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06/12/2012 00 Information Packet J , F rilli r ti ' ° ....,, y` YAKIMA CITY COUNCIL INFORMATION PACKET June 12, 2012 Council Information Packet 1. Council General Information 2. The next Council Business meeting will be June 19, 2012 at 2 p.m. in the Council Chambers at City Hall. . ` g 4 r r ' l , ,1/4,..„,...........,.:// „,,,___;20.,„, BUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDA STATEMENT Item No. For. Meeting of: June 12, 2012 ITEM TITLE: Council General Information SUBMITTED BY: CONTACT PERSON /TELEPHONE: SUMMARY EXPLANATION: 1. 6/7/12 Weekly Issues Report 2. Yakima County Department of Corrections Historical Events 3. AWC State of the Cities 2012 Report 4. City Meeting Schedule for week of June 11 through 18, 2012 5. Preliminary Future Activities Calendar as of June 9, 2012 6. Preliminary Council Agenda 7. 6/6/12 Letter from Rosemarie Rathjen's children regarding the Senior Repair Assistance Program 8. Newspaper /Magazine /Internet Articles: * "Is the worst over ?," American City and County.com, May 2012 * "Soak Up or Pay Up," Governing, June 2012 * "Tunnel Vision," Governing, June 2012 * "The Doublespeak on Debt," Governing, June 2012 * "On- Street Parking," Governing, June 2012 Resolution Ordinance Other (specify) Contract: Mail to: Contract Term: Amount: Expiration Date: Insurance Required? No Funding Source: Phone: APPROVED FOR SUBMITTAL: C Manager MEMORANDUM June 7, 2012 TO: The Honorable Mayor and City Council Members FROM: Michael Morales, Interim City Manager SUBJECT: Weekly Issues Report • STUDY SESSION: There will not be a Council Study Session on June 12, 2012. • COUNCIL NOMINATING COMMITTEE: This Committee (Bristol, Adkison, and Ensey) will be meeting on Wednesday, June 13 at 10:00 a.m. in the Mayor's Office. • REFUSE CHANGES: On Monday, June 11, 2012, the Refuse Division will send letters to approximately 850 residential customers in the Englewood Annexation area, advising them that the City of Yakima will begin to provide garbage and yard waste collection to their area on July 10, 2012. The area, located between 63 Ave to 88 Ave, from Summitview Avenue to Scenic Drive, was annexed into the city limits effective July 10, 2005. Yakima Waste Systems, Inc. has been providing service to this area for the past seven years. Yakima Waste Systems, Inc. has been advised of the change in collection service. Cart delivery will begin June 27, 2012. • CITY APPLIES FOR GRANT FUNDS: The City applied for $5 million from the state Public Works Trust Fund to complete the Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard underpass. This application was submitted to provide cash flow and gap financing following the award of other grant funds to complete the project. We are also seeking $5.5 million from unobligated federal STP funds through the YVCOG. I will be attending the YVCOG/TAC meeting on Thursday, June 14 in Grandview to present. vArit Apt Department of Corrections Historical Events County Law & Justice Council County Commissioners Lewis, Palacios & recommends bed rentals as a Gamache adopt big Yakima County revenue source Correctional Center (YCCC) proposal Main downtown Minimum - security Restitution jail (MC) opens Center (RC) opens in Union Gap with 274 beds with 160 beds 1985 I 1992 I 1994 I 1999 I 2000 I Mar2001 I Mar2002 • MC annex opens Architect hired to with added 300 beds design new jail Study forecasting inmate growth recommends new jail with 1,100 beds Department of Corrections Historical Events County abandons Toppenish site. Yakama Nation questions Toppenish water rights. Yakima County sells County Commissioners Lewis, about $33.5 million in 20 year bonds Palacios & Gamache reject to finance jail and other projects. proposal to halt the jail project. Aug 2002 I Dec 2002 I Jan 2003 I Mar 2003 I May 2003 I Jan 2004 I Mar 2004 • • Yakima County buys Toppenish property for $513,000 YCCC construction begins Thirty -five King County Consortium Cities sign agreements to rent 440 County selects fairgrounds as YCCC site. Temporary Yakima County jail beds for seven years jail will be permanent part of a three building (2004 — 2010). Inmates begin arriving. complex. Added change order of $8,172,387 -'' Department of Corrections Historical Events Commissioner Leita forms 10 member YCCC opened task force to study future of jail project. & RC is closed Second 288 -bed housing unit YCCC opened abandoned for trial period. Jul 2004 I Nov 2004 I Feb 2005 I Apr 2005 I Nov 2005 I May 2006 I May 2007 A Administration building eliminated YCCC trial period from jail plan due to cost overruns. ends & facility remains closed Task force makes recommendations to County Commissioners. Department of Corrections Historical Events Commissioners Elliott, Leita & Bouchey hire Ed Campbell as director 2020 Master Plan identifies need for Bonds sold for safety & security safety & security upgrades at the MC upgrades at MC T Jun 2007 I Oct 2007 I May 2009 I Oct 2009 I Jan 2010 I Sep 2010 I Dec 2010 AL___ • City of Renton & Thirty -five King Yakima County County Consortium Lawsuits filed by City lawsuit settled Cities contracts of Renton & Yakima without harm Operational cost expire. Safety & County on contract reductions implemented. security design termination issue begins at MC Department of Corrections Historical Events DOC Director requests & YCCC closed. Commissioners Elliott, Leita & $9.8 million Bouchey approve MC safety & operational security upgrade project reductions implemented. • Jan 2011 I Jan 2012 I Feb 2012 I Apr 2012 At • Additional $1.4 million operational reductions implemented Commissioners consider Sales Tax initiative or County Road Levy shift. Department of Corrections P roblem : • Deficient Safety & Security Main Facility • P opula ti on Ma Shift • Gangs • Safety for Staff & Community y w who • s in jail Murder 34 Assault 1st & 2nd Degree 26 Assault with Weapon 26 Robbery 1st & 2nd Degree 29 Kidnapping 9 Sex Crimes 59 Eluding & Escape 3 Drug Charges 31 Non Violent Felonies & Misdemeanors 373 Total 590 _g_ S y. r lassification Challenges Registered Sex Offenders 1 999 -1 9 inmates 2011 - 59 inmates Serious Violent Offenders 1 999 - 24 inmates 2011 - 217 inmates Time to trial 1999 - months 2011 - 2 year minimum Gangs 1999 - a few inmates 2011 - Multiple tanks Intensive Management Inmates Medical Isolation Medical Injuries Developmentally Delayed Mentally Ill Intensive Management Gangs Gang Members • Up to 75% of our population is gang affiliated. 6 o% of the inmates on 4th lo- r are an active e P er of a gang. ,rte° . ____ _____ .,..._, ..._ - g Assa u its G ,. _ _ . _ ..,..„....,.. 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Gang Assaults Its Required Outside _ de utsi ...,_ Requ Medical Cost to Tax • .., payers• 2010 $1,604,615 ,.. -.10....... ________ _...........___ ________ _... _.,...,-....--- .____ tt s Esca V-:'; Pe ,,,,,, ....,_ ,,,,,,,,:,,,,,,, ,.. „,,._ e "'"atwrw 'c "$ , ,, ...„:„,..,„,::4,,,,.:,,,,,,„:,.,, ,,, N iiit . r III s 7 l r � k , ; ,�. r g -- , � �,. � °� ;:i.:.' � � � '. � e � �.� g `s' �^? , �'"s�'�,� 3 .-�. �` �..�.,. ��.:�ffia' � r r� .,. 5 .._ _ _ _ ',-,\,:;),?'' it,/.. : ., ' :4 1 - ,!: ': :;: : : -. 0, - F ' i 7.-,j,..--;IN°7- : ::-. '',,;•. -- Jr!Ai: - ',,,,, , '-: ,, - _ , , ,,,_, ..,, , ._____, D epartment of S olution : Jai J Project Cost Est Fire & Life Safety $ 992,000 Security System $ 1,734,000 Cell Hardening $ 2,747,000 Miscellaneous $ 213,000 Total Construction Cost $ 5,686,000 Design & Permit Fees $ 801,000 Total Project Cost $ 6,487,000 Debt Payments $515,900 per year M __ ____ __ _______ ____ ____ e ar men p of Co rrection s 1998 - 2012 40 00 • 0 00 3 25 20 15 10 5 0 19 9 S 19 99 20 00 •0 01 2OO, 20 2 °04 2 O O s 200 2 0 0 j 2 00 200 201 o I1 2012 Bed Rentals General Fund mint SIED Expenses Fund Balance st ,a` zs s 0. epartment oCorrections 2010 - 2012 Expenditure Reductions • Reduced Staff by 83 FTE's $5,392,716 •Cut Overtime by 38,000 hours $1,093,000 • Union Postponed 5% COLA $ 475,000 • Food Services Contract $ 500,000 • Medical Services Contract $ 600,000 • Mental Health Contract $ 340,000 Funding Solutions Special Purpose Sales Tax Vote OR Regular Property Road Tax Shift BOCC Funding Solutions Special P Sales Tax Vote •RCW 82.14.350 •Resolution 135 -2012 •A maximum of 10 years •Can not be diverted to other County uses •for each $100 purchase you will pay an additional 10 cents in sales tax te=a �ia1 � E M1 .2 k : "sa - - -- . ____________________„..„ F und i ng Regular Property Tax Road Shift B000 • Reduce P aveme nt Prese rvation i.e. Chip Seals and Overlays - $1,000 / yr • Reduce Gravel Road Stabilization i.e. Dust Abatement - $ 350 / yr • Reduce Herbicide Pr ogram - $ 150,000 / yr • Reduce Gravel Road Paving and Safety it and - $1,150,000 / yr *Administration Reductions - $ 150,000 / yr $2,800 / yr Frequently Asked uestions Why does Yakima County need a special purpose sales tax increase? The sales tax is necessary to make security improvements to the downtown jail facility (MC). In addition, despite our best efforts in cost reductions, Yakima County Department of Corrections is unable to offset the debt requirements for the Yakima County Correctional Center (YCCC), located at the Yakima County Fairgrounds and the Restitution Center (RC) located in Union Gap. The Restitution Center is currently being converted to house Yakima County administrative services. Frequently Asked Questions Why are you spending money on the downtown jail (MC) instead of the YCCC? The security improvements are being made to the MC because the current systems are 40 years old. However, the facility was reviewed in 2006 for structural integrity and will serve the community well for another 50 years. The MC was not originally designed for the current population of hardened inmates. The YCCC was principally designed for light inmates. Structurally, the YCCC is not economically feasible to convert to a hardened facility. More importantly, a commitment was made to the community not to house hardened inmates at the YCCC fairgrounds site. Frequently Asked Questions Why is the YCCC empty? The facility was primarily built for the King County Consortium Cities as a rental facility. The rental agreement expired in 2010 and the facility has remained empty. Prior to that agreements' expiration, numerous cities and counties were building additional jail bed rental facilities. The county has sought other renters throughout the state to fill the YCCC, but those attempts have been unsuccessful thus far. Yakima County continues to seek lease or rental opportunities. Currently there is an excess of 3,000 empty correctional beds in county facilities across the state. «- ; `e i "fie- tir, "s'£` - "��.,' -f-" - "w°' _ ;c1 �,�.'