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02/23/2021 03 Presentation on Housing Action Plan to\'4\lyy tbxk ik 1 PPP +� PPP d g. A PPP+P '+l g ittYlltYlt.\ta. BUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDA STATEMENT Item No. 3. For Meeting of: February 23, 2021 ITEM TITLE: Presentation on Housing Action Plan SUBMITTED BY: Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager Joan Davenport, Community Development Director SUMMARY EXPLANATION: The City of Yakima received a$100,000 grant from the Department of Commerce to develop a Housing Action Plan (HAP). The HAP will develop a set of recommendations to increase housing supply and diversity, and meet local housing needs. BERK Consulting Inc. was contracted as the HAP consultant for this effort. The enclosed presentation will provide additional context on the HAP purpose, work completed to-date, and next steps. More information on the HAP can be found here: https://www.yakimawa.gov/services/planning/hap/ The goal of this first study session on this topic is to hear the report and provide an opportunity for Council members to ask questions of BERK and get clarity around the report findings. The follow up study session is intended for Council to discuss the policy recommendations identified in the report and start to identify priorities. ITEM BUDGETED: Yes STRATEGIC PRIORITY: Neighborhood and Community Building APPROVED FOR SUBMITTAL BY THE CITY MANAGER RECOMMENDATION: ATTACHMENTS: Description Upload Date Type C Presentation 211 10 1 Presentation i wa ousin Action Plea report 1191 0 1 r Me o iiii . . . . . . - - • • • . . - Alii . .■ . . . . .. 1111111111111111111 .11li � �� . r. . . . _ . I � 1 . 1 . . i. . . s ■ n 1111 - ..�. . . .�. . . III . ■ ' ll ' 11 11 I liii1111 I 1111 11 : 11 1R I 4,4, r.ect 4F SO tpecm 'F mil: :lag M r 'it, Th, :, tug tiB ,-` ,,,,,,,.,,.k-� City Council Study Session I February 23, 2021 15 pm via Zoom ill BERK N Introductions BERK's Relevant Experience Presenting Meer ■ Housing Assessments,Strategies,and ife it Radhika Nair Action Plans •• Project Manager • Senior Associate at BERK > Edmonds • Specialist in land use policy and > Ellensburg strategy development. > Leavenworth > Wenatchee > Tacoma Project Team > Pierce County Lisa Grueter, AICP Julia Tesch ■ Housing Elements,Codes,and Programs • Project Director • Engagement Lead > Yakima > Walla Walla Principal at BERK f • Associate at BERK ^'* Over 30 years of • Specialist in > Auburn experience in land equitable > Renton use planning and community ■ Equity Renton Analysis policy in WA state. outreach and • Led the consultant > Seattle engagement. team that developed > King County the City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan. 11 1. Review Housing Action Plan (HAP) goals and approach Last study session: December 2019 2. Share project status updates Project deadline June 2021 (set by Washington State Department of Commerce) .01 Review : Project Goals and Approach What is a Housing Action Plan ( HAP) ? ■ Builds on previous planning studies. A set of concrete • Focus on action and implementation . steps to increase • Assesses gaps between needs and housing supply and market. diversity and meet • Engages stakeholders and residents. local housing needs. • Identifies barriers and strategies. ■ Establishes a prioritized list of concrete actions including responsible parties. Ill 0 Sets requirements for HAPs. Provided a grant program to local governments to develop HAPs. Administered by the Washington State Department of Commerce. ® HAPs must be complete by June 2021. Extended from original, pre-COVID-19 deadline of April 1, 2021 ® City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis ® City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan 2040: Housing Element ® City of Yakima Consolidated Plan, 2015 — 2019 ® Yakima County 5-Year Plan to Address Homelessness, 2019 — 2024 ® Yakima County Farmworker Housing Action Plan, 2011 — 2016 I m (1 01 ueId uolpV BuisnoH dojanaa •9 dais luawdoIanaa Nu ' mi. sail!urmoddp alenJen3 •S dais spaaN 8uisnoH ssaappd oi. sapaleas dolanaa •V dais suompuoj lavew Bu!snoH alenien3 'E dais spaaN Bu!snoH ssassv •Z dais uejd 1uawa8e8u3 pue yDeannp dolanaa •Z dais SS2Joad Community Engagement and Input Strategy Goals Strategies • Inform the public. 1. Community Integration Committee Engagement • Reach out to a diverse range of 2. Yakima City Council Engagement audiences and use equitable 3. Community Survey engagement strategies. • Seek input in a variety of ways. 4. "Roundtable-in-a-Box" Virtual Community Listening Sessions • Listen and respond to feedback. 5. Technical Advisory Committee 6. Virtual Community Meeting 7. Legislative Process 1) II o Project Status Updates Engagement Efforts to Date Broad community outreach & engagement Targeted stakeholder engagement Participants' Top Engagement Activities and Participants' Top Priorities Engagement Activities and Metrics Priorities and Concerns Metrics and Concerns Survey responses, including • Affordability Meetings with a Technical • Diversity of housing types, 138 in Spanish. • Availability Advisory Committee (TAC). including intergenerational Community leaders and service • Homelessness Detailed surveys of the TAC. housing providers contacted to help Meeting-in-a-box hosted by • Shortage of housing and • Quality of housing rising costs spread the word. a TAC member. • Safety, crime, drugs, Meetings and consultation . Anti-displacement policies Spanish-language media and gangs with the Community outlets advertised the project. Integration Committee (CIC). . Quality of existing housing Phone- and email interviews • Institutional racism, Outreach messages including with members of the CIC. income inequality, and direct email, social media Phone interviews with geographic segregation posts, press releases in English members of the Yakima City and Spanish, reaching 70 Council, Mayor and City • Support for first-time community contacts. Manager. homebuyers Additional interviews with • Transitional housing and Page views on the City website 1 H community leaders. mental health supports :III III _ r its I I Products Completed Remaining Work ® Housing Needs Assessment i ® March 2021 — Draft Housing Action Plan ® Policy and Regulatory Review i ® April — June 2021 - Planning Commission and ® Webpage and Project Identity Legislative Process ® Public Engagement Plan ® June 2021 — Final Housing Action Plan ® Preliminary Draft Housing Action Plan sal I w Final Product : Deadline of June 2021 masssas. ��UIIII Highlights from the Table of Contents i:::::: gnu' • '�" ` • Developing the HAP 811 l l 011 11 all Community Input Technical Analyses • Objectives and Strategies Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. # x � dn. ' # Create and preserve affordable homes. G" Y'`° "0 O "" Create homeownership opportunities for low-and moderate-income households. Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. • Implementation and Timeline • Monitoring and Key Indicators • Appendices Community Engagement r. Housing Needs Assessment Policy and Regulatory Review Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites Displacement Risk Analysis Objectives Housing SupportAdults Older Address Homelessness Anti-Displacement 1: Encourage diverse 2:Create and preserve 3:Create 4:Support housing 5:Encourage housing for 6. Protect against housing development affordable homes. homeownership options that meetthe people experiencing displacement and poor within existing opportunitiesfor low- diverse needs of older homelessness,older housing conditions. neighborhoods. and moderate-income adults. adults and people with households. disabilities :IIIU is I i its r Bryan Ketcham I Catholic Charities Housing Services Cecilia Arroyo I Yakima Resident Jake Mayson I Central Washington Home Builders Association Esther Magasis I Yakima County Homeless Program Isabel Garcia I Office of Rural and Farmworker Housing Jacob Liddicoat I City of Yakima Planning Commission Jennifer Mendoza I Yakima Resident Jon Smith I Yakima County Development Association Laura Armstrong I La Casa Hogar towel Krueger I Yakima Housing Authority Marcus Pimpleton I Yakima School District Marlaina Goodman I Yakima Resident Meloney Rosen I Yakima Valley Partners Habitat for Humanity Rhonda Hauff I Yakima Neighborhood Health Services Sandra Aguilar I City of Yakima Community Integration Committee Needs Assessment Overview IpricesII Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income in City of Yakima, Yakima County, and Washington state, 2010-2020 60a 0 The median home value in Yakima has risen by 38%. 40°1 The median family income 20,10 has risen by 19%. -2001 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016• 2017 2018 2019 2020 YTD All Homes, Yakima •City All Holnes, VVoshington State HUD hAFI, vcbm-na Comfy :1 Yakima needs more units and diversity of housing. There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Yakima needs more housing diversity. • Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes • About 30% of all households in Yakima are for sale are extremely low — below 1%. singles living alone. Yakima County Multifamily Rents and Vacancy, 2010-2019 $900 6% $818 $750 5% 9 916 $600 % • . • HOUSING F<ma $450 3% INVENTORY okytes 3.33 $300 2% 2::: ( 01 8) monfosor :3 or tt. arats i33:5 5331tifertnny :5 TO 19 UHTS. $150 1% 0,70% M.ittfatnn r jr:0'4] $0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 tarrizah Homer —Atteracte Monthly Rent(2-br) ..—..Pental Vacancy Rate III — co Many households experience cost burden . Needs are greatest among low- From 2012-2016, 36% of all households were cost burdened. income households. • 1/2 • % of households with <50% of the of renter households. county MFI are cost burdened. • % of homeowners. • The greatest concentration of low- income households is in eastern Yakima and many are of Total Cost-Burdened Households by Income Level in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. 4,000 Total HH:12,845 There is considerable need among 2,0 0 0 elderly residents. °°°° 8,000 Total HH:6,640 • 5,400 elderly persons live alone in Yakima. 42% of these residents are 6,000 Total HX:4,985 Total HH:5,065 o°°° Total HX:3,495 cost burdened and 22% are severely cost burdened. 2,000 MI 0 EEEEEE..EEEEEEE 111111111111111 • 926 units have federal subsidies for Extremely Low- Very Low-Income(30-Low-Income(50-80%Moderate Income(80- Above Median elderly and disabled persons. Income(530% AMI) 50%AMI) AMI) 100%AMI) Income(>100%AMI) ■Severely Cost-Burdened (>50%) :i Cost-Burdened(30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculated 0 Needs Assessment Key Findings : Workforce Low-wage workers are traveling long Place of Residence for Workers in City of Yakima, 2017 distances to jobs in Yakima. • More Workers L. v.'E+IA4C:3EE:y,'u' —..-- - --..'' • Over 7,000 low-wage workers .LL, 4440 tTi . ! .. iryv #4 commute more than 50 miles from Oki#E, ^ their home to a workplace in EEt M 1'"` �1 AL .,„ .=i. t n Less Workers Yakima (nearly % of all low-wage 0 �-._ f41053S:}k4 ;� :�:;;EE ❑ Yakima City Limits workers in the city). i x :If 5 t Other Clues r....__..._.' County Boundaries Countywide there is a shortage of x :� Yakama Reservation seasonal farmworker yin housing. f ..t'£FRS ' :s I L .r tr At a. y w AtSt4Ett :e • 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker E k4 M housing provided throughout the ['L ` :k x.'#.-0 'i CAS' II * . t '. -,. county, despite over 45,000 PAS Mk# t§ I I seasonal jobs available in the ,i eresits�;>«• ,U s.-I :k R 4r busiest summer months 3 } Ni s'A(t R'f:f 1k ti5h^t`r:1 t'E£.: I'§ . ' , � n 'KEt£pig O N4x' : . t 1111rW�u5.. 'L._ 20 IQ 22 • Step 1 . Develop Outreach and Engagement Plan Budget allocation for outreach Key Tasks • One third of budget for • Identify stakeholders and potential local partners community outreach and City of Yakima Community Integration Committee engagement. i Yakima Housing Authority • Yakima School District • Includes funds to j Yakima Community Foundation compensate potential Yakima Hispanic Chamber of Commerce • Other community-based organizations and leaders local partners to aid in outreach and facilitation. • Collect information about key issues of community concerns • Solicit input on how and when to engage residents • Develop an outreach and engagement plan 11111 Step 2 . Assess Housing Needs Purpose Key Tasks • Identify gaps between • Review and build on previous efforts housing needs in the • Yakima Comprehensive Plan • City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis community and what the • Analyze available data housing market is - Consider current residents, current workforce, and currently providing projected population growth. • Solicit input from stakeholders and residents • Identify current and future housing needs by household types and income levels - Permanent supportive or transitional housing - Workers living alone - Couples and small families - Large families - Seniors A Step 3 . Evaluate Housing Market Conditions Purpose Key Tasks ■ Identify barriers to the ■ Analyze rents, housing prices, vacancy rates types of new housing ■ Review development regulations development that can most effectively address • Evaluate construction trends by housing housing needs type, price-points, and geography ■ Interview housing industry professionals for additional insights ❑ Local and regional housing developers ❑ City planners and permitting staff ❑ Other stakeholders la N Step 4. Develop Strategies to Address Housing Needs Purpose Key Tasks • Identify the most • Review successful strategies used in cities promising approaches to with similar market characteristics increasing housing ■ Create a menu of options for review and supply and diversity in consideration by city staff, stakeholders, Yakima, based on local and planning commission members. needs and market conditions. • Determine which strategies have the greatest potential to gain local support and address local needs. 11 Step 5 . Evaluate Opportunities for Infill Development Purpose Key Tasks • Identify potential catalyst • Work closely with City GIS and planning sites and city actions to staff to identify potential infill building sites help incite market and willing land-owners. interest and activity. • Identify any barriers to development and steps the city or partners can take to address. • Develop a web mapping tool to share opportunities with potential developers 11El J Step 6 . Develop Housing Action Plan Purpose Key Tasks ■ Build consensus around a ■ Identify regulatory changes, partnerships, set of concrete next or funding needed to implement the steps to implement housing strategies housing strategies that • Proforma analysis to evaluate how market can increase housing may respond to proposed incentives or supply and diversity in regulatory changes City of Yakima ■ Outreach to educate residents and solicit input. ■ SEPA review 1111111 =In 29 moo Inn mom . men • • • • • • • Imo nil mom . 1111 lull ■ : I' I liii II I ' , Stow ling action Jean City of Yakima - DRAFT February 2021 30 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan is Introduction e,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve,ve»ea,ea,ea,ea,ea,ea,ea,va,va,va,va,va,va,va,va,va,va, 1 Plan Organization 2 Developing the HAR<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.<e.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o>.o> Community Input 3 Technical Analyses 4 bjertives and trategies®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„®„® 10 A. Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. 10 B. Create and preserve affordable homes. 22 C. Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate-income households 25 D. Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. 28 E. Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. 31 F. Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. 36 Implementation ,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,o>,oneaneanvaneaneaneaneaneaneaneaneane--- 47 Timeline 50 Monitoring ><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»< 52 Key Indicators 52 References---------------------------------- 53 Appendices><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><4><»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»<«»< 54 A // Community Engagement 55 B // Housing Needs Assessment 61 C // Policy and Regulatory Review 61 D // Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites 62 E // Displacement Risk Analysis 63 DRAFT February 2021 31 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Exh• • ts Exhibit 1 . Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 5 Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income 6 Exhibit 3. Cost-Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012- 2016 7 Exhibit 4. Household Tenure by Cost-Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 7 Exhibit 5. Housing Types 15 Exhibit 6. Implementation Matrix 47 Exhibit 7. Strategy Implementation Timeline 50 Exhibit 8. Short-term Strategies 50 Exhibit 9. Medium-term Strategies 50 Exhibit 10. Long-term Strategies 51 Exhibit 11 . Current and Desired Housing Types 57 Exhibit 12. Community Housing Needs: All Survey Responses 58 Exhibit 13. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by White and Hispanic/o or Latinx/o Race or Ethnicity 59 Exhibit 14. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Income Bracket 59 Exhibit 15. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size 60 Exhibit 16 City-owned Sites 62 Exhibit 17. Eviction Rate, City of Yakima 64 Exhibit 18. Social Vulnerability Index Ranking, City of Yakima 66 DRAFT February 2021 32 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan C ossary Affordable Housing. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) considers housing to be affordable if the household is spending no more than 30% of its income on housing costs. A healthy housing market includes a variety of housing types that are affordable to a range of different household income levels. However, the term "affordable housing" is often used to describe income-restricted housing available only to qualifying low-income households. Income-restricted housing can be located in public, nonprofit, or for-profit housing developments. It can also include households using vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing (see "Vouchers" below for more details). American Community Survey (ACS). This is an ongoing nationwide survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau designed to provide communities with current data about how they are changing. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. We use data from the ACS throughout this needs assessment. Area Median Income (AMI). This is a term that commonly refers to the area-wide median family income calculation provided by HUD for a county or metropolitan region.' Income limits to qualify for affordable housing are often set relative to AMI. In this report, unless otherwise indicated, AMI refers to the HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI). Community Integration Committee (CIC). The nine-member City of Yakima Community Integration Committee was appointed by the City Council in 2017. The purpose and intent of the community integration committee is to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement; diversify the city government and workforce; provide additional review of policies, ordinances and resolutions if requested; and give a voice to all Yakima residents. (Ord. 2017-034 § 1 (part), 2017). Cost Burden. When a household pays more than 30% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "cost-burdened." When a household pays more than 50% of their gross income on housing, including utilities, they are "severely cost-burdened." Cost-burdened households have less money available for other essentials, like food, clothing, transportation, and medical care. Note that HUD sometimes Asters to HUD Area Murst100 Hsmih,, bursHe use Hst Meri.100 Family income, or VAL See bttps://www,hudeser.woortol/dotosets/ibbtrn1 DRAFT February 2021 33 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Household. A household is a group of people living within the same housing unit.' The people can be related, such as a family. A person living alone in a housing unit or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit are also counted as a household. Group quarters population, such as those living in a college dormitory, military barrack, or nursing home, are not considered to be living in households. Household Income. The U.S. Census Bureau defines household income as the sum of the income of all people 15 years and older living together in a household. Income-Restricted Housing. This term refers to housing units that are only available to households with incomes at or below a set income limit and are offered for rent or sale at a below-market rates. Some income-restricted rental housing is owned by a city or housing authority, while others may be privately owned. In the latter case the owners typically receive a subsidy in the form of a tax credit or property fax exemption. As a condition of their subsidy, these owners must offer a set percentage of all units as income-restricted and affordable to household at a designated income level. Low-Income. Households that are designated as low-income may qualify for income-subsidized housing units. HUD categorizes families as low-income, very low-income, or extremely low-income relative to HUD area median family incomes (HAMFI), with consideration for family size. See the table below. HUD Income Categories Calculated Relative to HUD Area Median Family Income (HAMFI) Extremely Lovsdncome 30%of HAMFI or less Very Low-Income 50%of HAMFI or less Low-Income 80%of HAMFI or less Siehirchi 2020; lbEli2020. Median Family Income (MFI). The median income of all family households in an area. Family households are those that have two or more members who are related. Median income of non-family households is typically lower than for family households, as family households are more lily to have more than one income-earner. Analyses of housing affordability typically group all households by income level relative to HUD area median family income (HAMFI), which is calculated for the county or metropolitan region. h The cenhiuT, borem ez refeis c 'occupied hcchloc oohs ad conhideis perhons in co occuoied housing unlit to be p sincia Ficlbehoid. 