 protections. 30. Consider the strategic acquisition of ' G �� existing multifamily housing. 31. Recalibrate the Multi -Family Tax Exemption (MFTE) program. 32. Incentivize backyard cottages and city cottage housing. 33. Collaborate with faith -based organizations on temporary housing and Partner G (D permanent supportive housing. 34. Provide tenant relocation assistance. Partner o 10 M DRAFT May 2021 77 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation STRATEGY LEAD TIMELINE INVESTMENT EFFORT assistance through a Housing Navigator Partner Go* program. 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell / Sale city 00 Ordinance. 37. Put in place community city 1 0 G %oe -460� 101, benefits/development agreements. R DRAFT May 2021 78 Timeline The HAP emphasizes implementation over the next five years. The tables in the following pages illustrate the anticipated fimeframe for implementation of the recommended actions. They present the same information as fhc tables in the implementation section above, but they are grouped by the anticipated fimeline instead of priority. Long-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the five -or -more year timeframe. These strategies may rely on short- and medium -term strategy success, have longer legislative processes, or require infrastructure projects to materialize prior to implementation. a W7073-TWIT-31 MW Key PRIORITY INVESTMENT EFFORT 1 priority 1 Minimal investment 0 Minimal effort 2 Priority 2 Moderate 00 Moderate 3 Priority 3 investment 990 effort Significant Significant investment effort Major investment AJUW�� 11 E C15 V E STRATEGY LEAD ' , ,sy INVESTMENT €EEORT 5. Develop, acquire, or sell surplus or city under-utilized city property. 7. Create design standards for multifamily c as V and mixed -use development. 8. Improve permitting and environmental city le review process. 14. Revise parking standards in key areas. Partner 27. Support aging in place services. F do _ 00 V 28. Minimize barriers to development of t-1ty housing serving multiple populations. 29. Put in place Just Cause eviction city rsf V o protections. 32. Incentivize backyard cottages and city cottage housing. DRAFT May 2021 80 • •1 a a• r r ► ! Mid -Term STRATEGY LEAD Rz,, RI a INVESTIMEN7 EFFORT 1. Update city regulations to remove city barriers to innovative housing types. 3. Encourage rent -to -own opportunities Partner and sweat equity programs. 4. Expand and update down payment Partner assistance programs. 09 0 0 DRAFT May 2021 81 STRATEGY LEAD R C; R, T" INVESTMENT EFFORT 6. Incentivize landlords to improve the C—Ity O'S, quality and maintenance of housing. 9. Expand need -based rehabilitation Partner assistance. 10. Add more permanent supportive Partner %1A U1 housing. 11. Support seasonal farmworker housing Partner as severe -weather shelters. 12. Ensure code enforcement does not Ci4, 2 0 displace residents. 13. Continue to support education Partner 2 go V-71, ­01 IWO' programs on homeownership. DRAFT May 2021 82 City of r • Housing Action Plan lmdementaflon STRATEGY LEAD POTENTIAL PARTNERS I OR,,, INVESTMENT EFFORT _C it i._I . �i7niir act ; r: 15. Partner with local nonprofits and Partner .x v housing providers. 16. Consider fee waivers or deferrals for affordable housing. c' 17. Give grants/loans to directly support city S small businesses. 1. Engage with local employers to I wy support workforce housing. 20. Collaborate with nonprofits to build '��v Partner Y )rir)o o,,r v Homeitss 000 transitional housing. r of-)hT, , � Homeless Network of Yakima County ni�il�ro r,nit!Gal_,t�,_r_ 21. Expand landlord and tenant city assistance. 0 N DRAFT May 2021 83 STRATEGY LEAC P O R,", INVESTMENT EFFORT 22. Address mobile home parks that are dilapidated. 23. Encourage micro -retail and flexible city cultural space design. 24. Support third -party purchases of Partner existing affordable housing. 26. Incentivize senior housing,, cif 31. Recalibrate the Multi -Family Tax cif ar Exemption (MFTE) program. 33. Collaborate with faith -based organizations on temporary housing and Partner permanent supportive housing. 34. Provide tenant relocation assistance, n r 3 0 w RAFT May 2021 84 140CMIAVWTMWF•tl� Agrimm M. Implemenfation STRATEGY LEAD POTENTIAL PARTNERS PR',KRfl1'( INVES- IMENT EFFORT 36. Adopt a Notice of Intent to Sell J Sale ON $ 00 Ordinance. WRI 0 Long -Term Sfrafegies 19. Consider a levy or sales tax for affordable housing. 5- Fy.nlore wwt�rcie,;-*-A existing multifamily housing. 35. Provide customized housing program. 37. Put in place community city city city Parr City City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation see 8 U1 DRAFT May 2021 86 1111116146112111111 106 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan MoNioring Monitoring In order to monitor f he results of HAP actions in comparison to the 2040 Comp Plan goal of constructing an average of 295 dwelling units/year, the city intends to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes on a regular basis. Performance monitoring will show whether HAP actions are achieving the desired results. This will allow the city to be flexible and agile to any refinements to actions that may be necessary and focus limited public dollars on actions that are most effective. Key indicators based on results from the Housing Needs Assessment will be used to monitor performance. Key hdicatiors The following key indicators were selected to reflect the overall desired outcomes of t Housing Action Plan. These indicators reflect success over the long-term, rather than easy wins in the one- to two-year timeframe. Indicators are intended to capture important pieces of the larger puzzle that is a healthy, equitable housing market. Importantly, an adjustment in strategy is needed if Yakima is not making progress with these indicators. I Key Indicator 1: Annual production rate of ADU, duplex, townhome, smaller multifamily (49 units or less), and multifamily units overall. This reflects the goal of increasing the mix of housing choices in Yakima. Key Indicator 2: Monitor and track the units built for seniors. This reflects the goal of :ncreasing housing affordable to the city's older residents. Key Indicator 3: Cost -burden of residents and the share of residents with low- and moderate -incomes in the city. This reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to the city's low -and moderate -income residents. DRAFT May 2021 87 107 Appendices Community I.................... Policy and Regulatory Review................ 1 //Potential City-ownedSites ......... ..:.......:.......... ..............,.x a _.,..,, ..,.. Displacement Riski . DRAFT May 2021 88 108 A // Communlity Engagement Engagement Activities Community engagement activities consisted of targeted stakeholder engagement and broad public engagement. 11��i 11�111111 * Technical Advisory Committee. The City created a committee of residents and community stakeholders involved in affordable and market rate housing development, community services, and education to serve as a sounding board for the HAP development. The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) met three times from August 2020 through February 2021 to discuss and advise on the HAP. * Community Integration Committ ee. The City's Community Integration Committee (CIC) was established in 2017 to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement, diversify the city government and workforce, provide additional review of policies, ordinances, and resolutions if requested, and give a voice to all Yakima residents. The project team conducted interviews of CIC members by email and by phone, presented at CIC meetings, and supported CIC members in hosting roundtables in a box (see broad public engagement below). Interviews with Real Estate Community. The project team interviewed local real estate professionals to gather input on marker feasibility of HAP strategies and identify barriers to housing development. Yakima City Council. The project team interviewed city councilmembers to learn about their priorities and concerns for the HAP and to gather their insight on Yakima's housing needs. Community survey. The project team hosted an online survey to engage residents across the city and gather feedback on residents' housing needs and priorities. The survey was open during summer and fall of 2020, and again during early 2021, and was available in English and Spanish. The project team publicized the survey in El Sol de Yakima to gather additional Spanish -language respondents. In total, 531 individuals responded, including 138 in Spanish. Roundtable in a box. The project team provided materials and support for members of the Community Integration Committee, City of Yakima staff, and other locally based partners to lead small virtual group discussions and act as "trusted liaisons" to reach key audiences. Me 1w,ILDocumentA)f.,x-,,ndices _J L 109 Legislative Process. The public had two opportunities to engage in the legislative process. A Council study session in December 2019 was an introduction and publio kickoff to project, during which members of the public provided comment on the proposed HAP approach. In 2021, BERK will present a draft HAP to the planning commission followed by a hearing and possible adoption by City Council. Key Engagement Findings This section describes the major themes, concerns and other ideas that were raised during the public engagement process. Housing needs extend beyond housing production and include needs for housing - related support. These needs vary across groups such as older residents, residents with disabilities, people of color, people who don't speak English very well and farmworkers. The TAC, CIC, and City Councilmembers; contributed several ideas to improve availability of housing in Yakima, including: * The need for a proactive approach to address the shortage of housing. * The need for a mix of housing types as preferences and needs vary across the population. * The need for infergeneration housing as an important part of the housing model in Yakima. * The need to promote programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers. Many stakeholders referenced the need for programs that can help renters become homeowners in the neighborhoods in which they currently live. The need to address impacts of institutional racism and income inequality, including geographic segregation by socioeconomics and race. The need to incorporate anti -displacement policies and mixed -income communities so that new development does not displace current residents. The need for more supportive transitional housing, including housing for recovery and comprehensive mental health supports. .1,11IDocument I A1,iL,,)endices EM Tiny Homes that could help serve homeless population and small households. Tiny homes are small dwelling units on a foundation or on a carriage with wheels with between 150-400 square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable compared with traditional site -built homes. They may be located on their own lot, serve as an accessory dwelling unit, or be located in a village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park. Addressing opportunities for farker housing: COVID has resulted in loss of about 30% of Farmworker inventory. Farmworker wages have grown enough that many farmworkers can't qualify for low-income housing and can't afford market -rate housing. There is potential for seasonally based coordination of seasonal farmworker housing and winter sever -weather shelter for people experiencing homelessness. MEM NIPPON!