�" * —I . vq. • '`,«u .,- - z, fi ¢ .Z. -1 - . Frequently Asked Questions Why are you not selling the Restitution Center? There were two previous attempts to sell the RC. Neither attempt was successful in soliciting a bid. Therefore, the RC is being converted to a county administrative services building with designated tenants. Frequently Asked Questions What happens if the sales tax is not approved by the voters? The Board of Yakima County Commissioners (BOCC) has two options to make up for the current funding shortfall: Option one is to ask the voters for a 1/10 of 1% sales tax increase, which will sunset at the end of 2022. Option two will be necessary if option one is not approved by the voters in the August 7th Primary. The BOCC will be required to implement a property tax road levy shift, which will defer significant road construction and maintenance up to ten years. F Frequently Asked uestions How much is the option one special purpose sales tax? The requested sales tax, as allowed by RCW 82.14.350, will be 1 /10th of 1% (for each $100 purchase you will pay an additional 10 cents in sales tax). These sales tax dollars cannot be diverted to other County uses. Frequently Asked Questions Is the tax permanent? Voters are asked to approve the special purpose sales tax for a maximum of ten years. However, in the event that either excess tax is collected or adequate use of the YCCC is identified, the BOCC will either suspend or terminate the sales tax accordingly. Frequently Asked uestions Why shouldn't the General Fund be paying for the security upgrades instead of an additional special purpose sales tax? The County General Fund is currently pay out over $11 million annually for our local DOC responsibilities. Further General Fund contributions would cause an unacceptable reduction in county services. K ._ -_ t --"�` x a , Questions? Contact the Commissioners with your questions or concerns: Email: commissioners .web @co.yakima.wa.us Phone: 509- 574 -1500 ate ASSOCIATION OF WASHINGTON C iiiES ofthe . ;'a..z.. it 4 I �' a t 1;a. ,.: .,.. 2012 Report An interim report on criminal justice y S; er 9 n 'VS�w'rea � � speeding public safety vehicle prowl ball • auto th defen s e ordinan . fetony Dubt ic dui • drugs ce iCommunity service diversion • vandalism • • enforcement law burglary C • fraud • sho hft�n � graffiti p g • prevention • • sentencing g protection f1 neS assault infraction • gangs restitution rosecu ion robbery interventior arraignment m i sd emeanor alcohol domestic violence identity theft ASSOCIATION OF WASHINGTON — C I 11ES o f tV " • 2012 Report An interim report on criminal justice State of the Cities Report 2012 Copyright © 2012 by Association of Washington Cities, Inc. All rights reserved. The mission of the Association of Washington Cities is to serve our member cities and towns through advocacy, education and services. Association of Washington Cities, Inc. 1076 Franklin St. SE Olympia, WA 98501 (360) 753-4137 awcnet.org 2012 State of the Cities 1 Our shared challenge Our residents' safety is one of our highest priorities, so Moving forward, we are all faced with the same it's no surprise that last fall's State of the Cities survey daunting challenge: preventing crime, protecting public on criminal justice drew such thorough and heartfelt safety and ensuring justice in the face of declining responses. One hundred -fifty cities participated in the revenues and rising costs. Cities cannot meet this survey, from some of our smallest to our largest cities, challenge alone. To succeed, we need to strengthen and from all corners of the state. While circumstances our long - standing partnership with the state. We and situations varied from city to city, a common must continue to advocate for greater control over message heard throughout was how essential the how we meet our local needs and more flexibility in criminal justice system is to our communities' long- how we raise and spend revenue. Working together term health and stability. in partnership, we can push towards a new era of sustainable and shared prosperity. This State of the Cities interim report on the municipal criminal justice system is a snapshot in time. As our I'd like to extend a special thank you to the cities and funding relationships with other cities, counties and the towns that participated in the survey and the many state continue evolving, we don't know exactly what AWC staff who worked on this research report. recovery from this Great Recession is going to look like. We do know that for some cities, the new normal Nancy McLaughlin has meant making the cuts of last resort — eliminating President, AWC Board of Directors police positions. Councilmember, Spokane State of the Cities research and methodology AWC releases a comprehensive For the complete AWC State of the All of Washington's 281 cities e of the Cities report every Cities research, go to awcnet.org. p y , . and towns are different, with g g four years at the beginning of unique challenges and strengths. each gubernatorial term. Interim This interim report focuses on the Therefore, the resources required reports, presenting an in -depth criminal justice system. In August to protect public safety vary look at a specific topic, are 2011, city managers, administrators widely from one community to released annually between full and city clerks were asked to another. Survey results are based reports. participate in a survey about on municipal officials' expert police, municipal court, public judgment about whether and to The State of the Cities publications defense, prosecution and jail what degree their communities' are an ongoing research project services in their communities. One needs are being met. designed to reflect the fiscal hundred -fifty cities representing 66 condition of cities in Washington percent of the state's incorporated as well as overall service delivery population participated in the trends and challenges. In this survey. report, the word "cities" refers to all 281 cities and towns in Washington. 2 2012 State of the Cities Cities rovidin quality services P g in challenging times g g Local economic conditions vary widely throughout the state, but most of Washington's 281 cities face the same basic problem: economists forecast continuing sluggish economic growth and the prospect of more cuts to municipal budgets in the years ahead. Yet cities are still charged with the same basic responsibilities to ensure the public's safety, provide a sound infrastructure system, and enhance the community with quality -of -life opportunities such as libraries, parks and recreation activities. City criminal justice services are intended to make cities safer places to live, work and play by upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws It's a challenge simply to maintain with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. Cities have risen to the challenge and continue to provide high- quality police, court, prosecution existing criminal justice services, public defense and jail services. However challenges persist. let alone increase services to keep pace with a growing community. Continued slow growth in the national economy and ever deeper state budget cuts create major challenges for many cities. These challenges are Derek Matheson, City Manager, Covington compounded by stagnation or decline in local tax revenues and rising costs. Declining city revenues make it much harder to cope with these challenges: • Employee wages and health benefits, including LEOFF 1 medical obligations. • New technologies such as geographic positioning software for law enforcement. • Jail and offender health care costs. • Training personnel — particularly law enforcement — so skills and staffing levels are met. • Increased cost of contracts with counties and other entities that provide criminal justice services to cities. • Growing liability costs. One of the greatest challenges is simply having to do more with less. While the population of Washington's cities and towns increased by 4.8 percent from 2009 to 2011, the AWC Salary Surveys reveal that cities reduced the number of full -time employees by 5.7 percent over that same period. 