5o. C8RSU.Set maesoi occupied iihouirig orbs orb/ hoesolicidih shouidbeecuivdieni. DRAFT February 2021 iv 34 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Vouchers (Tenant-based and Project-based). HUD provides housing vouchers to qualifying low-income households. These are typically distributed by local housing authorities. Vouchers can be "tenant-based," meaning the household can use the vouchers to help pay for market-rate housing in the location of their choice, or they can be "project-based," meaning they are assigned to a specific building.' Universal Design. Universal design is "the design and composition of an environment so that it can be accessed, understood, and used to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, or ability."' When integrated into the built environment, universal design principles ensure that residents who are aging or who have a disability are not blocked from accessing housing and services. at,e htt s rum offices uhliriodjpnhousingjro (OM hcy tenant ond http; //www,huci,g9y/prowrcm offices/public Inchon hcusinj/prccjroms/hcy/project fur more http //urnversolde5icr ie/Whot-15-Universol-Design/ DRAFT Februcry 2021 35 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion ntreductIen This Housing Action Plan (HAP) is the City of Yakima's plan for promoting affordable housing options for all community members across the city's neighborhoods. Affordable housing has many implications for Yakima. Housing has a demonstrated relationship to improved life outcomes for children. Yet many young families with modest incomes face challenges finding a home in Yakima, and many senior households face difficulties staying in the community that has been their home for years. Workers who serve the community cannot afford to live near their jobs and face longer commutes, adding to regional and local congestion. The HAP's goal is to increase affordable housing opportunities for all households to improve community and economic health. The Housing Action Plan's six objectives are: A. Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. B. Create and preserve affordable homes. C. Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate- income households. D. Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. E. Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. F. Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. The Housing Action Plan is a five-year strategy that supports and guides city actions and existing long-range planning, including the 2024 update of the City of Yakima's Comprehensive Plan. While the City plays a key role in local housing, the local housing system also includes for-profit and nonprofit developers and other stakeholders. The HAP articulates a clear set of housing strategies the City can work on in partnership with developers, community service providers, and other stakeholders. The HAP will also guide the City's participation in multi-jurisdictional efforts to address regional housing needs. Development of this HAP is supported by a state-funded grant to enable communities to assess their housing needs and develop strategies to address those housing needs. The HAP is built upon the best available data and broad community conversation around: Yakima's current and future housing needs. Yakima's existing housing policies and regulations. DRAFT February 2021 1 36 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Introduction P an r anization The Housing Action Plan is organized as follows: • Developing the HAP. This section includes the following: 9 Summary of community input received for the Housing Action Plan. • Description of the key findings from the analysis of housing needs in Yakima. • Findings from an evaluation of the city's land capacity and housing policies in Yakima's adopted Comprehensive Plan, zoning, and land use code that implements these policies. • Objectives and Strategies. This section lists the six objectives that address community input, needs assessment findings, and policy review findings. Detailed strategies that nest under each objective are also included. • Implementation. This section lists strategies, timelines, resource requirements, responsibilities for leading the tasks, and partnership opportunities. • Monitoring. This section includes key indicators that the City will use to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes. DRAFT February 2021 2 37 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP The Housing Action Plan was developed between March and February 2020. The HAP benefited from the expertise and guidance of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC); interviews with stakeholders; and a communitywide survey (which captured more than 250 responses). Information and perspectives collected through the community engagement process provided additional insight about how specific challenges affect the lives of residents, especially those populations that are not always represented in these conversations. See Appendix A for a full summary of the community engagement activities. The HAP also used a wide range of quantitative data to help identify the key needs and challenges among Yakima residents and workers. Policies and regulations were also analyzed to inform strategies. Key findings from the engagement and analysis are presented below. See Appendix A, B, and C for a full summary of engagement activities, needs assessment, policy and regulatory review, and engagement activities. Community Input The City of Yakima talked with residents as part of the HAP process to better understand barriers to securing affordable housing as well as residents' ideas for improving housing. The City conducted public engagement over the course of the project and heard from more than 300 members of the public and stakeholders. Engagement activities included: Broad communi outreach and engagement: 27$ survey responses, including 55 in Spanish. (survey is still Affordability open) Availability 79 community leaders and service providers contacted to help Homelessness spread the word. Quality of housing 2 Spanish-language media outlets advertised the project. Safety, crime, drugs, and gangs 1 it Outreach including social media posts, press releases in English and Spanish, reaching 70 community contacts. There were 751-page views on the City website. Tor eted stakeholder engagement, including: 3 meetings with a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC). DRAFT February 2021 3 38 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Engagement Activities Participants' Top Priorities and Concerns detailed survey of the TAC. Need for a greater diversity of housing types, including inlergenerationol housing I Meeting-in-a-box hosted by a TAC member. Shortage of housing and rising costs 3 meetings and consultation with the Community Integration Anti-displacement policies Committee (CIC1. Quality of existing housing 7 phone- and email interviews with members of the CIC. Institutional racism, income inequality, and 5 phone interviews with members of the Yakima City Council, geographic segregation Mayor and City Manager. Support for first-time homebuyers 3 additional interviews with community leaders. Transitional housing and mental health supports The above input informed strategic objectives, shaped specific implementation steps, and provided insight into what key barriers needed to be addressed. Technical Analyses Neecs Assessment Fincings Similar to other communities across Washington, the City of Yakima faces a critical need for more affordable housing. The City of Yakima Housing Needs Assessment evaluated the current housing supply and summarizes housing needs across the full spectrum of household types and income levels. Below are key findings from the Yakima Housing Needs Assessment. Yakimo's Population • The City of Yakima has grown since 2010, with a current estimated population of '594,440 residents. The city is expected to continue growing and is projected to be home to 110,387 people by 2040. • Compared to Washington State, the City of Yakima has a slightly larger proportion of younger residents and a slightly smaller proportion of residents between 50 and 69 years of age j22% vs. 25% statewide). • Yakima is ethnically diverse. The City of Yakima's Hispanic or Latinx population comprises 46% of its population, compared to 12% statewide. The younger population in the City of Yakima is far more ethnically diverse than the older age groups. This is particularly apparent in the student population. In 2019, 13,069 (80%) of students at Yakima School District Bto,eri on WA ihrJ;nc*-..A Mc rJ;c3cmcnt 2019, iCk." MC7* Coon:\ rdo"Mn," 2020 DRAFT Februcry 2021 4 39 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Developing the HAP identified as Hispanic/Latino. • Reflecting its ethnic diversity, Yakima has a high proportion of residents who speak a language other than English at home. Approximately 37% of the city's total population speak a language other than English at home, compared to 19% statewide. • The average household size in Yakima is 2.71, slightly larger than the statewide average of 2.55. While the average household size is larger relative to the state, more than half (58%) of the city's residents live in single or two-member households. Renters are more likely to be single-person households than owners (Exhibit 1 ). Exhibit 1. Household Size by Tenure in City of Yakima, 2014-2018 10422 9462 469 24.929,555947.1 .144 492 4.7' 4,533 331” I:a:a: 2,#S0 _ 2.4M, 3'3, 333313 1.425 '33 •232 717 : 157 ' 425, 1333413W 244,949 3-4,2449 4,444446 544254 652,41,49 7+ person 1452.265921 547,4426491 24644944 196925,44 2,44,21445 houset4591 5054441415 Source" Anrerruon Community S3"V 33 V C 31), 201 3 LC''A PERK, ')OLC Housing Need ' There is a housing shortage in Yakima. Vacancy rates for both apartments and homes for sale are extremely low — below 1%®. When vacancy rates are so low, people looking for new homes have fewer options, increasing competition for the limited supply of units available. This drives up both rents and housing prices. t Local housing prices are rising faster than local incomes. The median home value in Yakima has risen by 38% between 2010 to 2019. Over the same period, the median family income has only increased by 19%. This indicates homeownership is getting further and further out of reach for many prospective buyers. See Exhibit 2. • In the last 3 years, the city grew by an annual average of 530 new residents, a greater annual amount compared to 2010-2017 at 386 persons per year. To achieve its growth DRAFT February 2021 5 40 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Developing the HAP target, the city will need to add about 745 persons per year over the next 20 years. • The average household size in Yakima is 2.71A If applying a 2.7 household size to the remaining population target, about 5,517 dwelling units would be needed between 2020 and 2040. Exhibit 2. Percent Change since 2010 in Average Home Values and HUD Median Family Income 2022 600 4020 2003 2„„„„2222222„„„„223222„3 -2032 2010 2011 2012 2013 2034 2035 2036 201° 2018 2030 2020 YTD A H HOC, ,'1 "{woo Oily s33323II c•c5 ACC.,I1191C•I 002330 3-30133 Mpt,ynvon.N C•cri!y 2oucen Piliuw, FeAuoyv 2023 110D h 238'8 3832, 22 PERK, 2022 Cost Burdened Households • Many households in Yakima are cost burdened. Between 2012 and 2016, 36% of all households in Yakima were cost burdened. Cost-burdened households spend a large portion (over 30%) of their available income on housing costs. This leaves less money available for other important needs like food, transportation, clothing, and education. With rising housing costs, the number of cost-burdened households has almost certainly increased during the past few years. • Cost burden is not evenly distributed across households. For example, renters are more cost-burdened than owners. Nearly 50% of renter households were cost-burdened, compared to about a quarter of all homeowners (Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 4). • Needs are greatest among law-income households. About three fourths of all households with incomes below 50% of the county median family income are cost-burdened. C ACE, 2314 2018. DRAFT February 2021 6 41 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP Neatly half of these households are severely cost-burdened, meaning they spend over 50% of their income on housing costs (Exhibit 3). While there are low-income households living in neighborhoods across the city, the greatest concentration of low-income households is in eastern Yakima, and many of these households are of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Exhibit 3. Cost-Burden Status by Income Level of Households in City of Yakima, 2012- 2016 All Households InEEEEmEEEE 63% ........................................ Above Median Income(>100% AMI) 93% arca.. Moderate Income(80-100%AMI) ILEEEMEEE 83% Low-Income(50_800/0 AMI) gz:EEEEE.za„aEEEE: 59% Very Low-Income(30-50% AMI) Extremely Low-Income (s30% AMI) 13% ............................... *Severely Cost-Burdened (>50%) -Cost-Burdened(30-50%) Not Cost Burdened Not Calculated S.:turd>: Hell;CHAS BR66:Ei on AcES Bicoc BEBER.Bicccc), 2012-2C0 F2ERK 2020 Exhibit 4. Household Tenure by Cost-Burden in City of Yakima, 2012-2016 All 53%Ilan *Severely Cost-Burdened Households Mr Cost-Burdened Renters aill1:11111 49% Not Cost Burdened Owners 10% iTht 75% Not Calculated Scurcos, HUD CHAP Hod On AC 5-yecE; .EREcnotoR1, 2012-20 6; PERK, 2020. Residents with Special Housing Needs Several groups may have special housing needs or supportive service needs, such as residents experiencing homelessness, residents with disabilities, and older residents. Given the city's proximity to a large seasonal agricultural workforce, farmworkers can also have special housing needs that differ from the general population. DRAFT February 2021 7 42 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP • Low-wage workers are traveling long distances to jobs in Yakima. Over 7,000 low-wage workers commute more than 50 miles from their home to a workplace in Yakima. That is nearly a quarter of all low-wage workers in the city. Many of these workers may be living outside of Yakima due to housing affordability or the inability to find suitable housing in the city. • There is considerable need among elderly residents. There are 5,400 elderly persons living alone in Yakima. About 42% of these residents are cost-burdened and 22% are severely cost-burdened. In comparison, there are only 926 units with federal subsidies set aside for elderly and disabled persons. Housing inventory • Yakima needs more housing diversity. Over 65% of all housing units in Yakima are single-family homes. Not all households require or can afford that much space. For example, about 30°.4, of all households in Yakima are singles living alone, yet only 5% of housing units in Yakima are studios and only 13% have just one bedroom. Increasing the diversity of housing options available will increase housing supply and provide more choices for residents seeking more affordable housing that meets their current needs. • Countywide there is a shortage of seasonal farmworker housing. There are approximately 4,600 beds of seasonal farmworker housing provided throughout the county, despite over 23,700 migratory jobs available in the busiest summer months/ Identifying safe and high-quality housing for seasonal workers is an important gap to address in Yakima County. Policy Review Findings The Housing Policy Framework Evaluation reviewed and evaluated the current City Comprehensive Plan Housing Element, as well as other elements, regulatory incentives, and barriers, to determine the City's progress and success in attaining planned housing types and units, achievement of goals and policies, and implementation of the schedule of programs and actions. Overall findings from the review and an evaluation of land capacity, infrastructure needs, and housing activity are presented below. Overall Policy Review Findings The policy framework evaluation found the City of Yakima could improve its policy implementation in these respects: This isturhoes may siktihly overestimate the cutout of the gap at that mashers may hssici multiple jobs. DRAFT February 2021 8 43 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Developing the HAP • Identify funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise 'undevelopable' parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). • Explore incentives for projects that construct new senior housing such as: reduced parking requirements, clustering of units, variety of housing types. • Consider expansion of the Multi-Family Tax Exemption (METE) into areas outside of the downtown core. • Consider revision to parking standards, especially for high density residential and in the downtown core. Land Capacity Evaluation • The City has more than twice the housing capacity needed under current zoning (an approximate capacity of 14,500 dwelling units versus a need of about 5,500 dwellings). About 38% of the current capacity is for single-family dwellings, about 16% is for multiplexes and townhouses, and 46% is for dwellings in multi-family and mixed-use districts. Most of this capacity is in the western part of the city. • Most vacant land is zoned R-1 , with relatively less in other zones. Some land is in agricultural use and planned for future residential or non-residential uses. Infrastructure Evaluation • There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city and about 25% of it is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represent about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. Housing Activity Evaluation • The City has demonstrated that it can produce both quantity and diversity in housing. Based on OEM data, since 2017 Yakima has produced 648 dwellings, or 216 dwellings per year, a little lower than the need between 2020-2040 at 295 units per year. • The City is allowing a range of housing types including more affordable missing middle (plex, townhouse, etc.) ownership and rental housing, and apartments. DRAFT Februcry 2021 9 44 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion •bjectsves end s - - Six objectives were identified for the HAP based on a synthesis of the findings of the technical analyses and stakeholder and community engagement: A. Encourage diverse housing development within existing neighborhoods. B. Create and preserve affordable homes. C. Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate-income households. D. Support housing options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. E. Address the needs of those struggling with homelessness. F. Protect against displacement and poor housing conditions. Strategies to help meet these objectives and needs are discussed under each objective below. Encoura e diverse housin deve opment within existin nei hborhoods. 