•1111i; 11 1111 1• 111111 1 a ASO Live/Work in Yakima: Over three -fourths (83%) of respondents indicated they live in Yakima and about two-thirds (65%) work in Yakima. More than half (55%) live and work in Yakima. Respondents were found across all the Council Districts. 0 - tmftl they are struggling with housing affordability. 13% indicated the COVID-19 pandemic impacted their housing. Tenure and Occupancy: Half of respondents own a home. Almost 60% reported having 3 or more residents in their home and just under 40% had 1-2 persons. Housing Types They Live In: Over 60% live in a single-family home. About 4% did not have permanent housing. ro Housing Types Desired: Single-family homes are desired by most respondents. Manufactured and mobile homes, apartments, duplexes, and triplexes were th;5 next most desired housing types. Other housing styles that can offer affordable ownership were also desired including townhomes and condominiums. MEMM ;A.Document A,,Ljendices I QQC Jbi lj3 -1 WE detached ownership units, illustrated in Exhibit 6. Survey queshon: "What type of h0L)sing do YOU currently live in?" (r) = 508) Survey queslion, "Mcd lype of housing would YOU most like to live in? (check all ffiat apply " (n 487) Single -Family Home Apartment Manufactured or Mobile Home Duplex or Triplex Townhouse Condominium AU, Mother -in -Law Unit, or Backyard Cottage 11% 5% 1 do not currently have permanent housing. 194% N/A Other 11% 2% 10 Current Housing Type a Desired Housing Typee Housing Challenges: The survey asked respondents, "Have you faced challenges in finding safe and affordable housing that meets your needs? Please tell us your story." Of the 275 responses, the following themes were most common: a Affordability 0 Lack of availability a Safety W Housing quality The survey also asked respondents: "Are there any issues or challenges that impact quality of life in your neighborhood? Please share them here." The 287 respondents most frequently referenced the following concerns: M Crime DocurnenLLA)pencfices 3_4 112 * Safety * Gangs * Homelessness * Affordability * Drugs Community INeeds: Survey respondents most commonly identified more affordable ownership housing options as a housing option in greatest need in Yakima, as shown in Exhibit 7. Survey question- What kind of housing options do you think are in greatest need in your community? (check all tact apply)" (n = 513) r 'M -n75-ITFTT- f, 7,5- VIF7 higher preference for ownership housing, short-term housing for migrant workers and 'arger homes. HAP strategies will need to address this preference to respond to diverse needs in the community. 113 As shown in Exhibit 9, respondents across the income spectrum said more affordable 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% More affordable Affordable housing for ownership housing seniors. options. Less than $10,000 (n = 5) � V 0,000 - $25,000 (n = 25) #$25,000 - $50,000 in = 431 *$50,000 - $75,000 (n = 28) A $75,000 - $10 0,00 0 in = 9) it $100,000+ (n = 16) 10 Document [ Aprxarldices 114 Exhibit 10 shows that respondents with a range of family sizes said more affordable ownership options is a key need. Respondents with larger household sizes referenced the need for lar,,v_er units and flexib*r_• rv_ household sizes referenced the need for affordable housing for seniors and for smaller rental housing. Exhibit 10. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% More affordable Affordable housing for More flexibility for Apartments and other Short-term housing for Larger homes for housing ownership housing seniors. single-family smaller rental housing. migrant workers. large or extended options. homeowners to build families. "accessory dwelling units" such as backyard cottages. 1 person (n = 35) 2 people (n = 83) 3 people (n = 48) 4 people (n = A 0) 5 people (n = 36) 0 6 people (n = 16) 47 people (n = 7) 8 people (n = 5) Source: BERK, 2020 I— II Document _j. Al;,jLx_,()cflc(-,�s 115 B // Housing Needs Assessment See the document here on the project wesit: Y?7E -.,,es'5 i„18i � r I, 51"(" _it (n A- &tf Of *kinm Documord I Aa,) L) e laic: - � n . EM Table of Contents Introduction................................ w....... ,..u. µ...,.a.....m,.,.......,...... ...N................. .............. 9 Summary of Key Findings ....... .......... .99 Housing Terminology ..............--- ....... 1 1 Community Profile ....................................... .A....,.,....,...tr.„ ..m..p.........w .. ..... ....--..... 1 04 Population ............................................... M.. . 105 Households ........................................... 112 Residents with Special Housing Needs....... . 119 WorkforceProfile .... ......... ........a ......,......,.,..-....,..:....... ,n......... ..,.,..:.,.,...:; ..............1,4 Countywide Employment ................... . . 124 Citywide Employment Trends .............. 124 Employment Projections ...................... ... 125 Housing Inventory .......................................... ........... .. ........... 127 Housing Supply Characteristics.............,,..,. ....... -...,........ ,.............. .. ....,..;,... ........... 127 HomeOwnership ........................................................ ........... 11 Rental Housing....................................................... ........... 1 34 Housing Production .......................a ........... 16 Subsidized Housing ...................... ........... 17 Gap Analysis ... ..19 Appendix: Table of Exhibits. 14 DRAFT May 2021 97 RM Introduction The City of Yakima is developing a Housing Action Plan. This plan will identify a set of' actions the city can take to support and encourage housing production that meets local housing needs. The purpose of this plan is to increase housing choice and affordability for Yakima residents and workers of all income levels. This Housing Needs Assessment will help inform and guide the selection of actions to include in the Housing Action Plan. It provides an evaluation of current housing supply and housing needs in Yakima, across the full spectrum of household types and income levels, by answering the following kinds of questions: a Who lives and works in Yakima and what are their socioeconomic characteristics? a What types of housing are available in Yakima? 0 Are there any groups of people who are not able to find housing that is safe, affordable, and meets their household needs? 0 How much housing, and what types of housing, are needed to meet current and future housing needs of Yakima residents? The data in this Needs Assessment will be synthesized with information gathered through engagement with stakeholders and residents during the formation of the Housing Action Plan. ,:111Document I Appendices 98 RM Summary of Key Findings There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes for sale are extremely low - below I %. When vacancy rates are so low, people looking for new homes have fewer options, increasing competition for the limited supply of units available. This drives up both rents and housing prices. Housing prices are rising faster than incomes. The median home value in Yakima has risen by 38% between 2010 to 2019. Over the some period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective buyers. Many households in Yakima are cost burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all households in Yakima were cost burdened. Nearly 50% of renter households were cost -burdened, about a quarter of all homeowners. Cost -burdened households spend a large portion (over 30%) of their available income on housing costs. This leaves less money available for other vital needs like food, transportation, clothing, and education. With rising housing costs, the number of cost -burdened households ORT-0=11 Needs are greatest among low-income households. About three fourths of all households with incomes below 50% of the county median family income are cost burdened. Nearly half of these households are severely cost burdened, meaning While there are low-income households living in neighborhoods across the city, the greatest concentration of low-income households is in eastern Yakima, and many of these households are of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Low -wage workers are traveling long distances to jobs in Yakima. Over 7,000 low - wage workers commute more than 50 miles from their home to a workplace in Yakima. That is nearly a quarter of all low -wage workers in the city. Many of these workers may be living outside of Yakima due housing affordability, or inability to find suitable housing in the city. 0 There is considerable need among elderly residents. There are 5,400 elderly persons living alone in Yakima. 42% of these residents are cost burdened and 22% are severely cost burdened. Yet there are only 926 units with federal subsidies set aside for elderly and disabled persons. 0( Yakima needs more housing diversity. Over 65% of all housing in City of Yakima are single-family homes. Not all households require, or can afford, that much space. For example, about 30% of all households in Yakima are singles living alone. Yet only 5% *IIIDocument J.,Surtirriciri of Ke2 Findh�ps 12 1 99 QQ_G AIND-ex _#_ Na-_1 of housing units in Yakima are studios and only 13% have just one bedroom. and provide more choices for residents seeking more affordable housing that meets their current neeOs. A Countywide there is a shortage of seasonal farmworker housing. There are county, despite over 45,000 seasonal jobs available in the busiest summer months.22 Identifying safe and sanitary housing facilities for seasonal workers is an important gap to address in Yakima County. 120 Housing Terminology This guidebook uses some terminology, acronyms, or data sources that may be unfamiliar. Here ore some definitions. The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if the household is spending no more than 30 percent of its income on housing costs. A healthy housing market includes a variety of housing types that are affordable to a ron,*,;e of different household incom "affordable housing" is often used to describe income -restricted housing available only to qualifying low-income households. Income -restricted housing can be located in public, nonprofit, or for -profit housing developments. It can also include households using vouchers to help pay for market -rate housing (see "Vouchers" below for more details). This is an ongoing nationwide survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It designed to provide communities with current data about how they are changing. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. We use data from the This is a term that commonly refers to the area -wide median family income calculation provided by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for a county or metropolitan region.23 Income limits to qualify for affordable housing are often set relative to AMI. In this report, unless otherwise indicated, AMI refers to the HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI). When a household pays more than 30 percent of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "cost -burdened." When a household pays more than 5# :2 Document -I HousinLj Terminology 1 101 121 percent of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "severely cost - burdened." Cost -burdened households have less money available for other essentials, like food, clothing, transportation, and medical care. Z RUTM =001 A nousenoia is a group at peopFe_TFvi_F)_g_w1Tff1n the same housing unit.24 1 he people can be related, such as family. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit, is also counted as a household. Group quarters population, such as those living in a college dormitory, military barrack, or nursing home, are not considered to be living in households. MMMRR��* MAM The census defines household income as the sum of the income of all people 15 years and older living together in a household. This term refers to housing units that are only available to households with incomes at or below a set income limit and are offered for rent or sale at a below -market rates. Some income -restricted rental housing is owned by a city or housing authority, while others may be privately owned. In the latter case the owners typically receive a subsidy in the form of a tax credit or property tax exemption. As a condition of their subsidy, these owners must offer a set percentage of all units as income -restricted and affordable to household at a designated income level. WOM Households that are designated as low-income may qualify for income -subsidized housing units. HUD categorizes families as low-income, very low-income, or extremely low-income relative to HUD area median family incomes (HAMFI), with consideration for family size (Error! Reference source not found.Exhibit 1). "JE Document I Housinq�Terminolo2y 1 1 102 122 (HAMFI) STITAPHIENTMET Very Low-income 50% of HAMFI or less Low-income 1 80% of HA FT or less Source: HUD 2020; BEM 2020 SEMM The median income of all family households in an area. Family households are those that have two or more members who are related. Median income of non -family households is typically lower than for family households, as family households are ment. lily to have more than one income -earner. Analyses of housing affordability typically group all households by income level relative to HUD area median family income (HAMFI), which is calculated for the county or metropolitan region. 1=0 HUD provides housing vouchers to qualifying low-income households. These are typically distributed by local housing authorities. Vouchers can be "tenant -based", meaning the household can use the vouchers to help pay for market -rate housing in the location of their choice. Or they can be " project- based", meaning they are mum mmaz��� 101112 MIXAMIRIAR0 I MEMO T)*)*. *JrII#j 11!5e* TO Me SreV 6S-F6ATC I e 7P 7,-'* 11 g F *,# i F r Fg it r * i of their age, size, or ability".26 When integrated into the built environment, universal design principles ensure that residents who are aging or who have a disability are not blocked from accessing housing and services. bill Document I Housino Terminolo2y 103 I 123 Community Profile Located in central Washington, on the banks of the Yakima River, Yakima is the largest city in Yakima County. The cities of Selah and Union Gap lie immediately to the north and south of Yakima. In addition, the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Yakima is comprised of numerous neighborhoods. Older neighborhoods cover the east side of the City, from the Yakima River to approximately 16th Avenue. This area includes the original City and the growth occurring prior to World War 11. This area also contains some of the more orchitecfurally-significanf, historical neighborhoods in the City, including portions of Northeast and Southeast Yakima. Growth in Yakima has been largely westward from Downtown, despite a limited east -west street network and pedestrian -oriented infrastructure. Newer housing in the west provides residents with fewer opportunities to walk to destinations or amenities. Coupled with the long clisfat from employment centers in the east, this creates greater dependence on cars to access jobs, services and amenities. Exhibit 12. 4th Street from a 1940s Postcard za Of W%a I 1' Document � - a _M I Community Profile 1 104 124 Populaflon During the lost 10 years, Yakima County had an annual average population growth rate of about 0.6%, which was slower than Washington's 1.2% growth rate. Yakima County's population was estimated at 251,466 in 2018, up 3.4% from the 243,240 county residents in 2010. During the same period, Washington's state's population grew by 12.1 %, nearly three times faster. The City of Yakima has grown since 2010, with a current estimated population of 94,440 residents. The city is expected to continue growing and is projected to be home to 110,387 people by 2040, as shown in Exhibit 4. This would add 15,947 new persons between now and 2040, or about 760 new residents per year. The city has grown slower than the county as a whole, especially between 2015 and 2018, as shown in Exhibit 5. .0311 Document I Community Profile 1 105 125 Exhibit 14. Historical and Projected Population in City of Yakima, 2000-2040 120,000 110,387 1 91,196 94,440 'fakinio Actual — — — Yakirno Projeced 4) S! V\ Yakima Kennewick Richland Walla Walla Yakima County Source: WA Office of Financial Management, 2019; Yakirna County Planning, 2020; BERK Consull-ing, 2020 AIDocument I Community Profile 1 106 126 Compared to Washington State, the City of Yakima has a slightly larger proportion of younger residents and a slightly smaller proportion of residents between 50 and 69 years of age (22% vs. 25% statewide), as shown in Exhibit 6. Yakima has larger proportions of residents under 5 (8% vs. 6% statewide, and under 18 (28% vs. 22%). Sources American COMMU I lify SLjrvey SO] 0 1 5-Yr Estimates, 2010 & 2018: BERK Consulting, 2020 Demographic patterns across Yakima vary by geography, with areas east and west of 16th Avenue showing markedly different patterns shown in Exhibit 7. Key geographic differences in age include: a The proportion of youth is higher on the east side. Mr-M-TITIM MIT Docum ent 'Communily Profile 107 127 1 SO F, Wb-t a r•1 an Wver 0 > 40% Population Yakima is ethnically diverse. The City of Yakima's Hispanic or Lafinx population rgimnirkes 46% of its nnoulafion com ared to 12% st t wi A ORt 0. 0, OJONS 2 - a The younger population in the City of Yakima is far more ethnically diverse than older age groups. This is particularly apparent in student population. In 2019, 13,069 (80%) of students at Yakima School District identified as Hispanic/Latino. A relatively small proportion in the City of Yakima identify as American Indian or Alas Native. The city's American Indian/Native Alaskan population was 1.2%, smaller than the 3.6% countywide and slightly higher than the 1. 1% statewide. These percentages likely reflects the nearby presence of the Yakama Notion in Yakima County. I -:111Document I Community Profile 1 108 128 77%] 87% 70% 72%, 55%: 65%' 63% 49% 48%' 44%, HISTORY OF THE LATINX COMMUNITY IN YAKIMA COUNTY The large number of Latinx and Hispanic residents in the city reflects historical patterns of migration and employment, tied mostly to the local agricultural industry. While the city has been a destination for migrant Hispanic farmworkers over the years, growing numbers of Hispanic farmworkers began permanently settling in the area from the 1930s to 1980s due to changes in the agricultural industry and immigration reforms. Yakima's population grew from roughly 3,200 residents in 1900, steadily increasing decade after decade, to 45,500 in 1960. These population increases were in part due to the arrival of Mexican American farmworkers from Texas in the early 1930s. During World War 11, the U.S. government established the Bracero program, which allowed Mexican citizens to come to the Yakima Valley to work. While these workers did not settle in the Valley, this established the Yakima Valley as a destination for Latinx farmworkers. By the 1980s many former seasonal workers settled permanently in the Yakima Valley due to changes in immigration policies. By the 1980s, Yakima County's Hispanic population was 14.8%, and by the 2000 census, 33% of the residents of Yakima County were of Hispanic or Latino origin, compared to 7.5% in the state. Today, 48.4% of Yakima County's population is Hispanic, nearly four times the statewide percentage of 12.3% Reflecting its ethnic diversity, Yakima has a high proportion of residents who speak ianguage other than English at home. 37% of the city's total population speak a 2iLurnent j,ComLpuL!j Profile 109 =Wsac= 129 language other than English at home, compared to 19% statewide, shown in Exhibit 9. Spanish is the most common language among non-English speakers, with 3517o of the city's total population speaking it. Exhibit 19. LonguagesSpoken at Home in City of Yakima and Washington State, 2010 and 2018 IWO bl� JIINII 'IFIty Spondsh ",Aools <'r VeKM� W(WO�r O� €uj A The distribution of race and ethnicity across Yakima varies by geography, with areas east and west of 16fh Avenue showing markedly different patterns. The proportion of residents who are of Hispanic origin is greater on the east side, shown in Exhibit 10. MEMO" Y'AlDocumeat I Cornmuhlty!400q 000NOMMA 130 Exhibit 20. Percent of Residents that Identify as Hispanic or Latino in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 HISPANICPERCENT LATINO Yakima City Limits City Council Districts Over 0% 4- 60% to 80% 40% to 60°l0 20% to 40% . Under 20% r NOTE: Percent of populaliwt In, ldwI i-i as Hki—I, a Latino, 2014-2018 ACS S-year estimates, census block group geacpaphy. �:;. ., ._.. <_<... ..... .......... . ............. .........�... ....; ': ... ter. 5. �L ia 0 I _. 2 r a I :..Miles _.) f ., .. .. r. Document I Community Profile 1 l 1 131 Households A household is a group of people who live in a single dwelling unit, such as a house or apartment. Households can have only one member or many members. They can be families or unrelated people living together. As of 2017, there are an estimated 33,466 households living in the City of Yakima. Understanding the makeup of the households in the city across age, race, and family sizes helps us to better understand and provide affordable housing to a diversity of household types and sizes. 0 0 ro=_ me ro The average household size in Yakima is 2.71, slightly larger than the statewide average of 2.55. More than half is of the city's residents live in single or two -member households. Exhibit I I shows the breakdown of households by size by tenure. m rom ina s *%Novo 1.485 1,253 6,233 Is= ;_%7 MA 5-person 6-person 7+ pers homehold homehold hou ih When summarizing housing affordability by income level, households are typically grouped relative to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Area Median Family Income (also known as "AMI"). The 2019 AMI for Yakima County i� $56,078. Exhibit 12 lists 2018 median income in the city and county for families (households with two or more related persons) and non -families. Family incomes are ;AI Document I Community Profile 1 112 132 typically higher than non -family incomes due to the higher earnings from potential dual' income households. However, the gap between family and non -family incomes in Yakima is particularly wide, as the median non -family income in the city is a little over half (53.6%) of AMI. This likely reflects the presence of agricultural workers who may live in non -family arrangements and make relatively lower wages. 