2012 State of the Cities 3 Although cuts to law enforcement positions are typically made only as a last resort, salary survey data reveals there are 2 percent fewer city police officer and detective positions statewide. The AWC survey also reveals growing worry about the impact of both past and future cuts on criminal justice services. These cuts put public safety at risk, and compromise the ability to provide just, speedy and sensible responses to crime. Percent of Washington cities making cuts to public safety 2010 cuts 2011 cuts 2012 cuts 20/ 27/ Edgewood was forced to cut our 3 4 /0 police department staff by 3 Many cities are struggling to deal with the recession and its lingering positions in 2010, due to a drop in effects and the particular strain it places on their criminal justice systems. sales tax revenue, a drop in new Cities highlight the following: development, and failure of a local • 20 percent of cities report that their law enforcement department stopped responding to certain categories of calls because of lack of utility tax on the ballot. As a result, resources. we now have less than 24 hour • 87 percent of cities report that law enforcement is the area most in police coverage. need of additional resources. Jeff Hogan, Mayor, Edgewood • 25 percent of cities say they are declining to prosecute some cases because they don't have enough resources. Anecdotally, cities register concern that the state's early release of prisoners coupled with cuts to state and federal safety -net programs might result in greater numbers of potential re- offenders targeting a growing population of newly vulnerable residents. Compounding the local problems, cities report they are experiencing greater service delivery responsibilities because of cuts made at other levels of government. • 86 percent of Washington cities report that state budget cuts have reduced their criminal justice system capacity. 4 2012 State of the Cities Municipal Criminal Justice by the Numbers Introduction Demographics Washington's 281 cities are made safer places to live, From 2009 to 2011, the number of full -time city work and play thanks to the police, court, prosecution, employees fell by 5 .7% while the population of public defense and jail services delivered by municipal Washington's cities grew by 4.8 %. And, although staff. Cities are likely to find providing these vital cutting law enforcement positions is typically only services will be increasingly challenging as economists done as a last resort, the number of police officers and forecast sluggish economic growth and the prospect of detectives decreased by 2% over that period. more cuts to municipal budgets in the years ahead. Service cuts & cost increases Cities report: 57% 1 7 73% 1 1 5 87% say municipal cities don't report costs eliminated police depts. report law court costs prosecute of providing special law stopped enforcement responding to increased some cases jail services enforcement certain types of most in need over last — not enough increased over units /programs calls because of additional three years. resources. last three in last three of lack of resources. years. ears. resources. Funding Revenue sources shrinking Nationwide, local governments (cities and counties) In 2010, fines for civil penalties accounted for about account for more than 50% of criminal justice $93 million. That equals approximately 7% of spending — as much as state and federal expenditures cities' total criminal justice expenditures. Of that fine combined. (Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics) revenue, just 36% goes back to the city, 36% goes to the state general fund, and 28% goes to dedicated In 2010, general property tax revenues programs. generated $1.2 billion for Washington cities. By comparison, cities spent $1.3 billion on For the 2011 -2013 biennium, cities are required to criminal justice services, including costs for judges, pay 25% of the training costs for the Basic Law public defenders, prosecutors, jails and police Enforcement Academy plus the cost of the training functions. 78% of that was for law enforcement. ammunition. Under consideration in 2012 is a proposal (Source: Washington State Auditor's Office) that cities pay 100% of the training cost permanently. 86% of Washington cities report state budget cuts have reduced their criminal justice capacity. Except where noted otherwise, all data is from AWC's State of the Cities, Fiscal Update and Salary Surveys. For survey results and more information, visit our website: www. awcnet. org /ProgramsServices /Research.aspx 2012 State of the Cities 5 The national dilemma ,k City fiscal challenges are not unique to cities in Washington State. The 2011 National League of Cities' survey of city fiscal conditions found 60 percent We contract with the county of cities nationwide cited decreases in state aid as having a particularly sheriff's department for law negative impact on their overall fiscal picture, and 72 percent reported making personnel cuts in response to budget shortfalls. enforcement. Severe cuts to the county budget may mean loss of A recent U.S. Department of Justice Community - Oriented Policing study deputies in the department, thus predicted a grim impact on municipal public safety services nationwide in 2011: reduced patrol presence and less Nearly 12,000 police officers and sheriffs' deputies laid off. • ability to quickly respond to our • Approximately 30,000 law enforcement jobs unfilled. outlying area. • The first national decline in law enforcement officer positions in at Tara Leininger, Mayor, Meta(ine Falls least the last 25 years. Similar to its effect on Washington cities, the economic climate has affected the delivery of law enforcement services in cities nationwide. Some agencies have stopped responding to motor vehicle thefts, burglar alarms and non - injury motor vehicle accidents. Agencies also reported decreases in investigations of property crimes, fugitive tracking, a variety of white - collar crimes and even low -level narcotics cases. Many agencies greatly reduced training for their officers and cut investments in technology and communications systems. Recent federal stimulus spending kept some police officers on the job, but the end of the stimulus program will leave cities that relied on this funding unsupported. 6 2012 State of the Cities Crime and its costs According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, local governments (cities and counties) account for more than half of all criminal justice spending nationwide — as much as state and federal expenditures combined. Nationally, more than 50% of criminal justice spending is by local governments $120 II Local (cities and counties) $100 a State Federal $80 o $60 m ` $40 $20 x 3 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02 '04 '06 Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics In 2010, Washington cities spent $1.3 billion on criminal justice services, including costs for court, public defender, prosecutor, jail and police functions. Of this, the largest expenditure is for law enforcement, comprising 78 percent of city law and justice spending. Washington cities spending on criminal justice Law enforcement 78% Note: Other criminal justice services include detention 8 correction, judicial, juvenile services, legal (excluding civil) and other services. Source: Washington State Auditor's Office 2012 State of the Cities 7 When asked to rank their criminal justice concerns, 3 in 4 cities identify Camas police were at one time property crime as a top concern. Drug- related crime, domestic violence authorized by the council to a and speeding also are cited as top concerns. strength of 28 officers. That has Cities' top criminal justice concerns never been achieved. Cuts have been necessary to stay within the Property crime 73% city's general fund capacity as the Drug- related crime 59% economy slowed. Cuts have also been made to code enforcement Speeding 42% and community /crime prevention Domestic violence 41% programs. 11111111111111111111 Mitch Lackey, Chief of Police, Camas 1110ther 6% Note: Some cities selected more than one type of crime as a "top concern." To hold down costs, many cities and counties institute programs to hold offenders accountable without incarceration: community service, electronic monitoring, and specialty courts for people who are mentally ill or in recovery from addiction. However, even these programs are suffering from budget cuts, and some have been eliminated. 8 2012 State of the Cities How the local criminal justice system works m+s•a+� a3t,"Y' ..�,'4�;''," nk< �.: %� iaS� "�awa'�.:i k:k°s Cities vary widely in how they provide criminal justice services. Among cities that participated in the survey: A 2011 survey of the • 69 percent provide their own police. International Association of Chiefs of Police found that • 35 percent operate their own court. 77 percent of its members • 23 percent provide their own public defender. were providing some form of support for other • 40 percent provide their own prosecutor. agencies. • 7 percent provide their own jail. Most cities that do not provide their own police, jail, or court, contract with their county. Cities that do not provide their own prosecutor and/ or public defender report that they either contract with the county, with another city or with a private contractor. The criminal justice system is just that, a system. Each component — police, courts, prosecution, public defense and jails — must operate in sync with the others. City prosecutors cannot bring cases against offenders if there aren't police officers to make arrests. And courts are only relevant if there is adequate funding to carry out the sentence if a criminal is proven guilty. Cities, counties and the state are important partners in the criminal justice system. City police officers on the front lines come in contact with all types of crime, from property crime to homicide. County sheriffs and state patrol also enforce laws within their jurisdictions. For the local criminal justice system to be effective, all three partners need to fulfill their roles. Once a criminal is taken into custody, the nature of the crime dictates where the case is referred. Depending on the jurisdiction and severity of the crime, a criminal may be fined and /or sentenced to city jail, county jail or state prison. More about municipal courts is discussed on page 16 and city jails on page 19. 