1 . Mace strategic investments in infrastructure. Description. The Housing Needs Assessment found there is a housing shortage in Yakima. Increasing the overall supply of housing is one way to address this housing shortage. A key strategy to expand housing supply is to support the availability of sufficient land with infrastructure to respond to demand for more housing units. This includes identifying funding sources to extend utilities to otherwise `undevelopabler parcels and developed parcels which at present cannot expand (e.g., an existing lot with a single-family home that cannot add an ADU unless water and sewer is available). Strategic selection of infrastructure priorities in the capital facilities element can also help support the city's housing program as one cost associated with development is the cost of upgrading existing or developing new infrastructure to serve development. Gaps Addressed. There are two types of gaps in Yakima: 1) lack of sewer in growing areas to the north and west and 2) existing developed neighborhoods with poor infrastructure and little to no amenities. This often included an incomplete street grid system and no curb, gutter, or sidewalks. Many of these areas are still on septic systems. There are some gaps in the extent of municipal water and sewer systems in particular that should be addressed to DRAFT February 2021 10 45 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies advance City goals for revitalization in already developed areas as well as future development areas. There are about 2,795 vacant acres across the city, about 25% of which is located 200 feet away from sewer infrastructure. More than half of the vacant property that is 200 feet from sewer infrastructure is in the floodplain. District 5 has the most acres located further from sewer infrastructure of all districts. Vacant acres within 100 feet or more from sewer infrastructure represents about 30% of total vacant land, more equally distributed among areas inside and outside the floodplain. Considerations. The policy review found that adding sewer infrastructure, especially in District 5, can expand land available for development. State laws allow community revitalization funding to be applied to infrastructure investments. Cities may also initiate latecomer's agreements and help fund extensions. Latecomer agreements allow a property owner to request that a municipality contract with them to extend street or utility improvements; the owner can recoup a portion of their costs to install the new facilities from others benefiting from the infrastructure extension. A property owner who benefits from the infrastructure put in by the "first in" developer then contributes their fair share for connecting to the facility. Latecomer agreements are a way to share the cost of building infrastructure and can be a helpful tool to spur development in areas where the upfront cost of infrastructure is a challenge to development. Statutes authorize counties and cities to have a process to contract with owners of real estate for the construction or improvement of street projects; counties or cities may also participate in or finance all the costs and become the sole beneficiary of the reimbursements for streets. In 2013 and 2015, the Washington State Legislature made changes to latecomers' laws to require a municipality or district to contract with the owners of real estate upon request to extend water or sewer service where it is a prerequisite to development. The legislative changes also allow counties or cities to participate in or to initiate latecomers' agreements for utilities. Facilities must be consistent with all applicable comprehensive plans and development regulations (e.g., consistent with comprehensive water system plans, sewer plans, infrastructure standards and specifications, etc.). The applicable statutes for counties and cities have similar requirements regarding: 1) initiation of the improvement by the owner of real estate or by the municipality, provided the improvement is necessary for development; 2) determination of the beneficiaries in a reimbursement assessment area; 3) notification of property owners in the reimbursement area and a process to request a hearing (RCW 35.72 and RCW 35.91 only); 4) recording upon approval; and 5) reimbursement collection over a 15- 20-year period (roads shorter, utilities longer). The City of Yakima has a latecomers agreement ordinance —YMC Ch. 7.67. Regular updates DRAFT Februcry 2021 11 46 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies to this ordinance as well as strategic marketing of these regulations can help support housing development. Reca ibrate the Mu ti-Fami y Tax Exemption (METE) program. Description. The Multifamily Tax Exemption (MFTE) is an incentive program that enables cities in Washington State to waive a portion of property taxes for housing builders and developers that are creating multifamily and income-restricted housing in designated areas. 9 The City of Yakima established its METE program, called the Downtown Redevelopment Tax Incentive Program, in 2006.9 The program applies to the residential target area established in the City's central business district, approximately centered around the intersection of the BNSF railroad tracks and Yakima Avenue. Through the downtown redevelopment incentive, Yakima can grant a property tax exemption for residential or mixed-use development that includes at least four units of multiple-unit housing. So far, the City has attracted about 51 units under the program. There are currently 24 units receiving the exemption; 27 units have completed the tax-exempt period and are now fully taxed. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs more housing for small households and more housing for residents with incomes below 50% AMI. Recent changes in the MFTE program from SHB2950 also allow the program to be used for the conversion or rehabilitation of residential buildings. Considerations. As a voluntary program, the MFTE is effective only if developers choose to use it. There are several options the city of Yakima can consider adding variations in the program to meet the goals of the HAP, including: • Expand the METE to more areas in the city to encourage denser growth in areas with the greatest capacity and significant challenges to development feasibility. The program could also be expanded to areas where more multifamily is desired. • Use the MFTE to encourage more rental or ownership housing. The MFTE programs applies differently to buildings with rental units versus ownership units. It provides incentives for affordable multifamily rental housing where the whole development is eligible for the tax exemption if at least 20% of the units are affordable to low- and moderate-income households. To receive the 12-year exemption, buildings that are entirely owner-occupied must price all of their units affordably for moderate-income households. • The City could consider other possible conditions to attract desired housing such as senior affordable housing. • State law does not limit the type or size of units that may qualify. Accordingto n stud b See chapter t34.14 RcW •See chapter 11 ()3 vAttc DRAFT February 2021 12 47 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies JLARC, about 75% of the units created between 2007 and 2018 using the MFTE are studios or one bedroom. At least four cities have enacted local policies to encourage larger units: • Bellevue requires at least 15% of units to have two or more bedrooms. • Seattle, Bellingham, and Shoreline encourage large units by applying stricter affordability requirements for smaller units: • All three require that units with fewer than two bedrooms be affordable at lower income thresholds. This has the effect of lowering the maximum monthly rental price for smaller units. • Seattle also requires that a development that does not have at least four larger units out of every hundred must include more affordable units overall. Proforma analyses of sample projects can help estimate the developer's expected return on investment under different scenarios. This can be helpful to calibrate requirements such as percentage set-asides and affordability levels to maximize the benefits without discouraging use of the incentive by developers. Some additional options to consider for increasing the effectiveness of the program include advertising the METE program and opportunities on the City website, and layering MFTE with other incentives for affordable housing, such as density bonus or fee reductions, to magnify the overall effects. Although the program can help address Yakima's housing needs, the City may lose potential future property tax revenues. Additionally, affordable units may be at risk of losing their affordable status both at the end of the MFTE time period and during its existence if a developer decides to opt out of the program. Requiring affordability covenants for these units is one method for preserving affordability. 3. Revise parcing standards, especia y or nigh density residentia anc in the downtown core, Description. Yakima currently has minimum parking standards for residential buildings.'° Current parking standards require about 1 .5 stalls per multifamily unit and 2 per single-family detached dwelling. Parking facilities add substantial cost in the development new housing, whether it's surface or structured parking. Reducing parking can be an important way to increase affordability. Parking needs also vary by location and household type. In areas well served by transit, parking facilities are less important and should be balanced with aesthetics See diopter 1 5 06 Y1,101 DRAFT Februcry 2021 13 48 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies and the impact on the yield of land. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Decreasing development costs by revising parking standards could help encourage and facilitate the development of new housing. Areas in the city near transit can support and benefit from higher-density multifamily housing. Revising parking standards has particular potential to increase housing available near transit where cars are less necessary. Increasing available housing near transit is also especially helpful when providing housing for older adults and people with disabilities, both of whom may have limited physical mobility or be unable to drive. Considerations. There are several elements to consider when revising parking standards. These could include: • Relating multifamily parking to the number of bedrooms. • Counting on-street parking toward parking ratios. • Adding additional parking tools for alternative compliance, such as contracting with car- share providers, providing transit passes to residents, shared use parking, and off-site parking. • Reducing or eliminating parking requirements in areas such as the historic downtown where on-street parking serves needs, especially for change of use and redevelopment, to ensure historic and compact downtown character can be retained. • Lowering parking requirements in areas with higher transit service as well as in areas targeted for redevelopment and affordable housing. • Adopting rules that allow third party sharing/rental of parking spaces to help even out parking supply and demand. • Allowing developers to reduce parking stalls if a parking study by a certified transportation planner or engineer demonstrates minimum impacts to surroundings. • Updating bike parking requirements concurrently and distinguish between short-term and long-term bicycle parking. • Allowing residents of multifamily housing with designated parking stalls to be able to rent their parking stall if they are carless. One potential drawback is that reductions in parking requirements could prompt residents to park their cars on streets, eroding on-street parking opportunities in business districts. Example Communities DRAFT Februcry 2021 14 49 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies • EllensburgMunici al Code Ch 15.550 — Senior assisted housing requires less off-street parking than senior housing, single family homes, duplexes, or townhomes. The City also allows on-street parking adjacent to the site to count towards parking requirements for non- residential uses, which could benefit mixed-use but not solely residential development. • Kennewick Municipal Code Ch. 18.36 — Off-street parking requirements for senior or disabled housing can be reduced if public transportation is directly available, essential services are within Y2 mile of the site, and a notarized agreement to provide additional off- street parking if the housing is no longer restricted to senior or disabled persons. Business in the central business district are also allowed to count adjacent on-street parking towards their parking requirements. • Prosser Municipal Code Ch. 18.95 —Allows on-site parking variances for projects applying for earned increased density by providing affordable housing. • Bellevue Municipal Code 20.25A.070 and 20.20.128 — Studio and 1-bedroom units affordable to 80% AMI in Downtown have reduced minimum parking requirements of 0.5 stalls per unit. The percent of compact parking stalls may also be increased for buildings containing affordable housing (up to 75% in non-Downtown zones and up to 85°71. in Downtown zones). 4. Update city regu ations to remove barriers to innovative nousing types and arrangements. Description. Most housing in the City of Yakima is single-family (65% of all housing inventory) or multifamily of three or more units (22% of all housing inventory). Supporting innovative housing types and arrangements will more fully meet the needs and preferences of Yakima's community members. For example, community engagement revealed that many Yakima residents seek multigenerational housing opportunities that these types of innovative housing can facilitate. There are a wide variety of housing types that help reduce housing costs and fit into a small- town character. Each is Error! Reference source not found.defined below. Exhibit 5. Housing Types .:....“!21,4,.:;. •• . 7'..73 ''''...:,::**:::::.Ii..., m..iitikt.: ,!ii4ii.._. ',,, , 74......... ;RE" • < '-'1....'t....9." c*- -•"-*:*:•' :•.*:.a>" " riff It • 4, .. .441 .:4 4 is L4.444 I .. .. • , At. ,:-",... 'tell ''''' Int "RE 410.44;•• i...: ' ..•14 I.: :.. )•1 1:.... i•••••'..4 ' .:; • :A...;;;;;N:;:t•*-r*•: • '"; ,::...:4:,.• i.,..:,it I. , att.c.,t •• solvits, • ... ittar.,..4.7. -7., ";•;:ler::::::!..!....7.LiTi,..11.:::::141 '. tazamacomilsakits Examples of innovative housing types include: DRAFT February 2021 15 50 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies • Tiny homes are small dwelling units on a foundation or on a carriage with wheels with between 150-400 square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable compared with traditional site-built homes. They may be located on their own lot, serve as an accessory dwelling unit, or be located in a village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park. Their small size and cottage like nature make them compatible in single-family areas on their own lot or as an accessory dwelling unit. They may offer temporary or long-term housing for seasonal workers in such as in a manufactured home or RV park. Senate Bill (SB) 5383, passed in May 2019, legally permitted tiny houses as permanent dwellings in Washington State; as a result, the State Building Council adopted International Residential Code standards that apply to tiny houses, effective in November 2020. SB 5383 also expanded RCW 58.17.040(5) of the subdivision statute to allow the creation of tiny house villages such as through a binding site plan and stops cities from prohibiting tiny houses in manufactured/mobile home parks. House Bill (HE) 1085, passed in 2018, also allows local jurisdictions to remove minimum unit size limitations on detached houses. • Microhomes are small dwellings in a multifamily style. There are iwo types: Congregate housing "sleeping rooms" are often in the 140-200 square-foot range and may include private bathrooms and kitchenettes. Shared facilities include kitchens, gathering areas, and other common amenities for residents. A small efficiency dwelling unit (SEDU) is a very small studio apartment including a complete kitchen and bathroom. Typically, the units will be as small as 220 square feet of total floor space, as compared to 300 square feet for the smallest typical conventional studio apartments. Microhomes are more affordable apartment units, and could be located in commercial, mixed-use, and high-density multifamily zones. • Modulor homes are structures that are built offsite, then transported to a permanent site. They differ from manufactured or mobile homes in that modular homes are constructed to meet the same state, regional, or local building codes as site-built homes, while manufactured homes adhere to national HUD code standards,' 1 • Co-op housing is a form of shared housing in which a cooperative corporation owns housing, and residents own stock shares in the corporation and participate in governance of the cooperative.12 Shared property, usually including a common house, is part of what defines this type of housing. These spaces allow residents to gather for shared meals, activities and celebrations as well as the collaborative work required to care for the spaces. https://www.hud.çcv/prcjrom cfficesihccsmQ/rmrc/mk/fcco. inivarsity of‘.".1 -,omir; Center for Cettoperativete hop //reic uwcc wisceelv/hcuse/ DRAFT February 2021 16 51 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies Other related dwelling unit types include cottages — a cluster of small dwelling units, generally less than 1 ,200 square feet, around a common open space — and zero-lot line development, which allows a zero or minimal setback normally required within a particular zone thus promoting efficient use of buildable land. Zero-lot He development is common with townhouse developments and may also be designed as an attached single-family home. The City of Yakima has made several changes recently to encourage the above housing types. Tiny houses on an individual lot are currently treated the same as a regular single-family home. The City has also updated its definition of multifamily development to include any residential use where three or more dwellings are on the same lot. This can be 3+ tiny homes, a duplex and a tiny home, or other combinations. A new manufactured home can be placed anywhere a single-family home can locate, consistent with state law. However, process and level of review for these housing types can be improved. For example, to build a tiny home on a smaller single lot (smaller than the city's current minimum lot size requirement of 6,000 SF) one has to go through a Planned Development process. Streamlining and simplifying the review process for smaller housing types can further support encourage these housing types. Gaps Addressed. Yakima needs to create housing units at a rate of 295 units annually through 2040. Housing like tiny homes and modular housing is often less expensive to develop than traditional, single-family homes. These cost savings could help encourage and facilitate the development of more housing that can also be more attainable for households with lower incomes. This housing is often also more suitable for small households, for whom Yakima currently has a shortage of housing options. Cooperative housing can provide a more affordable opportunity for homeownership than traditional single-family homeownership. Yakima, like many communities in Washington, also has a shortage of farmworker housing. Innovative housing types can provide farmworkers with high-quality housing that meets local codes, but at a lower cost to developers. Considerations. Additional options to encourage tiny homes include: • Allowing for different options for tiny house integration, including: • Tiny house clusters or villages — designed in a manner similar to cottage housing clusters. • Density/massing and review process: • Consider allowing a higher number of units than typical for the zone, due to the small size of tiny houses. Some density increase is essential because the units are smaller and usually more expensive to build on a cost/square feet basis. Consider applying a maximum floor area ratio limit or an across the board allowed density for tiny houses, for instance one tiny hour per 1 ,200 square foot of lot area. • Be sensitive to creating an overly burdensome approval process, which can discourage interest. DRAFT February 2021 17 52 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies • Design elements. Provide design standards in a manner similar to cottage housing clusters: • Consider providing design standards for both common open spaces and semi-private open spaces for individual cottages. • Permit construction of a shared community building to provide a space for gathering and sharing tools. • Play close attention to how parking can/should be integrated with tiny house clusters. Example Communities • Cohousing: Haystack Heights in Spokane is an intergenerational village that is close to downtown with clustered townhouses and flats to maximize efficiency, interaction, and green space. Designed to include 39 units spread out among four buildings, the development includes spaces to share skills and facilities where it makes sense and respect privacy and independence where it is needed and desired. 