1111:111 ji-PPIN 11'1!1 11IN11:1.911111111111n 11111�r ir 1 117111111711 Source: American Community Survey, 20 14 2018; BERK Consulting, 2020 Exhibit 13 breaks down renter- and owner -occupied households in the City of Yakima by income level relative to AMI. It shows a significant difference between owner- *ccupied and renter -occupied households, with owner households much more likely to have incomes above 100% AMI.21 Only 21 % of renter households earn at or above AMI, compared to 54% of owner households. Close to a quarter of renter households have ,--xtremely low incomes, compared to 8% of owner households. _1 Low" R ' lg�j' 1 -21 Document I Community Profile 113 133 01KOMT-T.r." 24% Owner 54% 39% x(Ime-dy bow Median household incomes vary by ethnicity as well, as shown in Exhibit 14. The median Hispanic or Latino household has an income about 15% lower than median white alon-. (not Hispanic/Latino) households. MEE Document I Community Profile 114 MENEM 134 Exhibit 25. Median Household Income by Census Tract in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME i E] Yakima City Limits City Council Districts Over $1 00k $75k to $1 00k $50k to $75k j $25k to $50k Under $25k NOTE: Median Household Income, 2014-2018 ACS 5-year esfirnwes, census block group geog, aphy. 0 0 1 2 Miles 211 ' Document I Cor���ofile a 1 115 135 One of the best indicators of affordable housing needs is the number of households that are "cost -burdened" or spending too much of their income on housing. These households have limited resources left over to pay for other life necessities such as food, clothing, medical care, transportation, and education. They are also at higher risk of displacement when housing costs rise, or life circumstances change. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if it costs no more than 30% of a household's income. Households paying more than 30% of their income for housing are cost -burdened, and households paying more than 50% are severely cost -burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all households in Yakima were cost burdened, as shown in Exhibit 16. Households with lower incomes are more likely to be cost -burdened. Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. Exhibit 17 presents estimates of total households by income level and cost burden status. While there are cost burdened households across the income spectrum, severe cost burden is most prevalent among the lowest income groups. Slightly more than 3,000 households (63%) with extremely low incomes, roughly 1,500 (30%) households wi very low incomes, and 600 (9%) households with low incomes are severely cost - burdened. I 1 Document I Community Profile 116 9 1 M 136 IT I, 1 311 51iil g'g & 4p z 0 Severely Cost -Burdened (>50%) 0 Cost -Burdened (30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculatet 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 Total HH: 4,985 4,000 2,000 0 Total HH; 6,640 Total HH; 5,065 gg Total HH: 3,495 tl'11'51111101`,, Extremely Low- Very Low-income (30- Low-income (50-80% Moderate Income (80- Income (:530% AMI) 50% AMI) AMI) 100% AMI) As shown in Exhibit 18, renters are more likely to be cost -burdened than owners, with nearly half of renter households (48%) cost -burdened, compared to a quarter (25%) among owner households. Renters are also more severely cost -burdened than owne with 23% of renter households severely cost -burdened compared to 10% of owner households. ink'AlDocumenf I Communfly Profile 117 137 �'i 1111=19�� All Households ?63%� 4 Severely Cost-Rurdened V Cost- Bu rden ed Rente's 49% Not Cost Burdened Owners1075% Not Calculated Renter households are most vulnerable to the impacts of rising housing cost. Exhibit 1 shows estimated counts of cost -burdened renter -occupied households by household type and income level. While there are households struggling with housing costs acro the entire income spectrum, the greatest number are among household types with incomes below 50% of AMI. The greatest need is among small families (2-4 members) and non -family households, which are typically people living alone or with unrelated housemates. I Exhibit 29. Cost -Burdened Renter Households by Household Type and Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 Senior Family 25 85 65 25 65 265 Senior Living Alone 365 430 335 35 95 1,260 Large Family 535 350 180 4 0 11069 Small Family 970 1,155 470 55 30 2,680 Other 880 820 320 49 0 2069 .... . .. ............ _'!�! ------ — - ---------- Total 2,775 2,840 1,370 168 190 7,343 . ............. .. — — ----------- --- Elderly living alone A person age 62+ living alone Elderly family Two persons, either or both age 62 or older Small family Families With 2-4 members (excluding elderly families) Large family Families with 5 or more members Other Non -family, non-elderly;households (includes those living alone or with housemates) billDocument I Community Profile a 1 118 138 A Residents with Special Housing Needs Several groups may hove special housing needs or supportive services, such as residents experiencing homelessness, residents with disabilities, and older residents. Given the city's proximity to a large seasonal agricultural workforce, farmworkers c also have special housing needs that differ from the general population. I According to the 2019 Yakima County Point -in -Time (PIT) Count, 636 individuals were experiencing homelessness countywide, with over half reporting having slept in an emergency shelter the prior night. A summary of the count results is shown in Exhibit 2 Most households surveyed in the 2019 PIT Count were actively seeking housing and 7 ten households reported needing assistance to find housing. The top reasons cited a the cause of homelessness included economic, job loss, alcohol/substance use, and family crisis. However, there are often a combination of factors that contribute to housing insecurity and homelessness. Exhibit 21 ranks the reasons cited by survey respondents. I 11 ME Emergency Shelter 2019 YAKIMA COUNTY PIT COUNT WHERE HOMELESS NEIGHBORS SLEPT THE NIGHT PRIOR TO THE COUNT TQTALS INCLUDE HEAD OF Hou$EHOLD, PARTNER/SPOU5E AND DEPENDENT5 DATA FROM 539 SURVEY5 considered Homeless by HUD definition (636) Not considered Homeless by HUD definition (148) 94 115 42 36 37 60 22 s � IN it 1 1"1110 Lon'", �5NN ON tin I- 'r Covered - Uncovered - Vehide Inadequate Transitional Hospital i Jail Hotel /Motel With Family outside outside Structure Housing Friends 1 Document I Community Profile 119 139 Exhibit 31. Top Reasons Cited as Cause of Homelessness, 2019 Yakima County PIT Count (Participants could select more than one reason) Number of Responses 1. Economic 178 2. Job Loss 177 3. Alcohol / Substance Use 174 4. Family Crisis 171 5. Lost Temporary Living Situation 134 6. Kicked Out / Left Home 108 7. Eviction 102 8. Domestic Violence 99 9. Physical / Mental Disability 97 io. Mental Illness 97 ii. Illness / Health Related 92 12. Released from Jail 77 13. Personal Choice 68 14. Lacking lob Skills 63 15. Medical Costs 34 16. Lack of Childcare 15 17. Language Barrier 13 18. Aged out of Foster Care 12 Another source of information about families experiencing homelessness and housing insecurity is available from the Yakima School District. Each year the district surveys the families of all students regarding f heir housing situation. During the 2017-2018 school year the district found that at least 621 students experienced housing instability. However, not all of these students meet the strict standards of homelessness in a` count. A summary of the living situation of these students is shown in Exhibit 22. The ferrr. "doubled -up" refers to students who are sleeping in a friend or family member's home temporarily. Exhibit 32. Students Experiencing Housing Instability in Yakima School District, 2017-18 School Year , 448 were doubled -up - 101 stayed in shelters clllllll��_ =__ 0 .0111Document I Community Profile - 1 120 140 Yakima County's Five -Year Plan to End Homelessness (2018) identified the following population as needing specific attention with regards to homelessness are: 0 Individuals experiencing chronic homelessness; 0 Individuals over the age of 62. Exhibit 23 shows households in Yakima by disability status and income. While there are households with disabilities across the entire income spectrum, the proportions decrease across income categories. The percentage of households with one or more members with any disability among households with extremely low incomes is close to for ambulatory limitations, with 37% of total households with this disability belonging to the extremely low-income category compared to 17% in the moderate income or higher income category. Source: HUD CHAS (based on ACS 5-year estimates), 2012-2016; BERK Consulting, 2020. MrOMMOMWOMAI Document I Community Profile 121 141 9,000 residents are age 55-64, indicating that the elderly population will likely grow significantly over the next 10 years. While older residents have a range of housing preferences, many need affordable, accessible housing in age -friendly neighborhoocLA with close links to healthcare and other supports. Some of these households in Yakima have the financial means to afford appropriate housing and services. Many others do not. Exhibit 24 shows the prevalence of cost burden among elderly households across below 30% AML Exhibit 34. Cost -Burdened Households by Household Type Income Level (Elderly households) in City of Yakima, 2020-2016 Elderly Family 105 170 140 110 140 665 Elderly Living Alone 815 620 625 60 155 2,275 _AlDocument I Cornmunj 1, Profile 1-122 N220311M 142 Yakima County is the biggest county in Washington for agriculture, measured both by number of employees and by number of farms.28 As of 2018, Yakima County is home to Agricultural workers have unique housing needs: year-round agricultural employees in this region are estimated to earn less than the median household income, $31,719 annually in wages, and will likely be looking for bottom -tier homes or rental units for their households. Seasonal workers who come from outside areas will need housing for shorter time periods, and may desire lower -cost, temporary options such as single - occupancy rooms or barracks -style accommodations. Because of these needs, �easonol worker housing is typically measured in beds, rather than housing units. Mill Documenti Community. Profile 143 Workforce Proffle Countywide Employment Him lflt:� SlaTe average 0-17,�66,175. AgriculTure WOS Tne large - provider of jobs and wages in the county in 2018, accounting for 28% of all jobs (32,320 jobs) and 22% of total covered wage income. While agriculture accounts for 28% of jobs in the county, it accounts for only 22% of wage income, reflecting the seasonal nature of its jobs. Citywide Employment Trends According to the Census, as of 2017 there were 40,482 jobs in the City of Yakima. During the past 15 years the city has gained about 8,370 jobs averaging about 1.7% growth, or about 558 jobs per year.29 Reflecting countywide employment, top sectors in the city include agriculture, health care, retail, and manufacturing. The City of Yakima's agricultural and manufacturing employers are diverse and include fruit packers, beef processors, and canneries. The City's jobs in the health sector reflects its role as a regional medical center, with a hospital and the nearby Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences (in Terrace Heights). City jobs are concentrated in the Downtown in the costern part of the city and near US- 12 in the north. Almost a quarter (23%) of the jobs in Yakima pay less than $1,250 per month. A worker earning that wage alone would be severely cost burdened by the average one - bedroom $1,250 and $3,333 per month. Maybe of the workers in this wage category would also have trouble afford average cost rental units without working multiple jobs. To balance their household budgets, many lower -wage workers may move to areas farther away from the city in search of more affordable housing options. Exhibit 26 shows the home location of workers who are employed inside the City of Yakima. Some of these workers may desire to live in Yakima but currently live in surrounding areas. It is likely that some of these households living outside of Yakima are doing so to access more affordable housing or due to a lack of housing options that meet their needs. 