2012 State of the Cities 9 A typical trip through a municipal criminal justice system Crime observed and /or reported by /to police o MVP a 41 i t To juvenile system if person is under 18, Citation /arrest by police 1 unless 16 or 17 year -old commits a serious crime. Charges filed by prosecutor If felony, to superior court. If misdemeanor, to munici- Bail and arraignment pal or district court. Plea negotiations Trial If found "not guilty," discharge. At these steps, the city is represented by a Plea negotiation accepted Found guilty prosecutor /city attorney and the ' , vp defendant is represented by a defense Sentencing hearing attorney or a Sentences may include combinations of the following: public defender. Incarceration: Sentencing alternatives: Other: Prison for sentences over 1 year. Community service, work Fine, deferral. release, drug /alcohol Jail for all others. treatment, probation Discharge 10 2012 State of the Cities Funding the local criminal justice system ....,...:„.. ,,, .,,,, are, �•. ,.... , Nearly all funding for criminal justice services comes from the city general fund. In 2010, the state -wide cost of providing city law and justice services Renton eliminated a deputy fire was $1.3 bill By comparison, general property tax revenues only chie six poli officers, and nine generated $1.2 billion for cities. firefighter positions as part of Cities generate some revenue from civil penalties such as traffic or parking budget reductions over the past infractions, and from criminal misdemeanor fines such as driving under three years. We were able to retain the influence. In 2010, these fines accounted for about $93 million, or 7 the officer positions using a federal percent of total criminal justice expenditures. Community Oriented Policing The following show how revenue from a $124 ticket is distributed: (COPS) grant, but those funds State general fund expire in 2012. Without stronger city /county;ssu;ng ticket $44.78 revenue growth in the near future, $44 the city's ability to sustain these :::t:::5::: :::°' , '41;11.4 i_116/4X- ,.."x-7,:l , , ' ‘::41"ei ,„; ,,,. ;‘ ,04, . Crime victims '• , / � : ' city /county $0.79 Traumatic brain injury Emergency a trauma $2 $ Auto theft prevention Judicial information system $10 $17 Note: Of the total, 36 percent goes back to the city, 36 percent to the state general fund and 28 percent to dedicated programs. 2012 State of the Cities 11 Cities that allow Other revenue sources gambling may impose a tax. Revenues are first Washington cities receive some distributions of revenue and direct grants restricted to gambling law from the state and federal governments to fund local criminal justice enforcement. Additional related programs and services. Cities with high or violent crime receive funds can be used for additional revenue distributions general government purposes. For decades, a share of the state liquor taxes and profits has gone to cities in recognition that the majority of liquor is purchased and consumed in cities and as a consequence cities are disproportionately burdened with the costs of alcohol - related issues such as DUIs. In April 2012, the Washington State Legislature took action to divert and cap this traditional funding source for cities, jeopardizing the long -term health of local criminal justice systems. Cities also have the ability Limited tools are available for cities to generate additional revenues — with voter approval — to restricted for local criminal justice services, including two optional impose a property tax levy county -wide sales taxes: the 0.1 percent criminal justice sales tax and lid lift. the 0.3 percent public safety sales tax. Because of the poor economy, sales tax revenues throughout the state have fallen, going from $244 per capita in 2007 to $185 per capita in 2010. (Source: State Auditor's Office) Consequently, revenue from these optional sales taxes has declined. Cities can compete for U.S. Department of Justice Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) grants to help fund police officers, but these grants only cover the officer's salary for three years, after which the grantee must commit to funding the new officer's salary themselves for at least twelve months. Declining revenues have made such a commitment increasingly difficult to make, so some cities are opting to turn down COPS grant awards. Select optional countywide sales tax: Voter Currently Tax Purpose Authorized limit Distribution approved? imposed by Criminal No Criminal justice 0.1 percent 10 percent to county and 266 cities justice programs remaining 90 percent to 32 counties county and cities on per capita basis. Public Yes At least 1/3 0.1 percent if 15 percent to county and 42 cities safety of taxes for city imposes remaining 85 percent to criminal justice the city. programs 0.3 percent if 60 percent to county and 5 counties county imposes 40 percent to all cities in the county on a per capita basis. 12 2012 State of the Cities Pol ,„,,„, Police are the front lines of the criminal justice system. They face daily danger in their jobs, so it is imperative that they are well trained and City of Snohomish to supported. The public expects a high level of professionalism, reasonable contract with county response times, and fairness and objectivity in the enforcement of the law. sheriff for police services Every city has its own challenges and strengths, and consequently, each city has a unique approach to law enforcement. To meet different community Between 2000 and 2010, needs and combat crime in their communities, some cities report they the cost for local police in implement special law enforcement units focused on drugs, narcotics and Snohomish grew from $2.3 gang enforcement, among other programs. million to $3.8 million. To reduce and control costs, Budget impacts on law enforcement the Snohomish city council took a 4 -3 vote to approve a five -year contract with the Within the criminal justice system, the economic downturn hit law Snohomish County Sheriff for enforcement hard. police services. This was a difficult decision. • 20 percent of cities report their law enforcement department does not respond to a category of calls because of a lack of resources or For many people, the town's workload volume. police force was a significant • 73 percent of cities report they eliminated special law enforcement part of its civic identity. To units or programs in the last three years. mitigate this sense of loss, the new agreement stipulates that • 46 percent of cities responding to AWC's 2011 fiscal conditions survey most city officers will keep report their law enforcement budget decreased in the past three years their jobs and their uniforms, because of the economic downturn. with the addition of a sheriff's department patch. Labor cost impacts on law enforcement The number of officers and detectives serving the city The criminal justice system is a community service and relies heavily remains the same, and the on personnel to make it function. During a time of stagnant revenues, city will interview police chief increasing health care costs, pension costs and contractual salary candidates and recommend obligations, paying for increasing personnel costs is especially challenging. candidates to the county sheriff. 2012 State of the Cities 13 Collectively, fewer people are working at city hall, including people Community Oriented in criminal justice roles. Between 2009 and 2011, full -time employees Policing Services (COPS) decreased 5.7 percent. Some cities trimmed budgets by outsourcing offers grants to help law services to other cities, counties or to private providers. Other cities enforcement agencies decreased personnel by not filling vacant positions or laying off employees. hire more community policing officers, acquire Cities using personnel strategies to contain criminal justice costs new technologies and equipment, hire civilians for administrative tasks 4 1r, �I and promote innovative 7 46% 39% approaches to solving crime. Travel Hiring freeze Increased Elimination of restrictions employee salary increases and /or reduced contributions for training employee /family health care Pension and health care costs As health care costs increase across the country, cities are struggling to keep up. As one of our nation's largest employers, cities and towns have huge health care obligations. The National League of Cities reported in July 2009 that 86 percent of cities and towns nationwide provided health care benefits to their employees, retirees and families, at a cost of $87 billion The Law Enforcement per year. Officers and Fire Fighters ( LEOFF) Retirement Nationally and in Washington State the cost of health care has increased System is a defined benefit substantially in recent years, bringing double -digit increases annually. Many retirement plan for these cities have offset increases in health care costs by decreasing benefits or employees. LEOFF Plan 1 is raising the costs to employees. In fall of 2011, 63 percent of cities reported for employees who became that they either had reduced or planned to reduce spending on employee members before October benefits such as health care. Sixty percent of cities noted they either 1, 1977. LEOFF Plan 2 is imposed or were planning to impose an increase of employee contributions for employees who first for employee and family health care. became members on or The cost of employee retirement plans is also a growing concern for cities. after October 1, 1977, , In Washington State, law enforcement employees are generally covered by one of the following retirement plans: • Public Safety Employees' Retirement System (PSERS). • Law Enforcement Officers and Fire Fighters (LEOFF). • Public Employees Retirement Systems (PERS). LEOFF 2 employer contribution rates (for those hired after 1977) are expected to remain at 8.46 percent for the next five years, but cities are facing less predictable costs for covering their LEOFF 1 members (those hired before 1977). 