5. Wor< wits -aitm-based organizations on -lousing. Description. Faith-based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and a desire to use those resources for the public good in He with their congregation's values. Gaps Addressed. Housing developed through these partnerships address the needs of residents with low- and moderate-incomes. Considerations. HB 1377 works as an incentive to build affordable housing on faith community owned land. Faith communities who choose to use their land to create homes for their low- and middle-income neighbors making below 80°4 AMI receive a density bonus for the development. A density bonus is a zoning tool that allows a developer to build higher, build more units, or build units with more floor space than normally permitted in that area. Density bonuses are a valuable tool in that they allow for more homes created which can makes it easier for affordable projects to pencil (to work out financially). HB 1377 also stipulates that units must remain affordable for 50 years. 6. Create cesign standards for mu Warm y and mixed-use deve opment. Description. Well-crafted design standards help to expand housing choices while minimizing impacts to adjacent uses and reinforcing the character of the area. They mitigate impacts of density, building massing/scale, parking and vehicle access areas, and service elements. Design standards can be used to promote compatible 'All" development in the downtown core, business districts, and neighborhoods, to incrementally transform automobile-oriented neighborhoods or corridors into more dynamic pedestrian-friendly communities, and to guide DRAFT Februcry 2021 18 53 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies the design of new development sites consistent with the community's vision. Gaps Addressed. Yakima does not yet have design standards for commercial and multifamily development. The City does allow "13mixed use buildings" as a class 1 permitted use in all commercial districts. Design standards on a citywide or targeted basis can help the City set expectations for quality and affordable design in new development and prioritize investments in existing neighborhoods lacking infrastructure, recreation, and other features. Addressing design quality can also increase the acceptance and compatibility of new housing types supporting housing type variety. Considerations. Balanced design standards should promote good design without imposing prohibitively costly standards on new developments. Design standards should focus on form to ensure housing scale and site design is compatible with surrounding neighborhoods. Form based standards that should be prioritized include floor-area-ratio, facade articulation, building massing, height, and bulk, and trees/shade. Integrating development and design standards as complementary standards can help balance design with feasibility. Allowing scaling of standards based on the form of the building rather than the number of units is also a key consideration to avoid discouraging small units on small lots. Design standards should also include allowances for smaller unit sizes and different combinations of attached and detached units. Considerations to develop an effective set of design standards include: • Using a robust community engagement process can help define the vision and identify critical community design issues. This information can be valuable to define what types of developments are acceptable and unacceptable. • Consider an approach that utilizes clear minimum standards but offers strategic flexibility with clear guidance in how alternative designs are evaluated. Such an approach offers a good mix of predictability and flexibility and can be tailored to fit the particular community. Ultimately if offers a community the opportunity to say no if the design doesn't meet the intent while offering applicants flexibility to propose alternative designs. • Craft design standards to offer choices in how to conform with particular design provisions, whether it's the techniques to articulate a facade or how to add desired design details to storefronts. Such provisions allow greater flexibility in design and the ability to better control construction costs. • Provide plenty of photos and graphics to effectively illustrate the standards. Consider providing multiple good examples so applicants understand there are several ways to meet the standard. Likewise, providing bad examples can be very effective tools at :\?‘izsd-t)sedudding isrecas a building n C CO:CCCOfCia: ddfcicf ci; plardied deirdidconseni used candy Crf residenard 08 cad piorily roir a assiornunily facility or commercial use. DRAFT February 2021 19 54 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Striate9ies communicating "what not to do." Such illustrations should clearly communicate the standard or standards. • Similar to form-based approach, some factors to consider in developing design standards: o Pay special attention to the review process and staffing resources and needs. o Make sure the required design features are economically feasible. • Consider the standard's usability by staff, applicants, and the community • Test key elements of the design standards prior to adoption to ensure that development is feasible from a physical and economic standpoint. 7. Ensure permitting and environmenta review process -las improved -or lousing serving a income eve s, particu ar y ow-income nouseno ds. Description. Providing an efficient, predictable, and user-friendly permitting process can encourage new housing construction by reducing potential confusion or perception of risk among developers as well as lowering their administrative carrying costs. Many City practices facilitate permit processing and provide clarity and speed for applicants, such as the free of charge pre-application meeting, and an on-line permit building permit portal. The City did extensive work on the permit process in 2019 by simplifying permit levels for housing unit types, creating an infill exemption under the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and raising maximum exemption thresholds under SEPA. The City provides monthly and annual permit summaries to track progress. There are potentially other ways in which the City can improve the clarity, speed, and consistency of the permit review process, consistent with legal requirements. 4 Gaps Addressed. Improved permitting and review add clarity and certainty to the development process. This can translate to higher interest in development in Yakima and improvements in affordability. Considerations. Jurisdictions may need added staff or consultant resources to accomplish expedited permitting. Adaptive management through permit procedure audits or studies and refinements can help ensure that permitting improvements are continuous. 8. Engage witi oca emp oyers on lousing -or tie worcorce. Description. While employer-provided housing is not the norm in most industries (agricultural work being the notable exception in the Yakima area), employers have an interest in ensuring that there is adequate affordable housing in reasonable proximity to work 3033er:066s foi 6:66.66633z pinrining under GARti.: Ciii6rirter 36.700 ROW; toRni Prcieci Reviesir; ether juriricliclion6 C76-.2666 35.63 RON, Cher 35/363 ROW. Cr C76-4.3er 36.70 KW DRAFT February 2021 20 55 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies sites. Engagement with employers can encompass a variety of tactics, including consultation on zoning changes, housing incentive programs, and more. Gaps Addressed. Engagement with local employers can help to facilitate the production of new housing units, addressing the overall shortage of housing units. Certain programs, such as linkage fees, can help to address more specific housing needs, such as the need for more affordable housing units. Considerations. Ongoing dialogue with existing major employers can be an effective tool. Prior to implementing new policies or fees related to commercial development, the City could engage with the business community and employers to understand Yakima's advantages and disadvantages as a development site. Partnering with employers on housing issues can sometimes present a "chicken-and-egg" problem, as many employers will want to see evidence of sufficient housing for their workforce in a city prior to locating additional jobs in the area. At the same time, municipalities hope that employers adding jobs will bring more resources to the region, enabling more public investment in housing. 9. Partner wih oco housing providers. Description. Local governments can coordinate with local housing groups and Case Study: Veterans Supportive non-profit developers to pursue common Housing and Service Center goals and to identify ways to work An old U.S. Marine Corps Armory in Yakima is together. This could include identifying being turned into o veteran housing and service property, creating incentives, developing center by the Yakima Housing Authority (YHAi. The adoptive reuse protect, which is currently under housing assistance programs, supporting construction, inciudes new construction of 5 grant applications, code enforcement, apartment buildings For 41 supportive housing units property owner assistance, and other serving homeless veterans. The lurid and existing programs that help to increase buildings were conveyed from the U.S. Deportment affordability and reduce homelessness. ot Health and Human Services to the Yakima Housing Authority. Veterans will not need to pay Gaps Addressed. This strategy can more than 30% of their income For rent. The project help to increase housing supply, support includes on-site services, such as primary core, affordable homeownership, and support dental, job resources, and case managers. The project was Funded through grants, donations, the middle-income rental housing, senior store budget, and the City of Yakima. housing, and very-low income housing. Considerations. This strategy works best when the City reaches out broadly to identify local organizations, resources, and housing needs of groups including people with disabilities, older adults, or people who are homeless. DRAFT February 2021 21 56 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Stircite9ies S. Create and preserve affordable homes. 1 . Consider -ee waivers or ceferra s -or a -fordab e lousing. Description. Fee waivers or deferrals reduce the up-front cost of construction for residential development. Utility connection fees and project review fees can bring high costs for residential properties. Waiving or deferring some fees for income-restricted units can be an incentive to encourage the development of income-restricted affordable units. Gaps Addressed. By waiving or deferring fees, the City can support affordable homeownership, middle-income rental housing, older adult housing, and very-low income housing in Yakima. Considerations. This incentive is most effective when combined with a larger incentive package for affordable housing. Example Communities • Port Townsend allows for deferral of system development charges, building fees, and utility connection charges to serve single-family or multifamily residences for low-income households. If there are mixed income proposals, the deferral is in proportion to the proportion of units that are proposed to be affordable. Up to four single family dwelling units per applicant per year are eligible or up to $10,000 for multi-family developments. The deferral is subject to an agreement specifying the waiver/repayment period, criteria for waiver, reporting requirements, and a lien. • Fu ollu allows for a reduction in sewer system development charges (SDCs) if a senior or low-income housing project demonstrates lower average water consumption. • Bellingham allows a partial exemption of not more than 80% of the water and sewer system development charge to a low-income housing development using the following criteria: "based on the public benefit of the specific project, the extent to which the applicant has sought other funding sources, the financial hardship to the project of paying the system development charge, the impacts of the project on public facilities and services, and the consistency of the project with adopted city plans and policies relating to low- income housing." • Fierce County, Woshington. Regulatory incentives for affordable housing at 80% or less of the Pierce County median household income include: expedited permit processing (building permits, subdivisions, road and design review), fee waivers, bonus units, and alternative open space and parking standards. The County assumes shared equity when units increase in value, which is recaptured at time of sale to fund price reductions for additional units. DRAFT Februcry 2021 22 57 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and 5trate9ies 2. Deve op surp us/ under-uti ized city property -or a--ordab e lousing. Description. The policy review found that the City of Yakima owns some under-utilized lands that could be suitable for housing development. These public lands could be donated or leased to affordable housing developers to reduce development costs and to make projects more financially feasible. Under RCW 39.33.015, the City could also discount or gift land that it owns for "public benefit," defined as affordable housing up to 80% AMI. The City of YakimaIgmc .MuniciaICcdeChateL79 addresses the use of surplus property for affordable housing and establishes a transparent process to dispose of properties for affordable housing when properties are considered surplus to the city's needs. Gaps Addressed. By making more land available for affordable housing, including different types of housing, this strategy would help increase the housing supply in Yakima. The new affordable housing units could also serve older adults or very-low income populations. By relieving the cost burden and creating a greater diversity of housing, this strategy could support affordable homeownership. Considerations. This strategy is best suited for communities that may own surplus land. The City of Yakima has a few properties that could be considered. See Appendix D for an inventory of current city owned catalyst sites. Example Communities • As part of New York City's 10-year plan the City transferred land or buildings to developers at little or no cost and provided capital subsidies in the form of below-market interest rate loans. Research shows that this effort not only provided about 200,000 homes, but it also aided in revitalizing neighborhoods affected by abandonment and arson. A Brookings study found this intervention offered other cities some valuable lessons: "First, with control of land, the city was able to lock in affordability when markets later recovered. Second, the struggles the city faced in managing this large stock underscores the importance of quickly transferring ownership to capable and responsible nonprofit and for-profit owners. Third, while the scale of this program cannot be replicated, there was value in creating off-the-shelf programs that multiple developers could use. Fourth, the city aimed at revitalizing neighborhoods, and as such, clustered its property transfers on particular blocks, aiming to create housing that could serve a mix of low-, moderate-, and in some cases, middle-income households." 3. Consider a evy or so es tax -or corcab e lousing. Description. The City could provide direct project funding through local taxes, fees, and levies to encourage production of income-restricted affordable housing. A local housing fax levy is authorized through RCW 84.52.105 and allows up to $0.50 per $1 ,000 of property DRAFT Februcry 2021 23 58 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies tax to be allocated toward affordable housing serving very-low income households if approved by the majority of voters in the taxing district. RCW B7.14.540, introduced as Substitute HB 1406 in 2019, authorizes counties or cities to redirect up to 0.0146°,4> of the sales tax currently's collected by the state to fund affordable housing programs serving households with income below 60% of the county AMP and within specific categories, including: individuals with mental illness, veterans, senior citizens, homeless families with children, unaccompanied homeless youth, persons with disabilities, or domestic violence victims. Counties or cities which participate are not imposing a new or additional tax on consumers but redirecting funds from existing tax revenues toward affordable housing initiatives. This increase must be approved by a ballot measure with simple majority. At least 60% of the revenue must be used for constructing affordable housing, constructing mental and behavioral health-related facilities, or funding the operations and maintenance costs of new units of affordable housing and facilities where housing-related programs are provided. The remaining funds must be used for the operation, delivery, or evaluation of mental and behavioral health treatment programs and services or housing-related services (RCW 62.14.530). The funds can also be used for rental assistance to tenants for cities with a population at or under 100,000.'6 A housing trust fund is a specific fund that receives ongoing dedicated funding to support housing affordability. Gaps Addressed. This addresses the lack of affordable housing and also supports affordable homeownership, middle-income rental housing, senior housing, and very-low income housing. Considerations. This strategy is most effective in communities with a shortage of very-low income-restricted affordable housing where the community would support such a tax, fee, or ballot measure. Coordinate city funding with other known funding sources can maximize impact. Working with community groups to develop information about ballot initiatives and to demonstrate the connection to the types of housing needs in the community is an important element of success. For a housing trust fund, leveraging additional funding from state or national programs can maximize the benefits of the dollars raised. Example Communities • Ellensburg Resolution No. 2017-23. In 2017, voters in Ellensburg approved a 0.1 % sales ,) THE stele eidee, eaie, 6,,,:c,x), ,Thd the lox ehle ceristiMers, it tessteciaeon of Weshiogfoo Cities, -irripierrieteirig http5://vvocitie5 crci/doto-re5curce5/implementing-hb- DRAFT Februcry 2021 24 59 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives cud Strate9ies tax to support affordable housing projects. The Fax passed with 61% in favor and is estimated to bring in $450,000 to $500,000 a year. The City has implemented an Affordable Housing Commission to administer the revenues generated by the sales tax for housing and related services. On November 13, 2019, the Affordable Housing Commission recommended two affordable housing development proposals be provided City assistance through affordable housing sales tax funds and City-owned surplus property. The Breezy Meadows project proposal at Bender and Water Street, and Addison Place on South Pearl Street will be forwarded to City Council for their approval. • Leavenworth Resolution 13-2019 and Ordinance 1608. In March 2020, Leavenworth City Council adopted Ordinance 1608 authorizing the sales tax revenue and funding provisions for HB 1406. Money collected from the Fax will be used for affordable and supportive housing and rental assistance (cities of less than 100,000 can use some of the funds for rental assistance). The City estimates the tax will bring in about $16,000 per year.'7 C . Create homeownership opportunities for low- and moderate-income househo ds. 1 . Continue to support ecucation programs on riomeownership. Description. Many residents have needs for housing support programs that extend beyond mere production of units. First-time homeowners, especially those who are new to the country, or face barriers like poor credit, face several barriers to own homes. Homeowner education helps residents prepare for the process of purchasing a home and the challenges of being a new homeowner. The City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) currently works with Habitat for Humanity to educate through "certified" first time homebuyer classes, counsel credit, and assist to secure financial assistance. Continued support for this program is necessary. Gaps Addressed. Promoting programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers will address barriers to homeownership. Research indicates that low- and moderate-income homebuyers might stand to benefit most from these programs. Considerations. Community members benefit most from homeownership education and counseling when the available support is customized to their needs, easily accessible, and offered early in the process. Many first-time homeowners can face unexpected costs, struggle ihiridoci Wino, •The Wosioichen WoOd, "Rosesisio sham ikiguid supong cifkiogobio housing i n Lot)VC"::WC)f th." (Septsigher 25, 20195 https://www.wenotcheewcrld.ccrn/new5/revenue-shcre-wculd-5uppert-offcrclohle-hcvsing-in- leovenworth/orticle 9f370o7!)