211 Document J Workforce Profile 1 124 woman= 144 local workforce, especially lower -wage workers, can live within easy reach of ­mployment centers and in the communities they serve. Employment Projections There is as a deal of uncertainty about future employment growth in Yakimas - to the current30 stay-at-home order in Washington State that has resulted in widespread layoffs and unemployment. However, employment growth in recent history has been healthy: an average of 1.7% growth per year between 2002 and 2017.31 According to the 2017 City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan, the city's growth target is to add 8,556 jobs between 2017 and 2040, or about 372 jobs per year (about 0.9% annual growth). This would represent a slowdown compared to recent years. Many lower -paying occupations, such as healthcare support (nursing/medical assistants or home health aides), retail, and sales, are expected to be in demand in the region in the next five years based on occupational projections and current supply - demand data provided by the Washington State Employment Security Department (ESD).32 ESID also projects the fastest growth in Construction, Transportation Warehousing and Utilities, Education and Health Services, and Leisure and Hospitality. "JI,IvvoII iIXY x I--f "A' i1ly"ll_)�l,l-_11,1q11f1J-1 -RtR--A AI 0�1=� 145 Exhibit is i r Workersi i i 1 "I w. ' k — -- ..a ,.� WENATCHEL1i t l EPHRATA r yy t 1 a.. h QUINCY a ROSLYN ALL LAIC MOSES LAKt LiLENSBURG GEORGE t . Kti TTIT A',, l ,. 'WARDEN i ROYAL CITY Is 3 i MATTAWA a +� �S,WA MOXEE t l x PA" ft. OARRAH 0ilk WEST TftP'�"ENISt6 ��dEYN!±RRCxE RICH LA ND , GRAN ER ,y<,;o � ,` 1 Ft4AC0 n tsRANDVIEW MABTON PRO'SaSR RICHLAND Home Location of Workers With Jobs KENNLWICS' Located in the City of Yakima More Workers El Yakima City Limits � mt Other Cities E L _j County Boundaries , v" Yakamo Reservation , Less Workers Mop NI.: M—h 2020 N®1®. Exdvda 0 —k— w Ih hon» 1-11ms —1,ide .1 mup..-1 A` 5 10 20 Document I Workforce Profile 126 C INDEX # 1313-1 146 Housing Inventory Housing Supply Characteristics There is a total of 36,120 housing units in Yakima, shown in Exhibit 27. Nearly two thirds (65%) of these units are single family homes and 15% are multifamily buildings of 5+ units. Another 12% of units are smaller multifamily structures such as duplex, triplex, and quadplex buildings. Close to 7% of the housing stock is in mobile homes, which likely reflects the supply for local seasonal housing for farmworkers. - M"dhii&j'Jl' '_"? "o -, a M'hfckrnd1' 5 ?us IQ 3Jras "MV11"ifwngly �20— L)nes� Mobdk-' "',v"nes EMM Exhibit 28 shows Yakima housing stock by number of bedrooms and households by household size. It indicates a potential undersupply of both smaller units. 30% of households in Yakima have only one or two members, but only 18% of housing units are studios or 1 -bedroom units. 211,Document [ Housing Inventory —] 127 147 7TUMP-1 2012-2016 .9. =- 30% X a 30% 28% PA 250/c r 20% I A% 14% CL 15% 14°/® According to the Yakima Comprehensive Plan, in 2014 only 10% of the city's residenti-0 structures had been built since 2000, and roughly half (50.1 %) of units were built 40 or more years ago. These older units may represent lower quality housing stock that ma require additional investments for upkeep. Older housing may also need modificatiol ;ALDOcument I Housing Inventory 1 128 148 for access to ensure their suitability for older residents, diff ere ntly-a bled residents, and families. While some housing units may need upkeep or accessibility improvement, older housing stock may also represent much of the more affordable housing availabIC in the city. Exhibit 29 compares images of housing in southeast and northeast Yakima. %uu,c��YoWrn��nmpmhems|*ap|on2Ol7.'. ~ � ' Exhibit 30 maps the geographical distribution of residential structure by year built. It shows that much of the older housing stock in the city is located in eastern Yakima, in areas that are typically close to amenities, services, and jobs. Preservation and support for home maintenance can be important elements of housing affordability. :III Document I Housing Inventory 1 129 149 Document I Housine Inventory 130 r� r IM In Yakima, just over half of housing units are owner -occupied (55%) while 45% are Tenter-occu pied, as shown in Exhibit 31. Home Ownership Momeownership is an important topic to consider since it is the main way most American families accumulate wealth. Homeownership in advantaged neighborhoods also provides access to higher performing school districts, amenities, and social capital that lead to better opportunities. There are a total of 18,081 owner -occupied housing units in Yakima. In terms of race, 85% of these units are occupied by whites, and in terms of ethnicity, 70% of these units are occupied by non -Hispanic white residents. Only 44% of Hispanic or Latino households own their homes. Exhibit 32 shows change in housing values over time in Yakima and Washington State. Homes in Yakima are relatively more affordable and housing costs in the city are not rising as rapidly as they are statewide. However, the median home value in Yakima has risen by 387o from 2010 to 2019. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 1976. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective home buyers. Document-L.Housin2. Inventory 131 In in City of Yakima, Yakima County, and Washington state, 2010-2020 80% 60% 40% 20% 00/0 -20% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 YTD All Hanes, Yakima City All Homes, Washington State HUD 1v4FI, Yakima County Source: Z111ow, February 20201- HUD Income Limits, 2019, BERK, 2020. Exhibit 33 estimates the income needed to afford an Average and "Bottom Tier"33 Cost home in the City of Yakima, assuming the household has 20% down payment in saving2 available for the vurchase. It also shows the -,#erJA!_1n1JW_R these income thresholds. Based on household income estimates from 2018, just under half of all households in Yakima have incomes high enough to afford an average cost home, and 627c had incomes high enough to afford a Bottom Tier home, as shown in Exhibit 34. Unfortunately, data about household savings is not available, so it is impossible to estimate how many of these households have the means to become homeowners. At current housing prices, a 20% down payment is equivalent to approximately one full year's income for households at these income thresholds, as shown in Exhibit 35. Document I Housin2 Inventory 132 MEMO= 152 N $100,000 or higher W $75,000 - $99,999 $50,000 - $74,999 $25,000 - $49,999 M < $25,000 1=111111 1171111 , 11111111 Ilill:�1111 111:11:��!!11 1'19174= 80% 2-M < I Ir 11�11 FT"I'tMTRYP", 0117" just under half of Yakima households, Irl3ryltl.iliwa-lh%,--J save for a down payment, and bottom tier homes are still WTUOU-1.4 VF �--No �--, 145-d households. 1*WJJJ Document I HousiLi.IInvcwitotyy 1 133 153 February 2020 ZEM1OZE=_ Sales Price Assumed 20% down payment Mortgage amount I IT T ry Or I Tn Monthly mortgage payment ($) zm�= = Property tax Insurance Annual costs Monthly costs qcl 8,2- 15,624 $ 2 101 10,314 Monthly Income Needed 2A_862 Annual Income Needed $ 52,027] 34,3471 Source,: /illow February 20201 URK 2020. Rental Housing There are a total of 15,385 rental housing units in Yakima. In terms of race, 77% of these units are occu�#Ced 0 whites, and in terms of W-4- by non -Hispanic white residents. A larger proportion of Hispanic households are renters than owners. Exhibit 36 shows average apartment rents as of 2019 as well as the household income level needed to afford the unit as a percentage of AMI. Households with incomes at 60% of AMI can still afford average market rents for I- and 2-bedroom apartments. Those with lower incomes cannot. This helps to explain the fact that so many lower - income households in Yakima are cost -burdened. 2ILDocument I Housing Inventory_ 134 154 Rents in Yakima are also rising at a faster rate than incomes. Between 2010 and 201 If average rents in multifamily buildings such as apartments have risen by about 40%. • the same period median • income increased • • 19%. One likely reason for the continued -• in rent is extremely low vacancy rates, • • • i - • • • - • • ♦ • # # -• -- low since 2015, while rents have continued to increase. The latest data shows Yakima's vacancy rate at less than 1%, whereas a healthy housing market has a vacancy rate of around 5%. When vacancy rates sink much below 5% there are fewer options on the market for households seeking to move. This increases competition for the limited supply • available units and results in upward pressure on market rents. 1111Document I HousinU. Inventory 135 155 $900 $750 $600 $450 $300 6% $818 5% 4% 3% 2% $150 ­"� I % 0.70% $0 0% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2036 2017 2018 2019 -Average Monthly Rent (2-br) -Rental Vacancy Rate Source: Washington Center for Red Estate Research, 20 10-201 9; ACS DP04 5-Year Esfimcjtes, 20 14-201 8; BERK, 2019. Housing Production Single-family has been developed at a fairly steady pace over the past several years in Yakima, as shown in Exhibit 38. However, 2018 and 2019 have shown a sharp increase in the number of multifamily housing units permitted for development. Overall, 1,590 units of new housing have been added in Yakima since 2015. Mobile home production has maintained steady throughout this period, likely reflective of the housing needs of (see discussion on page 1 PAIDocument I HousLi_q Inventory 136 IM MIN Single Family Duplex 3&4 115+ Mobile Home Source: City of Yakima, 2020; BERK, 2020, Subsidized Housing Yakima has 686 units with federal subsidies. These units may be funded by one of several programs at HUD or the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These units typically have sub -market rents and are set aside for low- or moderate -income households and specific target populations, The breakdown of federally -subsidized unit5 by target population is shown in Exhibit 39. Housinq •r Im 446 Target population unspecified 20 Total 686 Source: No[ional Housing Preservation Database, 2020: BLR<,-2020 y i' • • i ` i• i' i i • • •, •• i', • • "` i • i i a 102111 Document I HousinaInvenfory 138 IM Gap Analysis METC-7073rd The projected population growth for the city is 15,947 new persons by 2040, or an average annual population growth of 760 people.35 Using a consistent household size of 2.7, this translates to an annual increase of 281 households. Assuming a healthy vacancy rate of 5%, this indicates the need for 295 housing units annually or 6,196 units by 2040. Between 2015 and 2018 the city permitted an average of 185 units per year, or only about 63% of the rate needed to keep up with growth projections. In 2019, the city permitted 852 units. While this recent boost in production is encouraging, it is unclear whether this is a trend that will continue in years to come, particularly given the threat of an economic recession associated with the 