14 2012 State of the Cities Cities are required to cover the lifetime medical and long- term -care costs of their LEOFF 1 members and retirees. Cities typically spend more on medical costs for retired LEOFF 1 members than they do for active duty officers. Trends indicate that an ever - increasing percentage of people will need long- term -care services, and this translates into an increasing burden on cities with LEOFF 1 reitrees. Training Since the 1970s, the Washington State Criminal Justice Training Commission has provided standardized, mandatory training for law enforcement agencies statewide through the Basic Law Enforcement Academy (BLEA). The state and local governments agreed that the mandated training would be funded through an added percentage to every traffic ticket written by local law enforcement. The dedicated revenue would be deposited in a The Basic Law Enforcement special account — the Public Safety and Education Account (PSEA) — to pay Academy (BLEA) provides for BLEA and other public safety costs. requi basic training for law enforcement recruits In 2009, the state eliminated the PSEA account and began depositing the starting within six months dedicated traffic ticket revenue into the general fund. Cities and counties of their date of hire. continue to send the state more than $100 million in traffic ticket and court revenue each year, and it costs less than $4 million dollars per year to provide mandated training (BLEA and other courses) to local law enforcement. In 2011, academy costs were deferred back to local governments, with a requirement that cities pay 25 percent of the training costs, plus 100 percent of the training ammunition cost for the 2011 -13 biennium. There were proposals in 2012 that cities pay up to 100 percent of the training cost permanently. This proposed shift to cities could disproportionately impact smaller jurisdictions. Small city officials indicate they feel their cities serve as a training ground for larger cities when officers leave for higher paying jobs with larger jurisdictions. 2012 State of the Cities 15 Co u rts ft.,..Fa yr. `x&5� jfi b+x'_�rY rY1 &Ire Municipal courts represent the judicial branch of local government, The diversity of our community separate and independent from the legislative branch (embodied by the places challenges throughout city council) and the executive branch (embodied by the mayor or city Kent's criminal justice system. We administrator /manager.) Under rules set by the state supreme court, the try to hire staff representative judge has broad authority over court operations while the legislative body retains budgetary authority. of the population; train our staff in cultural competency; and Cities provide courts in a variety of ways provide adequate interpreters and translators in order to meet those challenges. According to the State's Office of the Administrator of the Courts, seven out of eight cases filed in all of the state's courts are filed at the municipal Ken Thomas, Police Chief, Kent or district court level (not including parking infractions.) Over two million cases are filed annually in district and municipal courts. More than 130 cities provide court services, either as individual municipal courts or together with neighboring cities in a community court model. Approximately 46 of those cities operate their courts for 10 hours or less each week. For cities with such limited court hours, it proves more cost - effective to appoint part -time judges rather than pay the cost of electing Under state law, judges full -time judges. who work fewer than 35 hours per week need not Cities identify cost effectiveness, convenience and the opportunity to ,be elected provide a community service as reasons for operating their own court. Some cities with municipal courts operate them as a community court with one or more neighboring cities through interlocal agreements. Thirty -eight cities participate in community courts, 15 of them as the community court host. 16 2012 State of the Cities Cities provide court services in variety of ways Kirkland's "community Municipal courts Operated by one city to serve its own court needs. court" Community Hosted by one city to serve its own court needs courts as well as those of one or more neighboring cities In an effort to achieve more through interlocal agreements. predictable court costs and District courts County courts with jurisdiction over both criminal and improve convenience for civil cases. District courts may serve an entire county citizens and staff, Kirkland or a portion of a county. Many cities contract with broke away from King district courts to provide services within city limits. County's district court system Municipal Operate as part of a district court. Cities generally in 1995 to establish its own departments provide facilities and staff while paying the county for municipal court and probation services of a district court judge. department. Traffic violations Operate under supervision of the municipal or district City officials report that bureaus court serving the city. A TVB expedites the handling of operating their own municipal traffic cases not requiring any judicial involvement or court has been a good move, potential incarceration. reducing costs and travel time Like law enforcement, courts are personnel- intensive services with the for citizens and police officers bulk of resources expended on salaries, benefits and training. The courts' who appear in court. work is also complicated by Washington's growing cultural and linguistic Today, Kirkland's municipal diversity. Asked about the effects of increasing diversity, cities report court also serves the impacts throughout their local criminal justice system, including the neighboring cities of Clyde need to provide cultural competency training as well as interpreters and Hill, Medina, Hunts Point and translators. Yarrow Point. As needs have grown, so have costs, leading some cities to explore alternative ways of providing court services in an effort to contain costs: • 57 percent of cities report their municipal court costs increased over the last three years. • 20 percent of cities reports they are considering changing their municipal court provider. 2012 State of the Cities 17 Prosecution a nd public defense In the U.S., an accused person is entitled to a government -paid defense Like many municipalities, attorney if he or she is in jeopardy of losing his or her life and /or liberty. Vancouver is seeing an increasing Those who cannot afford a private attorney must be provided a public gap between revenue and defender by the jurisdiction. The government's case against the accused person is prepared and managed by a city prosecutoror city attorney. Both expenses. Since 2008, the city prosecution and public defense are personnel - intensive services requiring has laid off 20 percent of our attorneys and other highly trained staff. workforce, including positions in • 20 percent of cities say the staffing level of prosecution services is less police, fire and parks. than adequate to meet their community's needs. • 25 percent of cities say they are declining to prosecute some cases Eric Holmes, City Manager, Vancouver because they do not have enough resources. While Washington's state constitution requires public support for indigent defense in criminal matters, state government funds only a small fraction of these costs. The 2010 status report on public defense in Washington found that the state is funding just 5 percent of public defense costs with cities and counties funding the remainder. (Source: Office of Public Defense) Court rules over which cities have no control are also a growing burden for cities. For example, the Washington Supreme Court is currently considering adopting Standards for Indigent Defense Services, which set caseload limits on public defenders. Under the proposal, a public defense attorney could handle no more than 400 cases per year (300 cases per year for cities that employ a case weighting system). Local legislative bodies and mayors have long exercised their authority to determine what is appropriate for their cities. These caseload standards being considered by the Supreme Court may do little to improve the quality of indigent defense services yet increase the services' costs when municipal resources are already stretched to the limit. 