-dfe7-11e9-b393d9ohc.5!)9()cl.htmL DRAFT Februcry 2021 25 60 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strate9ies to maintain payments, and encounter foreclosure rescue scams. Education and counsel should address these issues. Community input also indicated the need for counsel to be offered in culturally competent ways. Example Resources/Programs • The NeighborWorks Center for Homeownership Education and Counseling (NCHEC) Training and Certification program offers practitioners certification to demonstrate advanced level knowledge and professional competency. Certification requirements include a level of training and examination, adoption of the National Industry Standards for Homeownership Education and Counseling, adoption of the National Code of Ethics and Conduct, and continuing education. Training towards NCHEC certification can be obtained through NeighborWorks Training Institutes (NTIs) and regional place-based training (PBTs). 2. Exp ore "Rig it to Return" po icies -or promoting home ownership wiere tiere las been disc acement as a resu t or new deve ooment. Description. A "Right to Return" policy helps to reverse effects of past physical displacement by providing down payment assistance for first time homeowners who can prove that they have been victims of displacement. These policies can prioritize cases of displacement by direct government action. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses homeownership gaps. Considerations. Right to Return policies work by giving highest preference for housing support to those who can show that they were forced to move in the wave of displacement that occurred to make way for new development, including recently constructed streets or other development. These policies can also be designed to give preference to current or formerly displaced residents preference for income-restricted housing. Example Communities • Portland's "Right to Return" policy allows tenants, mainly minorities, to move back to communities that they were displaced from. An important aspect of the "Right to Return" initiative is the "preference policy." The Preference Policy is an effort to address the harmful impacts of urban renewal by giving priority placement to applicants who were displaced, are at risk of displacement, or who are descendants of households that were displaced due to urban renewal in North and Northeast Portland. The Portland Housing Bureau (PHB) funds the development of affordable rental housing, homeownership opportunities, and down payment assistance for first-time homebuyers. When any of these opportunities become available in North and Northeast Portland, PHB will open the waitlist for those interested in the housing opportunity. Priority status is given to households who owned property that was taken by Portland City government through eminent DRAFT Februcry 2021 26 61 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strute9ies domain. Eminent domain is the right of a government agency to take private property for public use and relocates and/or compensates the owner of the property. Examples of eminent domain action include the construction of Memorial Coliseum and the expansion of Emanuel Hospital. la Austin has also indicated its intent to develop a Right to Return and Right to Stay Program for East Austin. 3. Expand anc update down payment assistance 'Programs. Description. Because saving enough money for a down payment can take many years, and economic displacement pressures push households to relocate long before they save enough for a down payment, down payment assistance programs offer no-interest or low-interest capital for qualified buyers. Many programs support first-time home buyers and can be accompanied with home ownership education courses to support financial preparedness for first time homeowners. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the community by helping renters who want to invest long term in their neighborhood to purchase their first home. Considerations. The City of Yakima had a "down payment assistance program" that was cancelled due to widespread fraudulent practices by some local lending institutions, realtors, and others. Identifying a roster of community-based organizations who can work with the community to apply eligibility and property selection criteria is one way to improve the program implementation. 4. Encourage rent-to-own opportunities and sweat equity programs. Description. Traditional rent-to-own opportunities are a contractual agreement between a landlord-seller and a renter-buyer that grants the renter either the option or the obligation to purchase the rental home for a pre-determined price prior to the expiration of the lease term. In some cases, the terms of the agreement include a rent credit, in which the tenant pays higher-than-market-rate rent, but the landlord reserves a portion of the rent for the tenant's future down payment. Traditional rent-to-own contracts tend to be financially risky for renters, as they can include upfront fees, higher rents, and an obligation for the tenant to pay for repairs and upgrades; all with the possibility that the deal can be terminated and additional costs forfeited if the tenant misses a rent payment, is evicted, or violates the agreement in any other way. However, in the wake of the Great Recession, some municipalities have created publicly DRAFT February 2021 27 62 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies backed rent-to-own programs for foreclosed properties. One such program is Milwaukee's Turnkey Renovation pregroms In cases where a nonprofit or public agency takes on the role of landlord-owner, such programs provide a unique opportunity for renters to build credit and make steps towards homeownership without leaving their community. Program rules vary but the overall concept of sweat equity is to build new affordable homes or renovate distressed ones with the help of the people who will live there. The hours the buyers volunteer help save on labor costs and can be calculated to function as a down payment on the property. The buyers must also qualify for the mortgage. Habitat for Humanity and the USDA Mutual and Self-Help Housing Program are two examples. The USDA program provides grants to nonprofit organizations to help them supervise groups of low-income families to work on each other's homes. Four to twelve families often work together on each other's home and receive a direct loan and reduced mortgage payment with low interest rates from the USDA. Gaps Addressed. Publicly backed rent-to-own programs can help create more affordable homeownership opportunities and bring these opportunities to more households that have been traditionally excluded from homeownership, including BIPOC households. Similarly, sweat equity programs are designed for lower-income households and provide opportunities for those who otherwise might face challenges to afford to own a home. Considerations. Publicly backed rent-to-own programs have higher rates of success (are more likely to result in the renter eventually owning the home) and provide significantly more protections for renters than do traditional rent-to-own contract arrangements. Due to the limited amount of HOME Investment funds that the City of Yakima receives, combined with the limited number of qualified ONDS personnel, compared to the much larger entitlement amounts rewarded to the larger entitlements, the City has limited resources to directly build homes. City efforts since 2013 have concentrated on supporting its housing partners with gap financing on multi-family units for households with low to moderate incomes. The City currently partners with the Yakima Housing Authority and Habitat for Humanity who build homes. . Support housin options that meet the diverse needs of older adults. 1 . ncentivize senior lousing. Description. Cities have several tools at their disposable to incentivize the production of new housing for older adults by private developers and builders. These include the authorization to waive or reduce impact fees for senior housing, the ability to offer density bonuses for buildings with units reserved for older adults, revising ADU standards, allowing a DRAFT Februcry 2021 28 63 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies greater variety of housing types in existing zones (e.g., cottages, duplexes, etc.), offering property owners tax exemptions when constructing multi-family housing (MFTE), and more. Gaps Addressed. The strategies highlighted here all address the need for additional housing that meets the needs of older adults, particularly as a segment of the population ages over the next 10 years. Considerations. In implementing any new policies, decision-makers should consider the ability of the policy both to incentivize the production of housing that meets the affordability needs of older adults, but also the social needs (e.g., proximity to family) and housing design and layout needs (e.g., mobility considerations). 2. Expand need-based renabi itation assistance. Description. Rehabilitation projects for existing housing supports community longevity. Need-based rehabilitation assistance helps low-income residents, people with disabilities, and older adults to make needed home repairs and safety upgrades by offering favorable financing terms or time-limited tax abatements to qualified homeowners. The City currently has two programs that address need-based rehabilitation. Continued support and expansion of this program is necessary to meet the community's housings needs. • The City offers a Senior/Disabled emergency rehabilitation program to fix life and safety issues that would otherwise displace these elderly and frail homeowners into care facilities or risk homelessness. the City of Yakima Office of Neighborhood development Services assists approximately 100 Senior/Disabled low to moderate income Homeowner units a year with CDBG Single Family Rehabilitation program. • The City's Senior/Disabled Home repair program was established over 20 years ago. The average grant awarded is approximately $5000 per home over a lifetime. In 2019, 74 homes were served. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to support home ownership in the community. Rehabilitation projects that address weatherization and energy efficiency improvements can improve long-term affordability for homeowners by reducing monthly energy costs. Considerations. Affordable housing funds can directly provide loans or be used to partner with non-profit organizations specializing in rehabilitation assistance. RCW 84.37 and RCW 84.38 provide for property tax deferral for homeowners with limited incomes. Awareness of these programs is also an important component of success. Local housing websites should provide information on state and local programs for home repair assistance and help with energy bills to increase awareness and expand the reach of existing programs. DRAFT Februcry 2021 29 64 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies 3. Support aging in p ace services. Description. Aging in place refers to the ability of individuals to remain in their home as they age. Older adults often have different physical, social, and affordability needs than younger adults, so supportive services are often necessary to allow older adults to remain in their home. Examples of services that support aging in place include meal delivery programs, home aides, shuttle services, social events through community centers, mobility modifications to homes (such as installing ramps), and senior property tax exemptions (available statewide in Washington). The City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) supports aging in place through services that connect older residents with existing services and by providing additional services for older residents. Continued support of this program is necessary. The City can also consider refinements to the program such as: • Connecting older adults to affordable and trustworthy contractors for home maintenance and modification assistance • Grants that target older renters for assistance. Older renters living in market-rate apartments are often responsible for making any accessibility improvements they need. They may face the additional expense of restoring units to their original condition when they move out. Gaps Addressed. Providing aging in place services can help Yakima to meet the need for additional housing units for older adults in the years ahead by allowing some older adults to remain in their current homes for longer. Considerations. Aging in place will not meet the need of all older adults, so any plan to support the housing needs of older adults must consider a range of housing types, including congregate housing, multi-generational housing, and ADUs. It is also important to leverage the experiences of existing service providers to maximize the efficacy of any new aging in place service programs. Engage with older adults in the community to fully understand the needs and preferences of this community. ncentivize bac<yard cottages and cottage -lousing. Description. Cottage housing refers to a cluster of small dwelling units, typically less than 1 ,200 square feet, around a common open space. This arrangement offers a development approach that is appropriate and compatible with low-density residential neighborhoods, and their smaller size makes them more affordable than a typical single-family residence. Similar to cottage housing, backyard cottages or accessory dwelling units (both attached and detached) provide housing alternatives that increase the capacity of residential neighborhoods. The City has put in place several modifications in 2020 to expand the zones in which these homes are allowed and simplified the overall process. Creating pre-approved DRAFT February 2021 30 65 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies ADU plans is a potential way to further incentivize these smaller housing types. Gaps Addressed. Providing cottage housing and backyard cottages helps to diversify the housing stock, increasing housing supply for individuals and families with different needs. Backyard cottages or accessory dwelling units can also be a helpful option for multi- generational families. These units may serve as rentals providing additional income for homeowners or as main unit extensions that offer privacy for older or extended family members. They offer affordable options to renters and can assist homeowners in need of additional income to avoid displacement. Increasing the diversity of the housing stock also supports affordable homeownership. Considerations. Some density increases may be needed for cottage housing in single- family areas since these units are smaller and can be more expensive to build on a cost-per- square-foot basis. The typical density increase is two cottages per one traditional single-family home. Applying design standards and a maximum floor area ratio limit can ensure these units fit well into the applicable single-family contexts, It is important that the approval process for the units is not overly burdensome. 5. ncentivize universa design in -lousing deve opment. Description. Universal design creates an environment accessible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability or disability. Universal design features include the layout and design of the home as well as specific features within homes. Typical layouts that accommodate universal design include locating a bathroom and bedroom on the first floor and others. Specific features include handrails or grab bars in the bathroom, doorways sized to fit wheelchairs, a wheelchair-accessible kitchen, and a step-free entryway into the home. Gaps Addressed. Demand for universal design is expected to grow as the community ages. See Strategy D.3 above for additional aging in place options. Considerations. Universal design works best when it is integrated with design standards and any incentive programs. E. Accress tie needs of those stru ing with home essness. 1 . Add more permanent supportive housing. Description. Permanent supportive housing programs provide households with a permanent, subsidized housing unit (typically residents are obligated to pay 30% of any income towards rent), along with supportive services, such as health care, mental health treatment, and substance use disorder counseling. Permanent supportive housing is more expensive than DRAFT February 2021 31 66 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies other homelessness interventions but has been shown to be highly effective in reducing homelessness and use of crisis services (such as shelters, hospitals, and jails) among the highest-need households experiencing homelessness. Because of the associated reduction in use of crisis services, permanent supportive housing has been shown to be cost-effective. Gaps Addressed. Permanent supportive housing can bring together housing with supportive services that build independent living and tenancy skills and address the issue of chronic homelessness. It is also a cost-effective solution which has been shown to lower public costs associated with the use of crisis services. Considerations. Communities are almost never able to provide permanent supportive housing for all households that need it; need outstrips supply, and many individuals who need permanent supportive housing will not receive the service. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local lead agency for homelessness services to ensure that any plans for permanent supportive housing are consistent with the countywide plan for homelessness services. Example Programs • Yokimci Neighborhood Health Services offers permanent, supportive housing though a program called Master Lease. The program is based on relationships local landlords who lease with the program to house those experiencing homelessness. Once housed, clients receive regular case management from trained staff who help them make the right decisions to continue the path to self-sufficiency. Through the recently completed Rhonda D. Hauff Resource Center, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services also offers temporary housing for up to 37 people and provides case managers who connect residents to services such as health, long-term housing and jobs. Wor< with -aitn-basec organizations on temporary -lousing and permanent supportive lousing. Description. Faith-based organizations often have resources such as land and buildings and have a desire to use those resources for the public good in line with their congregation's values. A number of faith-based organizations in Yakima operate affordable housing projects and housing programs for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. By partnering with faith-based organizations, the City can draw on the valuable experience these organizations have in providing services to individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Gaps Addressed. By partnering with faith-based organizations, the City can help to address the needs for temporary and permanent housing for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. See Strategy A.5 above for additional information about DRAFT Februcry 2021 32 67 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strate9ies partnering with faith-based organizations. Considerations. Faith-based organizations have a unique set of strengths and resources that are important to partner with to provide services to those experiencing homelessness. Several policy provisions are uniquely available to faith-based organizations to provide shelter. For example, HB 1377 grants faith communities a density bonus for developing homes for households with incomes below 80% of AMI on their land. While these partnerships are important, it is important to consider how the City will approach any policy differences with faith-based organizations. For example, in 2018, the City of Seattle corns under fire for contracting for shelter services with a faith-based organization that had a policy of not hiring LGBTQ staff. The City's hiring policies prohibited it from contracting with organizations that discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation in hiring. To maximize success, the City should broadly reach out to identify local organizations, resources, and existing temporary and permanent housing programs. It should also fully explore any potential policy conflicts with faith-based organizations before entering into contracts. 