2020 Coronavirus pandemic. Additionally, it is not yet clear if these units will be provided at price points, sizes, and locations that directly address the greatest housing needs. Current average market rents for apartments in Yakima are affordable to householl with incomes at 60% of AMI or above. Residents in households at lower income lev will have difficulty findings affordable housing under current market conditions, and rents are increasing faster than incomes. Using older data available from HUD, Exhibit 40 presents estimates for the number of renter households with incomes below three different thresholds, as well as the number of rental housing units in Yakima that would be affordable to them. It shows a clear gap in the number of affordable units available for those with incomes below 30% AMI or 50% AMI. However, there is a surplus of units affordable at the 80% AMI level. Significantly, this data reflects conditions from several years ago. Since then, it is likely there has been a reduction in the number of units affordable to the lower -income categories. AI Document I GaE2 Analysis 1 139 M52MMME= Im fii Number of Renter households 0 Number of affordable and available rental units AiMl = HUD Area Median Family Income 5 Median value homes in Yakima are potentially affordable to households around 86% of AMI, assuming that a given household has access to a 20% down payment. Nearly half of the households in Yakima do not have incomes high enough to afford a home at this price, and many of these households likely do not have savings available for down payment ($52,027 for a median value home). Homes in the "Bottom Tier" (lower third) in terms of valu-a on average, potentially affordable to households at 57% of AML However, many of these homes may be small or in poor conditions. As noted earlier, Hispanic and nonwhite households are underrepresented among homeowners. In many communities, nonwhite households often face additional barriers to homeownership such as overt discrimination or steering from real estate agents, bankers, or others in the housing market; challenges related to immigrations status, employment, or credit background; or lack of access to knowledge networks. This means that these households may be less likely to own, even if they meet the income thresholds necessary to own a home in Yakima. W ma t 10IF Al Document -I Gciri AncAZMs 1 140 160 summer months.36 Identifying safe and sanitary housing facilities for seasonal workers i-'s an important gap to address in Yakima County. ;MD—OCUment 161 Appendix: Table of Exhibits Exhibit 1. HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income (HAFI).>......a....., . ........ ....d 103 Exhibit 2. 4th Street from a 1940s Postcard...........................................................................a 104 Exhibit 3. East Yakima Avenue from a 1900s Postcard.......................................................a 105 Exhibit 4. Historical and Projected Population in City of Yakima, 2000-204.................... 106 Exhibit 5. Population Growth Rates in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 2010-201......................................................... ....... . ......e ,...... 106 Exhibit 6. Age and Sex Distribution in City of Yakima and Yakima County, 201...... .,,... 107 Exhibit 7. Population Under 18 Years Old and Over 65 Years Old in City of Yakima, 2010...... ................... ........ ............... .............. 8 Exhibit 8. Percentage of Population by Race and Ethnicity in City of Yakima and Comparison Geographies, 2010 and 201..................................... .............._109 Exhibit 9. Languages Spoken at Home in City of Yakima and Washington State, 2010 and 201...................................................................................... .............. 110 Exhibit 10. Percent of Residents that Identify as Hispanic or Latino in City of Yakima, 2014-2018..... 1 1 1 Exhibit 11. Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018..................................... 1 1 Exhibit 12. Median Household Income by Household Type in City of Yakima, 2018 ...... 113 Exhibit 13. Percentage of Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 212-2016... 114 Exhibit 14. Median Household Income by Ethnicity in City of Yakima, 201.................... 114 Exhibit 15. Median Household Income by Census Tract in City of Yakima, 2014-2018... 115 Exhibit 16. Cost Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012-2016.................. 117 Exhibit 17. Total Cost -Burdened Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016........ „ .....: ............... .., Exhibit 18. Household Tenure by Cost Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 .................... 118 Exhibit 19. Cost -Burdened Renter Households by Household Type and Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016..................................................................... 118 Exhibit 20. Yakima County Homeless Point -in -Time Count Summary, 2019 .... ....... .: ......._1 19 Exhibit 21. Top Reasons Cited as Cause of Homelessness, 2019 Yakima County PIT Count (Participants could select more than one reason)., .............. 120 Exhibit 22. Students Experiencing Housing Instability in Yakima School District, 2017- 18 School Year ........ ........: ... .... 120 Exhibit 23. Households by Disability Status and Income Level in City of Yakima, Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 42 162 2012-2016„,,.....Q..,...,, .......... ....... ...w,..., <,...3.w. 1 Exhibit 24. Cost -Burdened Households by Household Type Income Level (Elderly households) in City of Yakima, 2020-2016......................................................— 122 Exhibit 25. Farmworker Jobs and Housing in Yakima County, 2018 Estimate .................... 123 Exhibit 26. Place of Residence for Workers in City of Yakima, 2017..............................k.... 126 Exhibit 27. Housing Inventory by Type in City of Yakima, 2018.......................................... 127 Exhibit 28. Percentage of Housing Unit Sizes Compared to Household (HH) Sizes in City of Yakima, 2012-2016, 128 Exhibit 29. Images of Housing in Southeast (left) and Northeast (right) Yakima........ _.,129 Exhibit 30. Residential Properties by Year Built in City of Yakima ...................... .............. 130 Exhibit 31. Household Tenure in City of Yakima, 201 ......... .................. .......*. ......- ...... 131 Exhibit 32. Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income in City of Yakima, Yakima County, and Washington state, 2010-2020. ... 12 Exhibit 33. Home Ownership Affordability in City of Yakima, 2018-2020.................. 133 Exhibit 34. Percentage of All Households by Income Bracket in City of Yakima, 2 J14-2018,.,„,,.o- .......... ........ ......... ....m, .. ..... 3 Exhibit 35. Home Ownership Costs for Average and Bottom -tier Homes in City of Yakima, February 2020........................................................................................ 134 Exhibit 36. Yakima County* Rental Rates and Affordability, 2019..................................... 135 Exhibit 37. Yakima County Multifamily Rents and Vacancy, 2010-2019 ........................... 136 Exhibit 38. Count of Permitted Dwelling Units by Project Type in City of Yakima, 2015-2019.....,,. ,,,....,......, ..,... m.... ........:........ ....... 137 Exhibit 39. Housing Units with Federal Subsidies in City of Yakima, 2020 ..........................r-138 Exhibit 40. Total Affordable and Available Rental Units in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 ; .. 140 Document Appendix: Table of Exhibits 143 ROMAN—DEXABIL-1 163 C // �Policy and �Regulatory Review Infroduction and Purpose [he purpose of this policy framework evaluation is to review and evaluate the current City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan Housing Element to determine the City's progres3 and success in attaining planned housing types and units, achievement of goals and policies, and implementation of the schedule of programs and actions. (RCW 36.70A.600 (2) (e)) This evaluation will inform potential strategies in the future Housing Action Plan. In addition to reviewing the Housing Element, this document reviews other related Comprehensive Plan Elements, particularly Land Use. As well, regulatory incentives ant barriers are considered. The evaluation is organized as follows: * Introduction * Developing the HAP * Objectives and Strategies * Implementation * Monitoring * References 11 Appendices ;J1 Document I Appendix`. Table of Exhibits 144 DOC INDEX # BB-10 164 Growth Target Evaluation 70INKMOMM The County has distributed population in consultation with cities. The City of Yakima's 2040 population target is 110,387. (Yakima County, 2017) (City of Yakima, 2017) Yakima's 2020 population is 95,490. See Exhibit 11. Since 2010 the City has added 4,294 residents. Since the City's adoption of its 2017 Comprehensive Plan, the city has added 1,590 residents. In the last 3 years the City's annual average new residents is 530, a greater annual amount compared to 2010-2017 at 386 persons per year. To achieve its growth target, the city will need to add about 745 persons per year over the next 20 i/ears. See Exhibit 12. r,MEEgij=4r 91.1993,220 6 3=- 91 A t AE Document I L)endix: Table of Exhibits 1 1 145 165 The average household size in Yakima is 2.71.37 If applying a 2.7 household size to the 2020 and 2040. Exhibit 13 identifies council districts around which land capacity information has bee developed. Based on a land capacity analysis, the City has more than twice the housing capacity needed - 14,500 dwelling unit capacity versus a need of about 5,5 dwellings. About 38% of the capacity is for single-family dwellings, about 16% is for multiplexes and townhouses, and 46% is for dwellings in multifamily and mixed -use districts. Most of the capacity is in the western part of the city, See Exhibit 14. "INWINRIWAW MWIMAZan MXV C....0 M.P.0 2 3 6 7 my umus j UrNin G,.wtb Ar,a :1 Document I AL)L)endix: Table of Exhibits 1-146 166 Most vacant land is zoned R- 1, with relatively less in other zones. Some land is in agricultural use and planned for future residential or non-residential uses. See Exhibit 15 and Exhibit 16. 1 Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 147 167 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 SR stir. xtszZi R-1 29MMIMMINNIVAMM R-2 901,1011, 01100 R-3 0,111,01WHIMIN B-1 NIPPON B-2 H B Scc MENOMONIE'Srth LCC I CBD I'll, GC M-1 m-2 ta R D 4 zr HOW ENRON AS Source; City of Yakima BERK, 2020 SR Suburban Res�ce,-, al L1 A O Single Fa".;v R-2 T— Faridy R-3 1.1,h yam ly hr B-2 L-1 Business HS 6-n— SCC Small Conve—ce Car— LCC Large C.—I e1c. Ce'Tel CBD Central Business D str,cr 3C G"ew Commerce! V-1 Lqh'lnOUW5i bl-2 H—,y Industr a! RD Rag-1 D-e—am: AS A rprt S.pp.n rt A r, M 0 x i :2 Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits -1 148 168 There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the City and about 25% of it is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. See Exhibit 17. 3ounze�C|�o�Yok�no 8ERK'2D2O- Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represents about 30% of the vacant acres, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. See EA �*. Document I A2pendix: Table of Exhibits 169 Most of the vacant acres not yet hooked up to sewer regardless of distance to infrastructure is located in District 7 followed by District 5. Per the tables above, more vacant land is in proximity to sewer in District 7 than in District 5. See Exhibit 19. The City has demonstrated that it can produce both quantity and diversity in housing. Since 2017 Yakima has produced 648 dwellings, or 216 dwellings per year, a little lower than the need between 2020-2040 at 276 units per year. See Exhibit 20 and Exhibit 21. 