18 2012 State of the Cities Jails Adult misdemeanants and felony offenders awaiting trial are held in jails run by city or county governments. Generally speaking, people are held in Cuts to state mental health services jails for sentences of up to one year; offenders with sentences of longer now often mean those that are than one year are sent to state prisons. in need of mental health care According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, in 2010, 6 in 10 inmates of are more likely to encounter law city and county jails nationwide were unconvicted offenders awaiting court enforcement which may result in action on a current charge. Four in 10 inmates had been convicted and being taken to jail for criminal were either awaiting sentencing, serving a sentence in jail, or awaiting conduct. Triage centers provide transfer to serve time in state or federal prison. some welcome relief for non - Twenty Washington cities and 37 counties operate jails. While few cities criminal contacts but the increased have their own jails, all must arrange to incarcerate offenders sentenced burden on the jail systems is very to jail and pay associated costs. Seventy percent of cities say the costs of providing jail services for their community increased over the last costly for cities and counties. three years. The costs of jail beds, as well as offender transport fees and Nelson Beazley, Police Chief, Arlington medical services, are a significant concern for city officials. These costs are unpredictable because at any time an arrestee may have an expensive medical condition. Many crimes can be charged as either a felony or misdemeanor, depending on the severity of the crime and the prosecutor's inclination. We've already experienced some General classifications of crime medical bills on one inmate's Misdemeanors Crimes punishable by a maximum of 90 days in jail and prescriptions alone that required a a $1000 fine. Misdemeanors also can be resolved with budget amendment and cutbacks. probation, community service or treatment programs. Gross Serious misdemeanors punishable by up to 364 days in A more major illness (or surgery) misdemeanors jail and a $5000 fine. would, without a doubt, cause Felonies More serious crimes punishable by incarceration for a severe financial hardships on our year or more. Examples include rape, murder, robbery, city. burglary and arson. Infractions Violations of state or municipal civil law. Conduct Kathy M. Jones, Clerk- Treasurer, Oroville punished only by a fine is typically not a crime at all, but rather an infraction (such as a traffic violation). 2012 State of the Cities 19 Some cities that contract with another jurisdiction for jail services are Wapato contracting out exploring other options to gain some control over these unpredictable and jail service to several rising costs, including contracting with a different jurisdiction or providing other cities their own jail service. In 2000, Wapato expanded the 79 percent of cities report the costs of providing jail services increased capacity of its jail and began over the last three years. 20 percent of cities say the costs are much contracting with several other higher. cities to house some of their inmates at a rate of $50 per 79% person per day. Cities that send inmates to Wapato include: Battle 20% says Ground, Elma, Fife, Granger, costs are much La Center, Lakewood, Moxee, higher Ridgefield, Sedro - Woolley, Selah, Union Gap, Yakima, Zillah, and Yakima County. The Wapato jail cannot 20 percent of cities report the total number of jail beds available to accommodate inmates with them is not adequate to meet their need serious medical or mental health needs, and given the distance some are located 20" from Wapato, contracting cities tend to send inmates with longer sentences to minimize transport costs. The lower daily rate in this small jail means that this is a cost - effective service to other cities, and a way for Wapato to achieve some economies of scale in its jail operation. 33 percent of cities report they either changed or are considering changing their jail service provider. 33% r oi 20 2012 State of the Cities Traveling the road to recovery together With 86 percent of cities reporting that state budget cuts reduced their criminal justice system capacity, this State of the Cities survey indicates Fewer social /human services the magnitude of the challenges facing us. When asked in fall 2011 which offered by the state, particularly state actions would most help them meet municipal criminal justice budget changes in mental health services, needs, a majority of cities identified the following: transfers costs to the local criminal • Increase or — at the very least — refrain from cutting state funding to maintain basic services. justice system. • Resist imposing additional requirements without funding. Todd Ramsay, Police Chief, Bellingham • Grant cities greater control over fine revenue from infractions. Contrary to this hoped -for outcome, the Washington State Legislature took action in April 2012 to: • Permanently reduce liquor revenue distributions to cities, cutting into funds that support local public safety services and help cities meet state mandates; and • Dedicate future growth in liquor accounts to state programs — thus capping any growth in these accounts for cities and jeopardizing the long -term health of local criminal justice systems. What cities need from state government The state has traditionally been, and should continue to be a partner in local government efforts to provide safe communities. In order to continue providing services that are vital to health, safety and economic activity, cities need the following from the state: Increased fiscal flexibility • Provide local governments more flexibility in how they spend locally raised revenues and the ability to explore additional local revenue options, such as court fines and fees for funding local criminal justice programs. • Maintain local flexibility in providing court services including the ability to partner with other jurisdictions and appoint part -time judicial officers. 2012 State of the Cities 21 • Grant cities greater control over fine revenue from traffic infractions We experience trickle -down effects currently cities retain only 36 percent of fine revenue on the average from the county, such as a more traffic ticket. than 20 percent increase in our Greater autonomy to meet local needs contract with the county for police • Address unsustainable personnel costs that drive criminal justice services. The county is feeling the budgets. shortfalls in state funding and is • Avoid new unfunded or under - funded requirements, like specific passing that along to the city. staffing requirements, that further strain local budgets. Renewed commitment to fostering a supportive, long -term Joel Walinski, City Administrator, funding partnership Leavenworth • Retain funding support for judicial branch services, especially indigent defense. • limit reductions in social /human services offered by the state, particularly changes in mental health services, that transfer costs to the local criminal justice system. • Maintain the longstanding partnership in providing high- quality training through the Criminal Justice Training Center (CJTC) at no additional cost to locals. Local governments already pay for this cost with traffic ticket fine revenue remitted to the state for this purpose. • Continue partnership on state - shared revenue such as liquor taxes and profits and criminal justice assistance account funding. These are historic, long- standing sources of funding that are central to cities ability to carry out criminal justice services. • Support innovative and cost - effective solutions and partnerships to assist overburdened local law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, courts and jails in meeting the demand for services to offenders, victims and the community. For example, funding intervention and prevention programs and partnerships that pool resources. All levels of government have been hit hard by this economic recession, and all must work together to ensure a sustainable economic recovery. Cities are committed to working with the state in these unprecedented times to get our citizens back to work and build confidence in our shared future. 22 2012 State of the Cities 2011 -2012 AWC Board of Directors President Jim Restucci Rich Zwicker Nancy McLaughlin Councilmember, Sunnyside Councilmember, Renton Councilmember, Spokane Jeanne Harris Beth Munns Vice President Councilmember,Vancouver Councilmember, Oak Harbor Don Gerend James R.Valentine Paul Roberts Councilmember, Sammamish Councilmember, Eatonville Councilmember, Everett Secretary & At -large 4, Eastern David Baker David Cooper Craig George Mayor, Kenmore Mayor,Yarrow Point Mayor, Dayton Joe Marine Jerry Cummins Immediate Past President Mayor, Mukilteo Councilmember,WallaWalla Glenn Johnson Mayor, Pullman David Condon City /County Management Mayor, Spokane Association Past President Charlie Bush Chuck Johnson J ake Fey Councilmember,Tacoma Deputy City Administrator, Issaquah Councilmember, East Wenatchee WCMA President Directors Sally Clark Councilmember, Seattle John Caulfield Micki Harnois City Manager, Mountlake Terrace Mayor, Rockford Tom Rasmussen WCMA Past President Councilmember, Seattle Rebecca Francik AWC CEO Councilmember, Pasco Ed Stern Mike McCarty Councilmember, Poulsbo Bob Goedde Mayor, Chelan Data from other AWC research projects were used Special thanks to: in this report, including the 2011 Fiscal Update A special thank you is extended to the cities and Survey and the 2011 Salary and Benefits Survey. towns that completed the surveys and participated in Secondary data sources include: the interviews.Appreciation is also extended to the AWC Board and many AWC staff who participated Washington State government agencies in this project. • Administrative Office of the Courts (AOC) Coordinated by: Researched by: • Department of Retirement Services (DRS) Marnie McGrath Alicia Seegers Martinelli • State Auditor's Office (SAO) Marnie McGrath Written by: • (Is. government agencies Candice Bock Marnie McGrath • Department of Justice (DOJ) Serena Dolly Membership organizations Sheri Sawyer • Washington Association of Sheriffs and Police Designed by: Chiefs (WASPC) Jen Brimer • National League of Cities (NLC) Werner Ide 2012 State of the Cities 23 - I ASSOCIATION OF WASHINGTON Ci l iES Association of Washington Cities Inc. 1076 Franklin St SE Olympia, WA 98501 -1346 360.753.4137 800.562.8981 Toll Free 360.753.0149 Fax Copyright ':7) 2012 by Association of Washington, Inc. All rights reserved. CITY MEETING SCHEDULE For June 11, 2012 — June 18, 2012 Please note: Meetings are subject to change Monday, June 11 8:30 a.m. Pension Board Meeting — Human Resources Conference Room 1:30 p.m. County Commissioners Meeting — Council Chambers Tuesday, June 12 1:30 p.m. County Commissioners Agenda Meeting — Council Chambers Wednesday, June 13 10:00 a.m. Council Nominating Committee Meeting — Mayor's Office 11:00 a.m. Boundary Review Board — Council Chambers 3:00 p.m. Bid Opening — Council Chambers 3:30 p.m. Yakima Planning Commission Meeting — Council Chambers 5:30 p.m. Parks Commission Meeting — Council Chambers Thursday, June 14 9:00 a.m. County Hearing Examiner — Council Chambers 1:00 p.m. Harman Center Board Meeting — Harman Center 1:30 p.m. Yakima Regional Clean Air Board Meeting — Council Chambers 3:30 p.m. YAKCORPS Executive Board Meeting — CED Conference Room 5:30 p.m. YCDA Board Meeting — Broadhead's home Monday, June 18 10:00 a.m. City Council Media Briefing — Council Chambers 10:00 a.m. Traffic Safety Corridor Meeting — YPD Training Room 3:00 p.m. Bid Opening — Council Chambers Office Of Mayor /City Council Preliminary Future Activities Calendar Please Note: Meetings are subject to change 5dr• ::>�' .aG a "::.