3. Co aborate with non-profits to bui d transition° housing. Description. Transitional housing includes apartments or congregate housing where there is a limit on how long a household can stay, typically 24 months. Allowing transitional housing in more areas can increase the supply of transitional housing so that it meets the scale of need. Gaps Addressed. Transitional housing can help to address the need for immediate shelter for households experiencing homelessness. Considerations. Transitional housing projects can sometimes be controversial among neighbors, and thus difficult to site. Coordination is also key to success. The City should coordinate with the local lead agency for homelessness services to ensure that any plans for transitional housing are consistent with the countywide plan for homelessness services. 4. Ma<e it easier to Jul d lousing serving mu tio e popu ations. Description. Housing providers often build housing that serves multiple populations to increase financial stability and local support for the development. For example, a housing development may include units for agricultural workers, people with disabilities, large families and people experiencing homelessness. Regulatory barriers should be reviewed to ensure they align with these practices and do not unintentionally add time and cost to the development process. The key barrier identified by stakeholders is when a use is defined as a DRAFT Februcry 2021 33 68 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strate9ies "Mission" 18when services are open to the public at large. Uses that are defined as "Mission" uses are only allowed in General Commercial (GC), Central Business District (CBD) and the Light Industrial zones (M1 ). Gaps Addressed. This strategy can help to increase housing supply, increase affordable housing options, and support the needs of vulnerable populations such as farmworkers, people with disabilities, and people experiencing homelessness. Considerations. 5. Coordinate tie usage o- seasona -armworcer lousing as severetweatier she ters. Description. Yakima County is home to more than 20,600 year-round agricultural jobs with more than 23,700 migratory jobs available during peak months. There are 4,637 beds available for seasonal workers in Yakima County. These beds house temporary farmworkers during peak times of agricultural production. As such, they are primarily used in the spring, summer, and autumn with comparatively little demand for these beds in winter months. By coordinating with operators of these facilities, public agencies and/or nonprofits could potentially secure additional winter shelter beds for individuals and families experiencing homelessness. Some housing providers have already started to use vacant seasonal -misHion” lbtbdos ct owned or oper.ofed by a pabtic agencir or: norndralif corporation, providing a variety el services for the disadvantaged typically including :but not limited la temporary housing for the horrielece dining liabilities, health and counseling activities; whether or nal of a spiritual nature, with such services being generally provided to the public at large, DRAFT February 2021 34 69 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strategies farmworker housing for other purposes Case Study: Yakima Housing Authority Creative during the winter. Use of Farmworker Housing to Help Residents Experiencing Homelessness Gaps Addressed. This strategy has the potential to provide additional During the winter of 2016-2017, Yakima Housing Authority YHA initiated a creative use of the Cosecha shelter beds for individuals and Court apartment complex, located in the city of Granger, families experiencing homelessness in to meet the needs of both seasonal workers and winter, when the need is greater due to residents at risk of homelessness, Cosecha Court was severe weather. funded primarily through the U.S. Department of Agriculture [USDA) Section 514/516 Farm Labor Considerations. The majority of Housing Loan and Grant program, with smaller amounts publicly funded seasonal farmworker from the Washington State Housing Trust Fund and the beds located in Yakima County are HUD Community Development block Grant Housing located outside the city of Yakima, so Enhancement program. such a program would likely require Given the limitations of the funding that limits occupancy to agricultural workers, the Yakima Housing Authority regional coordination. Farmworker housing facilities that receive public initially had been forced to close Cosecha Court when (state or federal) funds for construction the agricultural season ended. The facility was not used during three of the coldest months of the year even as or operations may be restricted in who the community struggled with a severe shortage of they can serve. Advocacy with the housing and acute homelessness, legislature to remove these YHA worked with the USDA and state agencies to get requirements will be needed. For permission to use Cosecha Court as temporary housing example, the Department of Revenue's for residents experiencing homelessness, a purpose (DOR) policy is that any use other than outside its funded mandate. Working with two local farmworker housing during the winter service providers, Yakima Neighborhood Health Services and the Nor hwest Community Action Center, in the first five years would make a the housing development was able to address, in the properly ineligible for the sales tax short term, homeless residents' need for stable housing. exemption provided for farmworker In total, the program sheltered 89 individuals, including housing. 49 children, for 1,914 bed nights. The program has other benefits, such as relieving the burden on local churches, which typically provide temporary housing for residents experiencing homelessness. Source: htt s: www.huduser. ov anal cosestudies stud - 052819.html DRAFT February 2021 35 70 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strategies F. Protect a ainst disp acement and poor housin conditions. Acopt he nternationa Property Maintenance Code ( PMC). Description. The International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) is a model code for regulation of minimum maintenance standards for residential and commercial properties. Adopting the IPMC would set minimum maintenance standards for property owners, bringing Yakima's standards in line with many other cities and protecting renters from substandard housing conditions. Gaps Addressed. Adopting a model code would ensure that the City's standards address the most common and significant properly maintenance issues, providing renters with protection against substandard housing conditions. Considerations. The IPMC is a model code and may not address maintenance issues that are specific to Yakima. While maintenance regulations do protect renters from substandard housing conditions, they also increase operation costs for landlords, which are passed on to tenants in the form of higher rents. The City could consider modifying or adding to the IPMC with maintenance standards that are specific to the conditions in Yakima. Ongoing dialogue is needed with property owners and landlords to understand how additional maintenance regulations will affect their operations and with renters to understand the current gaps and shortcomings in maintenance of rental properties. 2. Expand and orc and tenant assistance, Description. In areas where housing affordability is a growing issue, housing agencies have coordinated efforts to provide comprehensive Landlord and Tenant Assistance through policy and programming. Programming assistance comes in many forms, including tenant rights education, trainings for landlords and renters alike to understand local rental policies, etc. Other actions to provide assistance include offering low interest loans for code compliance and to create an ombudsman to liaise with tenants and landlords. The City of Yakima currently offers Tenant/Landlord Counseling through the Office of Neighborhood Development Services program to assist tenants and landlords with disputes and advice on reaching agreements or seeking legal support. The Dispute Resolution Center of Yakima and Kittitas Counties is also a local resource. Continued support for the Office of Neighborhood Development Services program is necessary. DRAFT Februcry 2021 36 71 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies Gaps Addressed. Expanded assistance for landlords and tenants can increase their awareness and familiarity. It addresses the lack of oversight of rental housing and can maintain the quality of rental housing. Considerations. Using an ombudsman as a single point of contact can work well as a trusted single point of assistance. Example Communities • The City of Tukwilo requires that all rental units be licensed and inspected; owners of residential property should obtain a Rental Business License annually. The City provides access to renter rights information on the Rental Housing Program webpage. Examples include a 'Renter's Tips Sheet,' redirection to the 'Tenants Union of Washington State' webpage, and 'Know You Rights' information. The City of Tukwila's Code Enforcement Team works with property owners to ensure compliance with Municipal Code related to private property. • The Portland Housing Bureau, Renter Services Office (RSO) operates a helpline and provides technical assistance and information, especially related to the City's Mandatory Renter Relocation Assistance program. The RSO is a resource for both landlords and tenants. The City has adopted the Fair Access in Renting (FAIR) ordinance as of March 1 , 2020; RSO offers free trainings to renters and landlords to learn more about the ordinance. Rental property owners are required to register their units annually through the Residential Rental Registration Program and Schedule R. 3. ncentivize and ords to improve tie qua ity and maintenance 0- nousing. Description. While maintenance regulations discourage landlords from offering substandard housing, incentives can reward landlords that provide high-quality, well-maintained rental properties. Examples include providing landlords who meet the criteria with access to technical support, access to forums with city officials, fast-tracking of permits, reduced fees for municipal services, free or reduced cost equipment, free advertising of available rentals, and discounts at local merchants/contractors. Incentives that reward landlord who rent to lower- income residents or voucher holders have also been found to increase housing choice. The City could reduce permit fees for repairs or improvements and support programs that provide funding to cover security deposits and cost of damages and interest free loans for rehabilitation efforts. Gaps Addressed. Incentives for landlords to improve rental housing helps ensure that renter households have access to safe and decent housing, while also supporting landlords in maintaining a high-quality rental housing stock. Weatherization incentives can ensure that the costs of outdated or inefficient utilities do not fall on renters. DRAFT Februcry 2021 37 72 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives end Stroteoies Considerations. Consider how the City can leverage existing resources and systems to provide incentives that are low-cost to the City. Successful incentives are based on dialogue with property owners, landlords, and renters. This dialogue will help the City understand current gaps and shortcomings in maintenance of rental properties and how incentives could best help to maintain high-quality rental housing. Example Communities • Through its low-income weatherization program Pacific Power partners with local agencies to provide free weatherization services to income-qualifying homeowners and renters living in single-family homes, mobile homes or apartments. Based on the home's needs, a variety of measures can be installed, including insulation, energy-efficient showerheads, LED light bulbs and more. All of these measures are designed to lower electric bills while keeping homes comfortable. • The Colorado Landlord Incentive Program/Landlords Opening Doors program offers participating landlords' reimbursement for short-term vacancies and minor unit repairs when they rent units to a low-income renter with a housing voucher. In order to be eligible, a landlord must participate in the Landlord Recruitment Campaign. The threshold for repairs is up to $300 and not more than $1 ,000. Brother Redevelopment, Inc. in collaboration with Metro Denver Homeless Initiative and Colorado Housing Connects leads the effort. 4. Acdress mob e -lame parcs hat are ci apidated. Description. Mobile homes are often an affordable option for renters and homeowners. There are various types of mobile home parks, which may be owned by a single entity/owner or community owned through a Resident Owned Communities (ROC) designation. Mobile home parks that are disinvested and lack proper infrastructure are often at risk of being acquired and displacing residents of these communities. Addressing much needed repairs and upgrades through a variety of mechanisms can help to mitigate displacement of vulnerable residents and ensure improved safety and quality of life. Gaps Addressed. Mobile home parks meet the needs of those who want to live in a detached single-family home but often cannot afford the associated mortgage or rent payment. Considerations. Partnerships with non-profits experienced with mobile home rehabilitation may be necessary to address improvements and preserve housing. Example Programs • CASA of Oregon's Manufactured Housing Cooperative Development (MHCD) Center is one of nine Certified Technical Assistance Providers (CTAPs) under the national ROC USA DRAFT Februcry 2021 38 73 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives ond Strate9ies network. ROC USA and its affiliate, the New Hampshire Community Loan Fund, are non- profits that provide technical assistance with specialized purchase financing for resident cooperative corporations. As a member of the ROC USA network, CASA of Oregon delivers pre- and post-purchase technical assistance and helps manufactured homeowners secure the financing needed to buy their communities. Participation in this network gives CASA of Oregon access to financial products, technical assistance trainings, and resources developed by experts from ROC USA. • The City of Auburn Home Repair Program Provides grants for minor and emergency repairs, including for mobile homes. The City offers $7,000 grants paid directly to contractors. • The City of Kent Home Repair Assistance Program offers home repair services to low- and moderate-income homeowners, including mobile homes. Mobile homes must be built in 1976 or newer with HUD certification in order to qualify and gross income must not exceed 80% AMI. Grants include a $5,000 limit for mobile homes. • The King County Housing Authority Weatherization Program provides weatherization services for homeowners, including mobile homeowners. The Income threshold must be met to access free services. • The King County Housing Repair Program provides grants to mobile homeowners up to $8,000 who need to make quality of life repairs to their homes and do not own the land or pad where mobile home sits. Grants do not have to be repaid. Provice tenant re ocation assistance. Description. Rezoning in neighborhoods may cause an increase in demolition of existing housing units to build newer housing. This process can displace existing tenants. Under WAC 365-196-835 and RCW 59.18.440, local governments can pass an ordinance to require developers, public funds, or both to provide relocation funds to displaced tenants. Gaps Addressed. This strategy provides relocation assistance to displaced tenants and improves housing stability. Considerations. Tenants at or below 50% of county median income, adjusted for family size, qualify for these funds. Resident relocation assistance resulting from public action is required (details are in RCW 8.26). It is important to be clear about who qualifies for tenant relocation assistance, what is covered, and who pays the amount. It is also important to ensure that information about tenant relocation assistance is easily available to all members of the community. Two of the most important federal programs that fund affordable housing are the HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) and the Community Development Block Grant DRAFT Februcry 2021 39 74 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies (CDBG) Program. Both HOME and CDBG are important resources in the local development of homes and communities. While sharing similar goals related to improving the living conditions of low-income families, each program has specific eligible activities and requirements. Due to the limitations of both Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnerships Program (HOME) investment regulations, City of Yakima's Office of Neighborhood Development Services (ONDS) is only able to provide relocation assistance when a property is acquired and/or displaced with Federal Funds through specific program guidelines. Housing assistance is provided through the developers as subrecipients as program guidelines allow. To implement these types of programs and/or strategies through ONDS, a measure of "Administrative costs" would need to be financed through sources other than "CDBG or HOME admin" such as general fund in order to remain CDBG and HOME Investment program compliant. 6. Put in p ace Just Cause eviction protections. Description. Washington requires that tenants receive at least a 20-day notice when asked to leave a property, but the state law does not require landlords to provide an explanation. Cities may pass Just Cause eviction protections that require landlords to provide tenants with a legally justifiable reason when asking them to vacate. Legally justifiable reasons could include failure to pay on time, meet lease terms, building sale, or owner's desire to occupy the unit. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to protect tenants against displacement and poor housing conditions. Considerations. This protection does not prevent displacement, but the Just Cause eviction requirement supports rental stability and provides a legal recourse for residents who are asked to vacate without justification. It is important to be clear in city code about what reasons for asking a tenant to vacate would constitute just cause. It is also important to make sure that this information about the Just Cause protection is circulated widely so that tenants are aware of this protection. Example Communities • In Seattle, landlords must have 1 of 16 "Just Cause reasons" if they want to end month-by- month rental agreement. Landlords must give you a written notice commonly called a "Notice to Terminate Tenancy" and state the specific just cause. The amount of advance notice depends on the specific just cause reason. In general, the notice period is 20 days before the end of a rental period unless otherwise stated below. DRAFT February 2021 40 75 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives cnci Strutenies 7. Consider tie strategic acquisition anc nnancing o existing mu Warn' y lousing. Description. This strategy uses acquisition to provide income-restricted affordable housing. When the acquired housing is in neighborhoods with amenities such as open space, good schools, and other public infrastructure it promotes equitable access to neighborhoods that may be otherwise out of reach for low-income residents. Community-based organizations, non-profits and community land trusts can be important property owners within a neighborhood. Leveraging public resources to empower trusted institutions can preserve or create affordable housing and space for communihtserving organizations and is authorized with RCW 35.21 .685. The City of Yakima's resources can assist these institutions in land and property acquisition that preserves affordable housing and prevents displacement within a neighborhood. Gaps Addressed. The Housing Needs Assessment found that renters in Yakima face higher affordability challenges than owners. These challenges are not always solved by new construction since new homes are largely intended for the higher end of the market. Cities can partner with community-based organizations, non-profits, and community land trusts to add to the inventory of long-term affordable rental housing by purchasing existing housing with low- cost units. Acquisitions of this type is a faster and lower per-unit-cost than new construction of affordable housing. When acquisition is targeted in opportunity-rich areas this can increase equitable access to housing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public dollars. Setting goals for the location, quantity, and type of units created or preserved through this strategy can help ensure limited public dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensure the longevity of impact from these investments. Example Communities/Programs • The jflç Coun Housin Authori KCHAj has taken advantage of the flexibility granted by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) Moving to Work (MTW) program to pursue multifamily acquisitions as a means of increasing units in high- opportunity neighborhoods (with high-performing schools, public transit, and jobs). King County has acquired mixed-income properties in high-opportunity areas through bond financing and other private financing tools. Under Washington's state authorizing legislation, KCHA can issue bonds directly, not dependent on the county government. In 2016, King County agreed to provide KCHA with access to the county's triple-A credit rating. This type of credit enhancement is valuable to housing authorities that may not have strong, independent issuer ratings. Since 2016, KCHA has acquired more than 2,000 units of housing. • Launched in 2006, the New York CityAc uisition Fund provides funds to developers to DRAFT Februcry 2021 76 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives and Strate9ies acquire and preserve affordable buildings which might otherwise be sold to speculative investors. The fund provides flexible loans for vacant sites or occupied buildings, predevelopment, and moderate rehabilitation to developers committed to the creation of new or preservation of existing affordable and/or supportive rental housing. 