39IT111511 1=1 # 34,887 35,652 Document I ,ApLie ndix: Table of Exhibits 92 1 150 MOMINUM IM 5ourc��bFk4. x[RK2O�[� - , Annually, most dwelling units have been single family, but there have consistently been duplex permits, and an increasing number of multiplexes and multifamily, particularly in 2019. See Exhibit 22. The City is allowing a range of housing types including more affordable missing middle (plex, townhouse, etc.) ownership and rental housing, and apartments. See Exhibit 23 and Exhibit 24. AL 151 ,-& Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits IN C"I II! III III I dMultifamily Exhibit 64. Permits by Dwelling Type 2015-2019 900 Soo 700 600 Soo About half of the dwellings have been developed in the R-1, R-2, and R-3 zones combined. However, in 2019 larger numbers of multifamily dwellings were permitted, predominantly in commercial mixed -use districts, particularly in GC, B-1, and CBD. See Exhibit 25 and Ex'ki*it 26. MA 921IL—cument, I ALiLiendix: Table of Exhibits 152 172 Exhibit 65. Permits by Year and Zone* RM EM SR CBD GC in. 9-1 Iv%- I Scc w Mobile Homes "Multifamily Missing Middle 0 Single Family Document [ Appendix: Table of Exhibits 153 173 Based on household income estimates from 2018, just under half of all households in Yakima have incomes high enough to afford an average cost home - $245,000, and 62% had incomes high enough to afford a Bottom Tier home - $162,000. More than two thirds of the single-family homes were valued at the average or bottom tier home price affordable to about half or more of Yakima households. See Exhibit 27 and Exhibit 28. N SO -5162,000 $1 63,000-S245,000 IN S246,000 � Exhibit 68. Single Family Permit Average Values and Affordability Table =�l r_-slTiOTIIFAM- M1 rM M :2 Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 1 154 174 In addition to permits identified above, two accessory dwelling units were permitted between 2015 and 2019. As of 2020, the City received four permits; there are two pending as of September 2020. The permits relate to properties in the R- I and R-2 zones. Policy Evaluation lis sFM1VTM-7FT-,;TTerS Trie gro"' , T TrgeT evaivaTion an I W as community survey results to consider the progress in the City's Comprehensive Plan Housing and Land Use policy implementation and how well the policies relate to the Yakima Housing Needs Assessment. The policy review considers the following evaluation criteria in terms of success/productivity in achieving the housing units and capacity, and the status and achievement of goals and policies. The relationship of the goals and policies and the housing needs assessment is also referenced. Success in affaining planned housing types and units P#: Count of relevant projects built since 2017 or in pipeline D#: Dwelling capacity in projects built since 2017 or in pipeline Achievement of goals and policies 0 --- - 1 �55 ,Mill Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 175 M: Moderate progress/maturing implementation through funding/code/program development C: Completed 11 1 1 1 � 1111 1 g 1111111 111 1 1 1 11 11 11 rare Linkage to Housing �Needs Assessment and HAP Objective V V: Valid, continuing need for goal/policy to meet identified gap in HNA and/or HW 1000M T—AUTTSOUT-19 mom A: Amend to address gap in HA or HAP ObjectiveS38 1: Indirectly related to HNA or HAP Objective Exhibit 30 lists each policies in the Housing Element chapter, the data and information considered, and the relationship to the evaluation criteria. The City has implemented policies around housing preservation, supply, and diversity, and its permit trends show the range and numbers of dwelling units increasing. The funding must be prioritized as it is limited. Most policies directly support the findings of the housing needs assessment; a few on design or on services could be more clearly written. The main consideration is funding to implement policies that are early or moderate in their implementation status. Document I A2L)endix: Table of Exhibits 156 Im GOAL 5.1. ENCOURAGE DIVERSE AND AFFORDABLE HOUSING CHOICES. 5.1.1. Monitor market rate and ?ffordable housing needs. Review and ?,djust land capacity for housing �.evelopment and redevelopment based *n housing needs. Quantitative: Updated land capacity shows M Growth more than sufficient for target Capacity and illustrates range of housing types. See Exhibit 14. 5.1.2. Promote the preservation, SF permits Sh improvement, and development of single- SF home d( family hornes in Yakima. repair p` program C re O® gr $1, In 5.1.3. Encourage mixed use in6V in commercial nodes. In y units have been M V for market rate ee Exhibit 22. The ir/Disabled Home ram was established irs ago. The average ded is approximately ionne over a lifetime. homes were served.39 Number of MU From 2015-2019, four mixed use projects projects were completed in the Number of CBD zone, creating 33 dwelling DUs units. In 2019, The GC and 13- 1 zones saw larger multifamily projects. See Exhibit 26. 5.1.4. Facilitate small lot sizes, Number of The condominiums, clustering and other projects of linei options that increase the supply of each type dev affordable homeownership options and Average dev the diversity of housing that meet the bedrooms for zon, needs of aging, young professional, and new SF and dev small and large households. MF and Subsidized dev units for seniors inclk 1,2, Lod dev rec( M V :ity allows zero lot M V common wall single family ;Iopments that have been ,loped in the R-1 and R-2 !s. Townhomes have been =Ioped in the R-2, R-3 GC, RD zones. Multifamily ;Iopment in the GC zone des apartments with studio, and 3-bedroom units (The jes). Units specifically =Ioped for seniors not ntly achieved. A h irTM7 s yf 6,J mtj�'vcl' "'jov f I I fj� -y, _n( I Ypdi .Al Document I AL))ndix: Table of Exhibits 1 157 Im Data on bedrooms not available in consistent format. City has developed a tracking approach to address this for future years. 5.1�. Allow accessory dwelling units in Number of single family zones toincrease the supply 6DUsond of affordable housing units and to help location existing homeowners remain in their homes. See Growth Target discussion M Y above including permit trends. While just two AOUswere permitted in2Ol5-2Ol9'there are four permits submitted in2O2O and two pending ADU permits ' 5.1.6. Allow manufactured homes on Code present. The City allows both C V individual lots in residential zones in Manufactured manufactured homes on accordance with the provisions of state homesadded properties (13 permitted over and federal law. Apply development and or replaced. 2015-2019) and in parks (40 design standards equally to manufactured permitted in last 5 years). housing and other residences. 5.1.7. Promote the improvement Of Programs in Comprehensive improvements M Y existing mobile home perks to meet place, units tomanufactured home parks health and safety standards and quality of replaced, have not been made. Units have life needs wfresidents. park been replaced individually. One infrastructure porkdidexpandhzodd-dx improved. units, but only that expansion area was upgraded hocurrent standards. 5.1.8. Encourage and incentivize Number of Bicycle Apartments constructed M V affordable housing to development. units built at in 2019 includes 40 of 80 units for below 80% homeless/low income (B-I zone). AMI by The Yakima Armory developed income band. by the housing authority in 2019 provides 41 units of housing for homeless and low-income veterans (R-2 Zone). 5.1.9. Support proposals for affordable Spread ufunit There have been arange ofunit k» V assisted and ma market t housing based r rate ouyn� ase types using types, both ownership and onthe following criteria: permit data. rental, across zones. See Exhibit wDispersion ofaffordable housing Overlay 26. throughout the City permitted Developments inthe ° Convenient access hotransit housing on commercial and mixed -use map oftransit areas are more well -served by Im • A range of unit types • Ownership housing when possible • Long-term affordability stops (if transit, and there has been an available). increasing share of units in these Housing with zones. 40 long-term See discussion under 5.1.8. The affordability affordable apartment tgreements. developments have long-term affordability agreements. # Encourage a range of affordable homeownership options and proviclz access to education for first time buyers. I Ordinance No. M V :ed permit lousing, ireshold Dted an infill nodified g reducing n multifamily mes. 'fiminary Plot ewer than similar iities of similar - in counties: ,080 + $33/lot, Y: 1,700 + $45/lot HNA scats on Encourage a range of affordable homeownership options and proviclz access to education for first time buyers. I Ordinance No. M V :ed permit lousing, ireshold Dted an infill nodified g reducing n multifamily mes. 'fiminary Plot ewer than similar iities of similar - in counties: ,080 + $33/lot, Y: 1,700 + $45/lot HNA scats on More affordable home affordability— ownership types are being built sales price of including common wall single recently family and townhouses. See permitted Exhibit 28 and Exhibit 29. homes Between 2015-2019, the City added 2 homeowner units in its first-time homeownership program. (Page 18 Annual Action M V Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 1 159 Im 5.1.12. Participate in efforts to secure Document Due to limited federal funding, E V land available for affordable housing. City and preference for other participation. programs, the City's 2020-2024 Consolidated Program does not anticipate acquisition, 5.1.13. Allow for well -designed Report on In2Ol8,poirDhdQaInn &Suites 'E V tarmworkar housing recognizing the City recent was converted into housing for ofYakima'srole asthe primary city inthe fmrm*orker up|o80Oseasonal hznnwodkers. agricultural Yakima valley with the housing The Yakima Housing Authority greatest range mfhousing opportunities, pnojects(e'g- operates about 44horm*orker urban infrastructure, and public services. hotel housing units and l6units for conversion). seasonal fannwoMkerhousing. Status of design code. GOAL 5.2. PRESERVE AND IMPROVE EXISTING RESIDENTIAL 5.2.1. Invest inand improve quality mf City programs Policy bbroad and could be life inexisting neighborhoods. regarding improved toassist in qualify. implementation. The City has a to replace streetlights in neighborhoods, The City has mapped pavement conditions, schools, and bicycle connections and areas of improvement to help prioritize effort541. The City has also identified non -motorized improvements that improve walkability, mobility, and drainage in its capital facility ' U A 180 5.2.3. Seek alternatives, when feasible, Unclear, to demolition and removal of units from qualitativ housing stock. -1 5�2A. � Encourag m ir a * . r i• a home6wnem Unclear, qualitative. Over the U A 2015-2019 period the City saw 199 units demolished about 14% of the units permitted. It is unknown if the units demolished were replaced in new developments. � and Identify See discussion under 5.1.2. M V aintain number of ite-income GOAL 5.3. ENSURE AN ADEQUATE SUPPLY OF HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS, households served and dollars per capita invested. 