> : R.- a n+ 'vn;t rs'.- ur's�, -;�,�'., - .,.:�,it K'>�' i•` >;i�'`t,,,.,�,, , y , „� ,� «;w.'..;. -,;," ,� ,x ,r^.• 4 ;T : f �y s y , >µ i el i tel ;k>" t, „ e.... „s;a:,tl1„01Fl at:oca1 ,,, ;3 :eetin u ,x . �Or'a €:� .�_; M eetin ,Pu r�`ose; " , �'�� : �, . - p. i.. , �� °.�.,.� ;..�.,4. 9� r..,,.,.'.�, "z` J ' j " "'1.. , h 3 y n q , . .r {�, „w. ?.. 4r:+4\::: . r @ K( •:'U ^�. 4 ''v." 'y ,'�7 .,�'.� d`•, :mr . "'', '"��'. :��., -:. r.,.wpv� �; e'� hf„ . .�FS:"rt�#Xs; *dAt „ ?+ ?`d "i ,;:�`� ,a?•(;: :"S2 ""a; '3�' x }' . .:,:: , :C... ' . t' a ' a ` • �is. n. q ' s t1 r. t n; � ' v t ,?h6 .t::`• .Ad:. e :T` !:;S`: ,�� .$ °A ,..0 ..'.iK Fy n y.ti Y� �I:i; '.'v'^,` ":' • :�Y' l' �`' �'! `.e. a ?' =•! .�i ; SH M'�:; . ,t�i.,:. i ° ...L; :Yr. ,.,. Z. ' .r. ' : `.- „S:: " }'. .t;. -t :-i. �aFl`+ u N r4 {3 • +l '...• {.. .. _ e" � i ii i � v:YA 4 n L u� tr 4^ 5 '.ri'u Sat. June 9 11:00 a m William O. Douglas Trail Scheduled Event Open Davis High School Dedication Ceremon Mon. June 11 8:30 a.m Pension Board Meetings Board Meeting Coffey Human Resources Conference Room Tue. June 12 12:00 • m. Miscellaneous Issues Scheduled Meetin• Cawle Adkison TBD Wed. June 13 10.00 a,m. Council Nominating Scheduled Meeting Adkison, Ensey, Mayor's Office Committee Bristol 3.30 p m. Planning Commission Scheduled Meeting Ensey Council Chambers Meeting 5 30 p m. Parks Commission Meeting Scheduled Meeting Adkison Council Chambers Thur. June 14 1 00 p m. Harman Center Board Board Meeting Cawley, Adkison Harman Center Meeting 1:30 p.m Yakima Regional Clean Air Scheduled Meeting Lover Council Chambers Meeting 30 p m. YAKCORPS Executive Board Meeting Cawley CED Conference Room Board 5 30 p m. YCDA Board Meeting Board Meeting Adkison Broadhead's house Mon. June 18 10:00 a.m. Corridor Project Meeting Scheduled Meeting Cawley YPD Special Ops Training Room 10.00 a.m. City Council Media Briefing Scheduled Meeting Ettl Council Chambers .11.SOZEZ VMS M12.01.11110161.2601 Tue. June 19 12 30 p m City Council Executive Scheduled Meeting Council Council Chambers Session 2.00 p.m City Council Meeting Scheduled Meeting Council Council Chambers 2 00 p m. Yakima County Gang Scheduled Meeting Adkison TBD Commission Wed. June 20 12 00 • m PAL Board Meetin• Board Meetin Ettl (al PAL Center Mon. June 25 12 00 p m Greenway Board Meeting Board Meeting Ettl Greenway Visitors Center 12.00 p m. Capitol Theatre Board Board Meeting Bristol Capitol Theatre Meeting 45 p m. Welcome Eastern Star Scheduled Event Adkison Sundome Convention 5.30 , Air ort Stud Session Scheduled Meetin Adkison Air ort Conference Room Tue. June 26 10.00 a m City Council Study Session Scheduled Meeting Council Council Chambers regional fire authority 12.00 p.m. Miscellaneous Issues Scheduled Meeting Cawle�Adkison *nom TBD Wed. June 27 4.30 p m Arts Commission Scheduled Meeting Adkison CED Conference Room 5 30 p m. Historic Preservation Scheduled Meeting Bristol Council Chambers Commission Thur. June 28 7.30 a m Airport Board Meeting_ Board Meeting ffi Adkison Airport Conference Room Mon. July 2 9 00 a m City Council Media Briefing Scheduled Meeting Lover Council Chambers 10 00 am City Council Meeting Scheduled Meeting Council Council Chambers PRELIMINARY FUTURE COUNCIL AGENDA June 19 12:30 p.m. Executive Session — Council Chambers • Update on labor negotiations • Prospective litigation update 2:00 p.m. Business Meeting — Council Chambers • Yakima Firefighters Receive County EMS Awards • Ordinance amending the 2012 budget (Epperson) • Resolution authorizing the execution of the 2012 -2013 collective bargaining agreement with the Yakima Police Patrolman's Association (YPPA) and (b), pass the ordinance amending the Yakima Municipal Code • Review and approve first quarter revenue and expenditure report (Epperson) • Resolution authorizing execution of agreement with Block by Block to provide safety, cleaning, and parking management services in the DYBID (Waarvick) • Update on GFI activities (Merryman) • Approve agreement with Yakima County for 2013 jail services (Schneider) • Resolution authorizing professional services agreement for jail feasibility study and, b) authorizing a $50,000 budget appropriation to fund the feasibility study (Copeland) • Set date of July 17 for Public Hearing to consider the Hearing Examiner recommendations related to right of way vacation petitions for 7 Avenue and other streets in the vicinity of Davis High School • Set date of July 17 for Public Hearing to consider the Hearing Examiner recommendations related to right of way vacation petitions for a portion of 15 Avenue in the vicinity of Yakima Valley Community College campus 6/6/2012 3:03 PM 1 • Resolution authorizing the City Manager to enter into a contract with HDR, Consulting Engineers, in an amount not to exceed $175,000 for the development and implementation of an Asset Management Software Program for the Water /Irrigation and Wastewater Divisions 3.00 p.m. Public Hearings — Council Chambers • Open record public hearing to consider a Resolution declaring surplus a 5.72 -acre parcel owned by the City of Yakima, located in Terrace Heights Yakima, Washington, and authorizing disposal of said surplus property • Second and final public meeting concerning the 2012 Budget Amendments to CDBG and HOME funds • Public hearing to consider: A) Adoption of the Six -Year Transportation Improvement Program for the years 2013 to 2018, and to amend the Metropolitan Transportation Plan; and B) Amend the Yakima Urban Area Comprehensive Plan Capital Facilities Element • Public hearing to consider amendments to the 2012 -2017 Six -Year Transportation Improvement Program 6/6/2012 3 PM 2 .RECEIVED CITY OF YAKIMA JUN062012 p OFFICE OF CITY COUNCIL C, Q (S) 1 ( \(vvvv\iY =S C _,,<- y i _ q , --..a._, A._,.,6, _9)_51,,i ---L 6— G--IL,---L - L..z .,_,..,Q_Q___ '--)-C-- , _i___6 ,.. 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I C ° '1 ` ) ° a- 1 i �',' Rosemarie Rathjen ` F 2700 Fruitvale Blvd Unit 22 } , ,4 , ;' Yakima WA 98902 -1154 • 0 4 Fewer layoffs and higher tax revenues could signal better days ahead May 20121 www.americancityandcounty.com f , 7 yn` Fw' ' e las Asevera -most s t sins fundamentally ciffere q - - ;Ail t t =the end of thet F' t •• f t , c t). •,f ` 1 ` ci, t } u t 4, Z p� l iJZ `li • t 1 c � f ; - . 1 . , x } F :F y i 1 fi".r � X A",{•-. �Jb I t f f � ':t, • 1 S' i! fi x '1 . • -„, i 0 ust as San Jose, Calif., Slightly more than 75 percent toward gang prevention. was planning to open of those position reductions "The last several months, it . four new library occurred in the last three years. seems fundamentally different," branches, a community Despite the financial hit, the tide Walesh says. "Like there's light at center and a regional may be turning in San Jose, with the end of the tunnel. We don't ,„' police substation, the first budget surplus — albeit see any more painful layoffs the city was hit full force by the less than 1 percent — in nine years and service reductions." worst economic storm since the and even the prospect of hiring Though the scene is uneven Great Depression. Without funds back a few positions in areas that nationally, recent data indicate that to operate the facilities, the city suffered disproportionately, says the drastic shrinking of employment had to forego ribbon - cutting Kim Walesh, the city's director in the public sector may be over, ceremonies and a grand opening of economic development and with hopeful signs of a rebound in and instead installed lengths of chief strategist. The city's 2012— some pockets benefitting from an chain -link fencing to help protect 2013 proposed budget includes improved economy. If the current buildings that have remained recommended funding for opening trends continue, government unoccupied, at least for now' the four branch libraries and the officials across the nation would In the past decade, the city has community center. The opening breathe a collective sigh of relief. reduced its workforce by almost 30 of the police substation, however, "It's a challenge predicting with percent, falling from about 7,450 is recommended to be deferred any crystal ball," says Elizabeth to about 5,400 employees today. for another year to direct funding Kellar, president and chief www.americancityandcounty.com ( May 2012 25 executive officer of the Center for State and Local Count • the cuts Government (SLGE), a Washington -based think tank on local government workforce issues. "But I would Without question, the bleeding of state and local jobs was not expect any major layoffs in the near future." staggering. The fall in total employment in state and local Recent numbers foster optimism that the scene government from 2009 (19,844,142) to 2010 (19,599,463) may brightening, even if only in comparison to