13,692 units have been created or preserved in 82 projects through this fund. 8. Provide customizes housing assistance tirougi a —ousing Navigator program. Description. Housing Navigators work with both landlords and tenants and offer customized assistance to reduce barriers through supports such as search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Examples of customized assistance include providing information on amenities and resources across neighborhoods, facilitating neighborhood tours, preparing individuals to be tenants on the private rental market, identifying barriers to renting, budgeting, preparing materials needed for rental applications, support during the housing search process, referrals to units, and providing flexible funds to help families overcome additional costs associated with moving. Gaps Addressed. The needs assessment revealed that there is a need for housing-related support that extend beyond housing production and vary across groups in the community. Since barriers in the housing search process are an important driver of residential segregation, providing customized assistance in housing search could reduce residential segregation and increase upward mobility. Considerations. This program will need significant resources to operationalize. Partnerships with locally based housing providers and organizations will be necessary for implementation. Housing Navigators will be most successful if they have background/familiarity working with property management firms and other for-profit entities, landlords, social service providers and the rental housing sector in Yakima, have knowledge of local rental housing resources and social services, and have cultural competence. Example Communities • King County's Creating Moves to Opportunity ICMTC) program is a housing mobility program offered to eligible families from the Seattle and King County Housing Authorities' Housing Choice Voucher waitlist. CMTO is a joint project between Seattle Housing Authority and King County Housing Authority with services provided by Interim CDA. A key feature of this program is the use of hosing navigators who provide customized search assistance, landlord engagement, and short-term financial assistance. Evaluation of the pilot program, and interviews with participants, revealed that barriers in the housing search process are a central driver of residential segregation by income. The customized assistance that addresses each family's needs in a specific manner from emotional support DRAFT February 2021 42 77 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strute9ies to brokering with landlords to financial assistance was critical to the program's success. 9. Adoot a Notice o' ntent to Se / Sa e Ordinance, Description. A "Notice of Intent to Sell" ordinance requires owners of multifamily buildings to provide official notification to tenants and local housing officials. The ordinance could apply specifically to properties with rents at or below certain income levels. Gaps Addressed. This strategy addresses the lack of affordable housing supply especially for low- and moderate-income populations. Considerations. The notice gives public authorities an opportunity to plan for a potential purchase of the property, in the interest of preserving housing serving low- or moderate- income residents. The ordinance also serves as a mitigation measure for residents by providing additional time for potential moves. Example Communities • Seattle's Notice of Intent to Sell ordinonce reauthorized by Council in 2019, provides the City with information about the intention to sell residential rental property with at least one unit rented at 80% of Area Median Income (AMI) or below. The City, in partnership with the Seattle Housing Authority and community partners, can use the notification information to evaluate properties and deploy a range of property preservation tools, including incentives and acquisition. The notice can also help residents seek tenant protections and relocation resources if necessary. a Put in p ace community bene'its/deve opment agreements where -easib e, Description. Development agreements or community benefit agreements are voluntary, negotiated contracts between developers and municipalities. These agreements specify the public benefits that the development will provide, along with each party's responsibility. They support affordable housing, affordable commercial space, community gathering spaces, and other public amenities. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to ensure that new developments will provide affordable spaces for housing and commercial activities, along with public benefits. Considerations. Examples include developers agreeing to build out ground floor space for small businesses and cultural anchors, making it more affordable for them to get into new spaces and gradually afford market rent with time. DRAFT Februcry 2021 43 78 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies 1 1 Encourage micro-retai and - exib e cu tura space Design. Description. In some cases, displacement occurs when smaller retailers and cultural spaces that anchor communities disappear from neighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. Ensuring affordable commercial spaces in neighborhoods as new development come in can help reduce displacement. Considerations. Preserving existing affordable space is most effective for maintaining affordability. If new space must be built or adapted, it works best to design the ground floor with nontraditional commercial uses, such as a flexible space for different types of businesses and arts organizations. 1 2. Give grants/ oans to cirect y support sma businesses. Description. Support small businesses and cultural anchors to help them invest in their space and keep up with rent. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps with affordable housing in the community by supporting small businesses and helping them to make rent costs. Considerations. Economic development programs can help to support small businesses. Restrictions on city funds can make it difficult for local governments to support small businesses. Instead, communities are using federal and private funds that do not have the same strict restrictions on use of general city funds to support rent and operating costs for small businesses. Community lenders can help to meet small businesses' needs, and the City could help to connect businesses with these lenders. 1 3. Ensure coce en-orcement coes not ciso ace residents. Description. Some residential rental units have code violations which impact the safety and health of occupants. In some cases, these living conditions may require tenants to vacate the structure to allow for extensive repairs. These code violations are often caused by deferred maintenance or negligence by the property owner. However, code enforcement could unintentionally cause the eviction of the tenant household from its residence. The challenges of finding affordable replacement housing and the financial burden of moving-related expenses affects the wellbeing of tenant households, especially those who are low-income. Relocation benefits and assistance are necessary to ensure that displaced tenants secure safe and affordable replacement housing. Code enforcement can prevent eviction and potential homelessness when adequate and affordable relocation housing is available to occupants. Many cities have amended their code to ensure the city is reimbursed by the property owner DRAFT Februcry 2021 44 79 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies for any relocation assistance provided as a result of code enforcement. The requirement to pay relocation costs works to encourage property owners to correct code violations proactively. Using a phased code enforcement process allows owners more time to secure financing and complete upgrades, reducing the likelihood that owners are forced to sell, or landlords are forced to dramatically increase rents. Gaps Addressed. Code enforcement plays an important role in ensuring that housing is safe and well-maintained. Considerations. Code enforcement can trigger displacement. Code enforcement policies should balance the advantages of providing property owners flexibility and leniency in reaching code compliance with the need for equitable code enforcement. In the absence of carefully considered policies for phased code enforcement, enforcement discretion may advantage certain groups of owners above others. Effective code enforcement programs, such as New York City's Partners in Preservation program, use a range of tactics, including both restrictions and incentives, depending on the specific situation. Anti-displacement programs and policies should focus on areas of the city that are most vulnerable. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a tool developed to identify vulnerability to hazardous events nationwide. The index was developed to assist public health and emergency response experts to identify areas of extra concern in the event of a shock such as a natural disaster or chemical spill. Many of the included variables, however, relate to housing vulnerability as well: poverty rates, identifying minority communities, and housing issues like crowding. Not all factors captured are relevant to identifying displacement risk, but they help paint a picture of neighborhood demographics. Results identify areas many areas in Yakima with high vulnerability concerns. Over half (56%) of Census tracts have concentrated populations of lower socioeconomic status. Yakima city is also home to many people of color and non-English speaking residents, who also disproportionately face displacement risk. The map in Exhibit 18 (Appendix E) shows the areas of Yakima with higher concern for displacement risk. These neighborhoods in East Yakima and smaller neighborhoods to the north and west of the city should be of particular focus for outreach and anti-displacement policy implementation. Example Communities • Seattle requires landlords to offer tenants relocation assistance if tenants must move out of their rental unit due to redevelopment or certain code violations. Property owners and developers must get a Tenant Relocation License if the project meets certain criteria. Only low-income renters receive relocation assistance of $4,170.00. Property owners pay half of that amount ($2,085.00) and the City of Seattle pays the other half ($2,085.00). The DRAFT February 2021 45 80 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Objectives one] Strate9ies City of Seattle will not issue a master use, construction, demolition, or change of use permit for a property where renters will be required to move until a Tenant Relocation License is issued. The City does not require a landlord to pay relocation assistance to a tenant who moves because of a rent increase or who is evicted by order of the King County Superior Court. If a unit is cited for a code violation, but the violations are being corrected so that the tenant does not have to move, relocation assistance is not paid. 1 4. Support tiird-party purchases cY existing af-ordab e Description. Community-based organizations, non-profit organizations, and community land trusts can be important property owners in neighborhoods. Under RCW 35.21 .685, public resources can be used to empower trusted institutions to preserve or create affordable housing and spaces for community-serving organizations and businesses. The City could help these institutions in land and property acquisition efforts to preserve affordable housing and prevent displacement in neighborhoods. Gaps Addressed. This strategy helps to address the lack of housing supply in the community. The Housing Needs Assessment found that renters in Yakima face higher affordability challenges than owners. These challenges are not always solved by new construction since new homes are largely intended for the higher end of the market. Cities can partner with community-based organizations, non-profits and community land trusts to add to the inventory of long-term affordable rental housing by purchasing existing housing with low- cost units. Acquisitions of this type is a faster and lower per-unit-cost than new construction of affordable housing. When acquisition is targeted in opportunity-rich areas this can increase equitable access to housing. Considerations. Strategic investment expands the impact of public dollars. Setting goals for the location, quantity, and type of units created or preserved through this strategy can help ensure limited public dollars are spent in the most effective way. In addition, affordability covenants are critical to ensure the longevity of impact from these investments. DRAFT Februcry 2021 46 81 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation [Section in progress] The HAP establishes a framework for aligning efforts across the city, coordinating with partners, and measuring progress. To support an effective implementation program, this section includes: • A comprehensive listing of strategies, timelines, resource requirements, responsibilities for leading the tasks, and partnership opportunities (Exhibit 6). This matrix will also support the City's budgeting and implementation processes and provide a mechanism for assessing progress and maintaining accountability. • A timeline summary for implementation of the specific actions identified in this report. Strategies are categorized by short-term (1-2 years), medium-term (3-5 years), and long-term (5+ years) implementation timelines. • High priority strategies are asterisked. Exhibit 6. Implementation Matrix Strategy Timeline Cost&Level of Effort Lead Potential Partners memmemmtememmemmeme....P.m,4*.m.miwerix.mmeixfmemm...#m.)::................................................................................................................................................................... 1. Make strategic investments in Short-term infrastructure. 2, Recalibrate the Multi-Family Medium-term fax Exemption (METE) program. 3. Revise parking standards, Short-term especially for high density residential and in the downtown core. 4. Update city regulations to Short-term remove barriers to innovative housing types and arrangements. 5.Work with faith-based Short-term organizations on housing. 6. Create design standards for Medium-term multifamily and mixed-use development, 7. Ensure permitting and Short-term environmental review process has improved for housing DRAFT February 2021 47 82 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Strategy Timeline Cost& Level of Effort Lead Potential Partners serving all income levels, particularly low-income households, 8. Engage with local employers Medium-term on housing for the workforce. 9. Partner with local housing Medium-term providers, xowawawawaxow....0,,x4x4wawaxowaxixtdosstatkotost.....autattatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatatz 1. Consider fee waivers or Medium-term deferrals for affordable housing. 2. Develop surplus/under- Long-term utilized city property for affordable housing, 3. Consider a levy or sales tax Long-term for affordable housing. 1. Continue to support Medium-term education programs on homeownership. 2. Explore 'Right to Return- Medium-term policies for promoting home ownership where there has been displacement as a result of new development. 3. Expand and update down Medium-term payment assistance programs. 4. Encourage rent-to-own Medium-term opportunities and sweat equity programs, 24,,FzaupparcEit,ppuotitgniiiimmimppg i,i:;: iippp,Rmtr:pJT:w:rtmimwitiftifgfzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz 1. Incentivize senior housing. Medium-term 2. Expand need-based Medium-term rehabilitation assistance. 3. Support aging in place Short-term services. 4, Incentivize backyard Short-term cottages and cottage housing, 5. Incentivize universal design Medium-term in housing development. DRAFT February 2021 48 83 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Strategy Timeline Cost& Level of Effort Lead Potential Partners 1.10:11:4114:0:44:4114:4:4:4:01:44:44.4.41Weeffie.S.t.t.x.x.P.:411,x.x.t.t.x.).............:14.......1"*.t.tt.t41"14:4t.x.x.x.m.x.x.t.x.:41.1":4:4:411111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1 Add more permanent Medium-term supportive housing, 2.Work with faith-based Medium-term organizations on temporary housing and permanent supportive housing. 3. Collaborate with non-profits Medium-term to build transitional housing. 4. Make it easier to build Medium-term housing serving multiple populations. 5. Coordinate the usage of Medium-term seasonal farmworker housing as severe-weather shelters, ::::::::::::::::2:ftfes52.552:::::55a55552::::::::55555,55555552emexxxAssyfix.-s:wffixfAssiwnwt...ixfAsyncsyffetcyfecs:x:xxtxx:wffix:w:x:w:x:w:x:wRw:x:w:x:w:x:w:x:w:x:w:x:w:x:w:xf, 1. Adopt the International Short-term Property Maintenance Code (IPMCI, 2. Expand landlord and tenant Short-term assistance. 3. Incentivize landlords to Medium-term improve the quality and maintenance of housing. 4. Address mobile home parks Medium-term that are dilapidated. 5, Provide tenant relocation Medium-term assistance. 6. Put in place Just Cause Short-term eviction protections. 7, Consider the strategic Medium-term acquisition and financing of existing multifamily housing. 8, Provide customized housing Medium-term assistance through a Housing Navigator program. 9.Adopt a Notice of Intent to Medium-term Sell Sale Ordinance, 1 O. Fut in place community Lang-term benefits/development agreements where feasible. DRAFT February 2021 49 84 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Implementation Strategy Timeline Cost & Level of Effort Lead Potential Partners I 1. Encourage micro-retail and Medium-term flexible cultural space design. 12. Give grants/loans to Medium-term directly support small businesses. 