5.3.1. Prioritize the provision of fair Average in addition to the development M A share housing opportunities to all values based of affordable and special needs economic segments of the population and on permit housing described under 5.1.8 those with special needs. valuations. the City has allowed a variety of housing types that are available at different price points. See Exhibit 27. Single Family Permit Values and Affordability Chart to Exhibit 29. 5.3.2. Support development of new Zones/acres Retirement homes are allowed in M V units and the operation of existing units allowing all residential zones except R-1 for housing persons with special needs attached and commercial and mixed -use such as the disabled and elderly. Promote housing or zones. universal design principles in new and senior housing- Universal design not adopted rehabilitated housing to ensure housing is Units built for yet; however, the City has a designed for all persons and abilities. seniors, provision to allow for reasonable disabled. accommodations and waiver of Status of building code requirements to design code. ensure access to housing that meets the needs of the disabled. Document [ AL)L,)endix: Table of Exhibits 161 181 (YMC 15.09.1 10 Reasonable accommodations process) 5.3.3. Support programs that offer City funding The City restricts unlawful M V assistance to homeless individuals and (human camping on sidewalks to assist families. services, the homeless, the City worked CDBG) and with Yakima Union Gospel City Mission, Transform Yakima participation. Together, Yakima Neighborhood HNA, Schools? Health Services, and multiple Related to City departments as part of a need taskforce to help homeless find identified: shelter, food, and services.43 The Number of ' City has been working towards shelter beds, building more affordable number of housing as a longer termr families solution. Bicycle Apartments assisted. constructed in 2019 includes 40 of 80 units for homeless/low income (B-1 zone). The Yakima Armory developed by the housing authority in 2019 provides 34 units of housing for homeless and low-income veterans (R-2 Zone). 5.3.4. Support programs and housing Housing repair The City offers a Senior/Disabled M V options that allow the senior population programs - emergency rehabilitation program to to age in place as their housing needs seniors served, fix life and safety issues that would change. Supportive otherwise displace these elderly and services frail homeowners into care facilities or (meals on risk homelessness. the City of Yakima wheels) and Office of Neighborhood development households Services assist approximately 100 served. Senior/Disabled low to moderate income Homeowner units a year with CDBG Single Family Rehabilitation program. Housing repair programs: see discussion under 5.1.2. I,, r r s ,i .t, :° �; t«r au,P,r. jl'Th: : 6CtIt ;fit i 5s qI,a, W i I .+ .pit '. Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 162 �i � 182 GOAL 5.4. ENCOURAGE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF HIGH QUALITY HOUSING. 5.4.1. Promote development practices development. sustainable Code status. in housing Not a HNA gap. Could review in strategies. •• language is undescriptive U of what sustainable means. It could include access to open •• and •• communities, as well • healthy building materials, energy efficient equipment, and indoor • quality. IN 5.4.2. Use transitional densities, design Existing Code The City applies site screening M V, I and landscape standards to ensure Not a HNA standards as a buffer between housing is compatible with existing gap. Could uses, Design standards are not character and planned goals. review in widely applied. strategies. 5.4.3. Encourage development of well- Land The City has adequate housing M V designed new housing in coordination capacity. capacity. See Exhibit 14. with population growth, employment Housing built growth, and transportation goals. versus demand (vacancy). 5.4.4. Coordinate future housing Sevverand development with capital planning and water service investment. gap areas and investments. Code status for concurrency. 5.4.5. Implement utility standards that Same as Addressing strategies to encourage infill development. above. advance infrastructure at a level that can help advance housing construction. The City does have a program to fund public facilities for low- and moderate - income households. Another program to advance all types of housing (market rate and e are vacant acres that M V ilre extension of sewer structure to be served. See :)it 17 to Exhibit 19. Densities limited until services are ilable; see YMC 15.05.030. M V 0111 Document I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 163 12 183 affordable) could assist in providing for housing. 5.4.6. Ensure multimodal public and Review transit See Policy 5.1.9 for transit; transit M V private transportation options are in relation to serves higher density areas. City available for new and redeveloped zoning density, standards address street housing. standards for new development. See 5.2.1 for investments in non - motorized improvements. 5.4.7. Promote complete streets and Code status. Yakima has adopted a M V trails to interconnect Yakima's Lower priority complete streets policy in YMC neighborhoods and promote walkability. for data 8.96. See 5.2.1 for investments in analysis: not a non -motorized improvements. HNA gap. Miles of new streets and trails and sidewalks. 5..8. Promote safe, energy ;efficient, Lower priority City applies state energy code. M V and healthy housing attainable to very for data Sustainable building practices low-, low-, and moderate -income analysis: not a have not been implemented in households. Explore measures to improve HNA gap. regulations. indoor air quality and foster construction Consider methods that reduce dust, mold, and air focusing future toxics concentrations in the homes. survey for HAP on design topics. GOAL 5.5, FOSTER A CARING COMMUNITY THAT NURTURES AND SUPPORTS INDIVIDUALS, CHILDREN, AND THEIR FAMILIES. 5.5.1. Make human services more Indirectly The City offers a wide variety M A inclusive and accessible to the Yakima related to community services including community. HAP. Discuss housing repair for existing with TAC. residents, and landlord -tenant counseling. For new housing opportunities, the City helps fund public facilities that benefit low and moderate income residents. The City also acquires property Document A endix: Table of Exhibits 164 184 to help construct homes under federal funding. The City helps develop affordable housing through a Community Housing Development Organization (CHDO). Some programs have been cut back due to limited funding (e.g. having to strictly prioritize housing repair funds).44 5.5.2. Identify opportunities and Indirectly This broad policy could mean U A develop strategies that are proactive and related to advanced assistance to preventative in their approach to human HAP. Discuss households prior to their services needs. with TAC becoming homeless. See 5.3.4. 5.5.3. Allocate City general funds and Indirectly See Policy 5.5.1. E V seek federal and state funds to offer related to human services that the City can best HAP. Discuss provide to address a spectrum of with TAC community needs. 5.5.4. Consider human services Code The City has a code E V objectives in developing City regulations abatement enforcement program and a and codes. For example, enforcing code and loss of transparent "Yak Back" requests abatement may mean making people housing stock, to assure quality neighborhoods homeless. Ensuring there are community and and safety; the City also offers resources to assist these residents, before assistance programs to address housing they are abated, is critical. offered to and facility repair, addition of households. streetlights, and graffiti reMOV01.45 5.5.5. Cooperate with school districts Indirectly The City cooperates with service M V and non-profit human service providers to related to providers such as With the identify needs and effective delivery of homeless task force. The City f)6 i I 1 201 (1 A& a A,, fi(r R(,-" 1 Indl, �-J �J 1 Document I Ap2endix: Table of Exhibits 165 186 a 0 I I LIN A 0 IMM �-' Annual Action Plan Plan for use of federal funds, Investment in Latest plan, 2,1-1 19. for CDBG and HOME updated annually affordable housing Investment needs and community Partnership Funds, development needs 2016 Yakima County Strategic plan for approaching a Housing needs data for - The plan does not Farmworker Housing issues related to farmworker seasonal and year- appear updated Action Plan, 2011 - housing round farmworkers since 2016. 2016 - Increased housing ® The City has stability for farmworkers allowed use of a Zoning Code, YMC Regulatory law on housing a En. Title 15 development, amended as go needed co a Re off City housing program administered through the Office of Neighborhood Deve4vii-f-ait t* fi*se wW: hotel for seasonal farmworker housing. Farmworker housing is provided by the Yakima Housing Authority and by producers if participating in the H-2A program. code aligns with City made and needs in the extensive code ,unity updates in 2019 to ve barriers to address barriers to lable housing affordable housing. • Increased investment in neighborhoods ® Aesthetic improvements Some programs have been cut back due to limited funding DIVDL" on, socj p")!<Jn )u ont It of Eae tnr"' Y P ...... ... A—, .0-0 tax 1 A, 1— " I 1 -,Pill Document, I Appendix: Table of Exhibits 167 187 qualify (income and asset (e.g. having to restrictions) strictly prioritize housing repair funds).49 Exterior Point City housing program Increased investment in • Program administered through the neighborhoods Office of Neighborhood Aesthetic Development to those who improvements qualify (age and disability restrictions) Nomeownership Through New Construction housing program ,Zjministered through the— Sffice of Neighborhood '60 00106WO 11 W1 I I MM1110 1"FAIMM•N MAMM"'• Increased homeownership The City also acquires property to help construct homes under federal funding. The City helps develop affordable housing through a Community Housing Development Organization (CHDO). Tenant/Landlord Office of Neighborhood P Improved The City offers Counseling Development Services fenant/landlord landlord -tenant program to assist either tenants relationships counseling. or landlords with disputes and a Education on legal advice on reaching support for those in agreements or seeking legal need support. . .... ...... Lot Acquisition A City program within the s New housing stock The City also Program Yakima Target Area that v Neighborhood acquires property provides funds to purchase lots revitalization to help construct for residential development % New infill development homes under projects. Lots must be federal funding. residentially zoned, have [iufl 2011 Aninual Acticn R( "I"11 .. ........ -------- 13111bocumen!J, 2 _/-L )endix: Table of Exhibits 168 188 vacant or substandard within 12 months of purchas, 69 Downtown A City program designed to Special valuations for Between 2007- Redevelopment Tax provide increased residential eligible improvements 2019 27 market Incentive Program opportunities. This program is in residentially deficient rate units were (YMC 11.63) intended to stimulate new urban centers. constructed With multi -family housing and the the MFTE rehabilitation of vacant and program.50 underutilized buildings for multi- family housing. 12120cument dix: Table of Exhibits 1 169 INIMM