13. Ensure code enforcement Medium-term does not displace residents, 14, Support third-party Medium-term purchases of existing affordable housing. Timeline The HAP emphasizes implementation over the next five years. Exhibit 7 illustrates the anticipated timeframe for implementation of the recommended actions. Exhibit 7. Strategy Implementation Timeline [To odded] Short-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the one- to two-year timeframe. Highest priority short-term strategies include: XX, XX, and XX. See Exhibit 8. Exhibit 8. Short-term Strategies Strategy Objective Initial Action Medium-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the three- to five-year timeframe. Highest priority medium-term strategies include: XX, XX, and XX. See Exhibit 9. Exhibit 9. Medium-term Strategies Strategy Objective Initial Action DRAFT February 2021 50 85 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Implementation Long-term strategies are those prioritized for implementation in the five-or-more year timeframe. These strategies may rely on short- and medium-term strategy success, have longer legislative processes, or require infrastructure projects to materialize prior to implementation. Highest priority long-term strategies include: XX, XX, and XX. See Exhibit 10. Exhibit 10. Long-term Strategies strategy owe • • level Arson DRAFT February 2021 51 86 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan The city intends to monitor and evaluate HAP implementation and outcomes on a regular basis. Performance monitoring will show whether HAP actions are achieving the desired results. This will allow the city to be flexible and agile to any refinements to actions that may be necessary and focus limited public dollars on actions that are most effective. Key indicators based on results from the Housing Needs Assessment will be used to monitor performance. Key Indicators The following key indicators were selected to reflect the overall desired outcomes of this Housing Action Plan. These indicators reflect success over the long-term, rather than easy wins in the one- to two-year timeframe. Indicators are intended to capture important pieces of the larger puzzle that is a healthy, equitable housing market. Importantly, an adjustment in strategy is needed if Yakima is not making progress with these indicators. • Key Indicator 1: Annual production rate of ADU, duplex, townhome, smaller multifamily (49 units or less), and multifamily units overall. This reflects the goal of increasing the mix of housing choices in Yakima. • Key Indicator 2: Monitor and track the units built for seniors. This reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to the city's older residents. • Key Indicator 3: Cost-burden of residents and the share of residents with low- and moderate-incomes in the city. This reflects the goal of increasing housing affordable to the city's low-and moderate-income residents. DRAFT February 2021 52 87 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion References DRAFT February 2021 53 88 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan • A // Community Engagement..................................................................... 55 B // Housing Needs Assessment ................................................................ 61 C // Policy and Regulatory Review ............................................................ 61 D // Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites ..................................................... 62 E // Displacement Risk Analysis................................................................. 63 DRAFT February 2021 54 89 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices // C.mmunity Engagement Activities Community engagement activities consisted of targeted stakeholder engagement and broad public engagement. Targeted stakeholder engagement included the following groups: • Technical Advisory Committee. The City created a committee of residents and community stakeholders involved in affordable and market rate housing development, community services, and education to serve as a sounding board for the HAP development. The Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) met three times from August 2020 through February 2021 to discuss and advise on the HAP. • Community Integration Committee. The City's Community Integration Committee (CIC) was established in 2017 to advise the Yakima City Council on ways to improve community engagement, diversify the city government and workforce, provide additional review of policies, ordinances, and resolutions if requested, and give a voice to all Yakima residents. The project team conducted interviews of CIC members by email and by phone, presented at CIC meetings, and supported CIC members in hosting roundtables in a box (see broad public engagement below). • Yakima City Council. The project team interviewed city councilmembers to learn about their priorities and concerns for the HAP and to gather their insight on Yakima's housing needs. :road public engagement included: • Community survey. The project team hosted an online survey to engage residents across the city and gather feedback on residents' housing needs and priorities. The survey was open during summer and fall of 2020 and was available in English and Spanish. The project team publicized the survey in El Sol de Yakima to gather additional Spanish-language respondents. In total, 278 individuals responded, including 55 in Spanish. See the Error! Reference source not found. section of Appendix Policy and Regulatory Review for an overview of the respondents' demographics. • Roundtable in a box. The project team provided materials and support for members of the Community Integration Committee, City of Yakima staff, and other locally based partners to lead small virtual group discussions and act as "trusted liaisons" to reach key audiences. • Legislative Process. The public had two opportunities to engage in the legislative process. A Council study session in December 2019 was an introduction and public kickoff to project, during which members of the public provided comment on the proposed HAP approach. In 2021 , BERK will present a draft HAP to the planning commission followed by a hearing and DRAFT February 2021 55 90 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices possible adoption by City Council. Key Engagement Findings This section describes the major themes, concerns and other ideas that were raised during the public engagement process. There is need for housing-related supportive programs. • Housing needs extend beyond housing production and include needs for housing-related support. These needs vary across groups such as older residents, residents with disabilities, people of color, people who don't speak English very well and farmworkers. Stakeholder Findings The TAC, CIC, and City Councilmembers contributed several ideas to improve availability of housing in Yakima, including: • The need for a proactive approach to address the shortage of housing. • The need for a mix of housing types as preferences and needs vary across the population. • The need for intergeneration housing as an important part of the housing model in Yakima. • The need to promote programs and organizations that can help first-time homebuyers. Many stakeholders referenced the need for programs that can help renters become homeowners in the neighborhoods in which they currently live. • The need to address impacts of institutional racism and income inequality, including geographic segregation by socioeconomics and race. • The need to incorporate anti-displacement policies and mixed-income communities so that new development does not displace current residents. • The need for more supportive transitional housing, including housing for recovery and comprehensive mental health supports. Specific strategies that were recommended include: • Tiny Homes that could help serve homeless population and small households. Tiny homes are small dwelling units on a foundation or on a carriage with wheels with between 150-400 square feet of habitable floor area. They are affordable compared with traditional site-built homes. They may be located on their own lot, serve as an accessory dwelling unit, or be located in a village arrangement in a manufactured home or RV park. • Addressing the repair of mobile home parks that are dilapidated. DRAFT February 2021 56 91 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices k Addressing opportunities for farmworker housing: COVID has resulted in loss of about 30% of Farmworker inventory. Farmworker wages have grown enough that many farmworkers can't qualify for low-income housing and can't afford market-rate housing. There is potential for seasonally based coordination of seasonal farmworker housing and winter sever-weather shelter for people experiencing homelessness. Community Survey Findings Housin! preferences: Respondents showed a preference for a diverse range of detached ownership units, illustrated in Exhibit 11 . Exhibit 11. Current and Desired Housing Types Survey question: "What type of housing do you currently live in?" (n = 265) SOS Turas r r sat irscr of ha using waui.d ron most :ea to :au in'" {chec r all :hat reprav, " f; Suigle-Fomdy Home ‘pc,r,mcr, Manufactrn ad ci Mobile Home Duplex or Triplex TownHouse cot 11% ADU Mother I-Law Una ckyard Cottage I do not currently have permanent housmg. N/A Oar Cr spleose sp:r.f),' I°% M current Housing Type a Desired Housing Type(s) Source: PERK, 2020 Housing Challenges: The survey asked respondents, "Have you faced challenges in finding safe and affordable housing that meets your needs? Please tell us your story." Of the 149 responses, the following themes were most common: ' Affordability ' Lack of availability r, Safety k Housing quality DRAFT February 2021 57 92 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Appendices The survey also asked respondents: "Are there any issues or challenges that impact quality of life in your neighborhood? Please share them here." The 138 respondents most frequently referenced the following concerns: • Crime • Gangs • Homelessness • Drugs • Safety • Affordability Community ends: Survey respondents most commonly identified more affordable ownership housing options as a housing option in greatest need in Yakima, as shown in Exhibit 12. Exhibit 12. Community Housing Needs: All Survey Responses Survey question: What kind of housing options do you think are in greatest need in your community? (check all that apply)" in = 275) More affordable ownership housing options. Affordable housing for seniors, More flexibility for single-family homeowners to build "accessory dwelling units"such as backyard cottages. Apartments and other smaller rental housing. Short-term housing for migrant workers. Larger homes for housing large or extended families. Other(please specify) 15% Source: PERK, 2020. Disaggregating by ethnicity as shown in Exhibit 13, Hispanic/o or Latinx/o residents show higher preference for ownership housing, short-term housing for migrant workers and larger homes. HAP strategies will need to address this preference to respond to diverse needs in the community. DRAFT February 2021 58 93 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices Exhibit 13. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by White and Hispanic/a or Latinx/o Race or Ethnicity 10093 90% 80% 730.1, 7036 60% 59 ii 45% I I 40% 17 1 340.1, Et% 5036 4036 30% I I 2036 10% 036 itys More a-Fordable Affordable housing for More flexibility for Apartments and other Short-term housing tor Larger homes"or housing ownership housing seniors, single-tom%homeowners %sates rental housing, migrant workers, large or extended options, to build"accessory dwelling units-such as backyard cottager. is Hispanic%or tatinx/o =101) •White(n=118) Source: 31"RK, 2020. As shown in Exhibit 14, respondents across the income spectrum said more affordable ownership options is a key need. Respondents with lower incomes and higher income households also identified affordable housing for seniors, and apartments and other rental housing, as key needs. Exhibit 14. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Income Bracket 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% ....... 50% ....... 40% 30% ....... E. ....... ....... 20% .L.Ltt ....... ....... ....... Ett. 10% --- „„„,liii ....... ON More affordable Affordable housing for More flexibility for Apartments and other Short-term housing for Larger homes for housing ownership housing seniors. single-Family smaller rental housing, migrant workers, large or extended options. homeowners to build "accessory dwelling units" such as backyard cottages. Less than$10,000(n=5) 0 S1O,000-$25,000(n=25) •$25,000-$50,000(n=43) 550,000-$75,000(n=28) II 575,000-$100,000(n=9) •$100,000+(n= 16) Source: BERK, 2020, DRAFT February 2021 59 94 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Appendices Exhibit 15 shows that respondents with a range of family sizes said more affordable ownership options is a key need. Respondents with larger household sizes referenced the need for larger units and flexibility for backyard cottages. Respondents with smaller household sizes referenced the need for affordable housing for seniors and for smaller rental housing. Exhibit 15. Community Housing Needs: Survey Responses by Household Size 00/ so,o per% 60`,,S More affordable ifAden d ehle n,osn fa dereflasnlelPy for A p ecmen,..and orear Seers-Tarns np for sesrgar h..as for noosing assrnen shynnousng senny,rs_ single-familspnallerrernsal hcing, nnymy 6 arken s lorano coded n optios essarnen sro build famili =. asnessarY dwelling om as backyard car/saes person no 32) 2 penple in=83) s people no 48) 4 people(n=40) •i Pc2P/e 18=36/ ®6 people(n=1 6) ®/people(n=_ :8 P62)313,18 .. her 1›[. DRAFT February 2021 60 95 City of Yakima Housing Action Pion Appendices Assessment II • * — DRAFT February 2021 61 96 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices D II Potential City-owned Catalyst Sites Exhibit 16 City-owned Sites , CITY OWNED PROPERTY ,„ , • _ ID**lino City Limin 1 QL1 PIA ' City Owned Properties Parcels Rivers/Woterbodles Oh 2O2O. . , yr-7 -.., ,.....r , ...., _ .".; ' i.— l•..,., r, 1114 &flUSWM&T)hth HT i , — >kw \,,, - 1 : i '... Wg'ttta . ,....----_,tt „,...•0,0"1,ad''"4- r-4 % 5rZ i 0 { t‘ .•a ''‘• . •• I h , , in-- -,--- i 174r.N. 7 Ix_ wan. iii, k)n, ) i ,_.;",L.— r .. i ;.±: ....... , ii- _ ;. . 1 ' ' 0 islmaranlalal thiW‘ --4 6 11 DRAFT February 2021 62 97 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices E // *ispl,cement Ftisk An.Iysis Displacement refers to instances when a household is forced or pressured to move from their home against their will. Direct, physical displacement occurs in cases of eviction, the termination of a tenant's lease, or public land claims through eminent domain. Physical displacement can also occur when a property owner decides to renovate units to appeal to higher-income tenants or when buildings are sold for redevelopment. Another cause might be the expiration of an affordability covenant and resulting conversion of the unit to market rate housing. Economic displacement occurs when a household relocates due to the financial pressure of rising housing costs. Renters are more vulnerable to economic displacement, particularly those who are low-income, although some homeowners can experience this as well with significant increases to property tax bills. Cultural displacement is the result of fractured social fabrics. When physical and/or economic displacement affects community businesses and a concentration of racial or ethnic minority households, other households who affiliate with the affected cultural group may begin to feel increased pressure or desire to relocate. This analysis evaluates displacement from two perspectives: 1 . Monitoring the count and rate of evictions paints a picture of the intensity of physical displacement in Yakima. Available datasets do not tell the entire story, as they only capture court-filed evictions and will not include residents who are priced out of units or who are asked to vacate a unit outside of the court system. Despite these limitations, data can highlight if evictions are common or at a high rate relative to county averages. 2 Understanding social factors that make a household more vulnerable to displacement is one way to understand areas of the city that could be hardest hit by residential displacement. Tools such as the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), assist with this effort. Proactive engagement with identified neighborhoods is an important step to avoiding or mitigating displacement that can result from policy changes and new development. Combining results of the eviction analysis and the vulnerability mapping tools, neighborhoods in the eastern part of the city are the highest priority for anti- displacement work in Yakima. These subareas contain economically and socially vulnerable households who may benefit from additional engagement and anti-displacement policy efforts. Evictions A count of evictions reveals that between 550 and 600 households face eviction every year in Yakima County. Eviction rates evaluate the number of evictions against the total number of renters within a given Census tract. Local reporting estimates that the city of Yakima ranks second in Washington state for highest eviction rate. See Exhibit 17. Residential eviction is very disruptive for the social fabric of a household and moving costs add to DRAFT February 2021 63 98 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices in the financial burden of a family struggling to afford rent. Eviction can result people living in poor housing conditions or even experiencing homelessness. The impacts of eviction can last for many years. It can affect a househo d's abi ity to rent other apartments, find jobs, or qualify for federal assistance. Exhibit 17, Eviction Rate, City of Yakima EVICTIONS I ,..,, Ej Yakima City Limits Eviction Rater 2016 \ ii A 2.011',10 -2.505/0 . . 1,44% -2.00% 1,438/0;Yakima City Overall . ...”. i" 1.01°A - I.43% " ' L t , i -,--; 0.51% - 1.000/0 ] t \-- —, , 1111 0.00% -0.50% . , \ Sovms,Ev Ow tca 2016,...,1,hed go.grui.tY). •4._ CL.717"111 Trott itaccat Comas Tract EES KIS WES 3,%action Rater,1.19% t r*IllaTtat Traci aa. 2, Vf"9 'OF .7 31111111111E v..,v.Sall„.,_alga Ce"4"cf 1253', SEMBEEF:..cl;P:7:::sii 0740., la, „ay.tozaziast.:E4,ictrrna11111111112 Comma 7r act ataaaatavarra*V.. cEnEttE10.° n a JaalaWategaiEig79%00200000000810 5,EVitt1015 :iii 60 WI T tp 5 f ry.--" ''.::1 4023 v lei°n 0000000000000000000000000000000010001000 R ate=I,23% 000Elialitiartar c 1444'02% • ' --„„„„„„ 0.itittc7,0f05% Canty;Tract tE000%.EA00 8.Eviction EKES cern,.%act " r • Conakry-1%o Rate41.36% Can.,'Tract WE% 15.01,eviltile •.01,Evitaan 0000000.00.00.0000%a 7,Eviction Vat Rate.%..87% Coneys Trot a30 r Rate-c0:a 0:00000%C°6'‘%.JrEES R atora I.30% VE00 101, Eviction konta0.0.04 WEWEWEIPEEYASEtPEIBEWEEEME aaaaaaaaan:000:0,14.7.00180,110% 0'4E1% Iaaah. 00:00% v.... tagt. t •r*E0ciallitto• i Centric Tract Corattcurzi ,..tz,Eviction CS. 15% ,Eviction WA Eviction ' Rate=1.53% liar Rate%% 0% Rato=0,4rEa fancy t'frac Census Tract Cansvairact lja E victian 12.02,Eviction T, 17.Wictinn Ra1o0-0T3E0 ftatoat.29% , Cana,Tract tant%.%37% I '.., 14,1vLiction ....sir Raivai.23% Census Inlet'. I &Mit= 0**,2, 13,Evictron. ritt0'0,0%)%1% 11111 Ra401.3I% , C. 1 r , ,... %...% , C, , ' 0 Qa------'st2 Sc,urces: Evicti%);;s Lob. 2020: BERK. 2020. DRAFT February 2021 64 99 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices Socia Vulnerability The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) maintains the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) as a tool developed to identify vulnerability to hazardous events nationwide. The index was developed to assist public health and emergency response experts to identify areas of extra concern in the event of a shock such as a natural disaster or chemical spill. Many of the included variables, however, relate to housing vulnerability as well: poverty rates, identifying minority communities, and housing issues like crowding. Not all factors captured are relevant to identifying displacement risk, but they help paint a picture of neighborhood demographics. Results identify areas many areas in Yakima with high vulnerability concerns. Over half (56%) of Census tracts have concentrated populations of lower socioeconomic status. Yakima city is also home to many POC and non-English speaking residents, who also disproportionately face displacement risk. The map in Exhibit 18 shows the areas of Yakima with higher concern for displacement risk. These neighborhoods in East Yakima and smaller neighborhoods to the north and west of the city should be of particular focus for outreach and anti-displacement policy implementation. DRAFT Februcry 2021 65 100 City of Yakima Housing Action Plan Appendices Exhibit 18. Social Vulnerability Index Ranking, City of Yakima SOCIAL VULNERABILITY INDEX Yakima City Limits SV1 Overall Ranking II .9 to 1.0 .8 to .9 .7 to .8 .6 to.7 _ .5 to .6 i .5 or Under Source: ,26i a,tti.ati‘,105.r6n Amoncon *".ow,u1.,t).Sxrvxy yoor eSIOCkk. t.Tre 53 770024 / (5VIA11=0:401 •". CS. talla541 maggar 68888853477eara 53077000400 All=0.30) itatag53.77**150attabx '"'"; MajWISDNO 530770 1602 tn. ow raricon 53077000SM f.SV1A0=0.47) 3.774)%a 53077000901 WO A11.0.53) 3.774a SVf MM.* $1077002801 53077001000 ..+1143ft) (510711.0.611 (SVI aCCEM62:a datt, ceitt,?;- 53i a Mai* VIED, , 0 isvi.- t=owv 5 .77,301702 (SVJ Watte2) 53077001100 ••11=0.9,1 (SVS Al1=0.65} *) 5,17. 001400 53077002002 sionooi a a •Ii=0,97) (WI All=0.61/ Wit A11.098) I-71, 0 171 1 2 Mies SOWLCS \i•JinClanik/ 1:V...k.`t 2020 2020 DRAFT February 2021 66