the was the first annual decrease since 1992, with 224,479 recent trauma. In March 2011, the U.S. Department of the 244,679 cuts coming from local government, of Labor reported 15,000 state and local employees according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Separately, Bureau lost their jobs. A year later, the number of layoffs of Labor statistics show that state and local cuts total had dwindled to 1,000 for the month, though it 641,000 from the peak of employment in August 2008 blipped up by 3,100 in April. Most notably, local to March 2012, a drop of 3.2 percent from the peak. government layoffs from January through March When those numbers are parsed out for education and 2012 totaled only 3,700 employees, or 0.1 percent. non- education, the toll is even starker, amounting to 6.3 A recent report from SLGE confirms that state and percent of all non - education state and local employees. local governments are slowing the pace of layoffs in Focusing solely on local employees, the impact was 2012. The survey of government human resources slightly reduced. For just non - education employees, officials from February 27 to March 13 found that 253,200 lost their positions, a 3.9 percent drop for the 28 percent of employers are seeing layoffs this period from August 2008 to March 2012, according to year, down from 40 percent in last year's survey. Elizabeth McNichol, a senior fellow at the Washington - "The worst of the decline seems to have leveled based Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. off," says Elizabeth McNichol, a senior fellow — Robert Barkin at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, a Washington budget think tank. "But there will be a long climb back out of the hole." THE EFFECT ON REVENUE consequences have been forced to cut deeper than State and local governments took a double hit from during past slowdowns, because of the extended the recession. Not only was employment savaged, length of the recession — now entering its fifth but so was the property tax base, the economic year, Hoene says. "I don't think local government underpinning of state and local finances, which in the has been able to manage the retrenchment in a past had continued to grow even during recessions. way that residents don't feel it," he says. "It's not For 2011, overall city government revenues were the case this time. The trench is too deep." I projected to fall by 2.3 percent, the fifth straight year of declines, according to the National League INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT of Cities (NLC), the Washington -based advocate for Local governments have attempted to manage their the nation's cities. Its annual report on city fiscal way through the economic downturn prompted by conditions, which was released in September 2011, the financial crisis by seeking innovative solutions projected a 3.7 percent fall in property tax revenue to workforce issues. In Coconino County, Ariz., the in 2011, with further declines expected in 2012 and second largest county in the nation by area, leaders 2013. The previous year's (2010 vs. 2009) 2 percent have cut staff through attrition and moved staff drop was the first year -to -year decline in city property facing layoffs into vacancies. Although county leaders tax revenues in 15 years, according to the report. contemplated furloughs, they never had to impose them. But data released in March 2012 by the Census Bureau "We began a plan that we called voluntary furloughs," brought more encouraging news, showing that total tax says Allison Eckert, the county's director of human revenue for state and local government rose 4.5 percent resources. "Employees could purchase up to 10 last year, the biggest gain since 2006, and property extra days off, which they could spread out around taxes have increased for two consecutive quarters. the year and still save their vacation balance. It was "The worst might be over in the aggregate," says Chris popular at all levels, and now we're using it as a Hoene, NLC's director of the Center for Research recruiting tool with regard to work -life balance." and Innovation, "but it masks dramatic variations." Though the county has not had a merit pay increase Many cities in pockets of the country remain for several years, it made an across -the- board, one- mired in deep slumps because of falling property time pay increase of 2.5 percent, as recognition of values. In recent months, a number of cities — the employees paying a larger share of contributions including Hartford, Conn.; Providence, R.I.; to their pension plan and other give- backs. and Detroit — have been in battles with their The county has been undertaking a three- to five -year states, as their fiscal conditions deteriorate and "strategic budgeting process" to implement the most they contemplate the trauma of bankruptcy. important programs for the county, Eckert says. "We Even local governments that face much less severe want to do the right programs well," she says, "instead 26 May 2012 I www.americancityandcounty.com of trying to do everything." with most of the cuts coming layoffs this year," she says. Still, the budget forecasts an in fiscal years 2009 and 2010. The city has been consolidating operating deficit every year until "The past few years, we had big its operations. In some departments 2015, and city officials are looking pockets of city layoffs. And we're that were organized into several to put on hold lower priority still dealing with budget deficits," groups, managers created new areas in technology and facilities says Donna Kotake, the city's cross - functional teams, Kotake management. "We have a plan director of workforce development. says. The city also used federal in place for the next couple of "It's nothing near the last." stimulus funds to pay for a number years," she says. "We're not seeing Still, she says, the job picture of projects that were high priority. any real growth [in revenues]." seems to have stabilized. There were In addition, the city became more San Francisco has laid off 556 only 47 layoffs in fiscal year 2010, flexible in its policies, for example employees since fiscal year 2006 -07, and "we haven't had significant allowing more telecommuting as a means of maintaining higher morale. "One mother said that she can use video from her home to perform some of the duties exactly as she does in the office," she says. "She can save on the commute . and still bring her children to school. She doesn't have to choose between work and her family." SAN JOSE CHALLENGES BENEFITS I i For San Jose, the Great Recession h as hit with unprecedented force. 1 "We've been through, historically, la the most difficult fiscal challenge - II and downsizing in the city's history," Walesh says. "It's been an incredibly difficult time. Almost nine years of deficits." Even before the financial collapse forced drastic reductions, the city's workforce was efficient and lean, she says. "It's been gut- wrenching reductions across all aspects of the city," she says. "We've laid off police and fire. We've gotten out of businesses entirely — outsourcing functions. Everybody says, `Do more with less,' but we're doing less with less." i One source of the city's financial 2 out of 3 � s distress was rooted in its pension system, which the city runs oods independently endentl from the California S ou of Public Employees' Retirement 3 i s HT System (Ca1PERS). "We were . C getting dramatic projections of Be a financial genius by making your existing equipment more productive. what it would cost in the future," HTC hydraulic conveyors and attachments allow Walesh says. "It turned out that One truck to do the work of Six. retirement costs were growing to 20 percent of the general fund. We F . - F _ had to find a way to get escalating 1.800.348.4403 www.htcconveyors.com I €u � y - a -- � staff costs under control." Call or visit our v•rebsiie to learn more about hoe! HTC can assist your department. —' officials hope that a June 5 ballot measure will help restore 28 May 20121 www.americancityandcounty.com financial stability and confidence find itself changed for the better, a way to provide it. There's always to the city's fiscal situation. The Walesh says. "I wouldn't wish a local government solution." measure, if approved by voters, this on anybody," she says. "But would require workers to choose it has put the organization in a Robert Barkin is a Bethesda, to stay in the same benefit plan positive position going forward." Md.=based freelance writer. but pay significantly more of The experience of San Jose and the cost, or opt into a lower the other communities is typical future benefit and pay less. of how local government responds "There's no other way to to crisis, Hoene says. "It's the Are you seeing signs i get the city on a sustainable strength of local government," he of recovery in your footing," Walesh says. "We says. "If there is a service that the community? Take our poll at can't cut staff anymore." people want, the government finds americancityandcounty.com. With the prospect of the reduction in pension expenses, the city is talking to neighborhood leaders about a quarter- or half- "" percent increase in the sales ate* °' GREEN tax later in the year that would Q�sr be used to pay to maintain the city's infrastructure. Eventually, the city would like to open the facilities that remain behind chain -link fences. "There's been " xy � " ` rt a noticeable shift in sentiment," ' she says. "People see we've made l� -` changes. They can see the visible l J effect of the service cutbacks." As for the employees, Walesh 1 ' r, „ admits that the financial strain has taken a toll. what it us ed "Understandably, to andably, w morale is not what it used What's The Real Cost Of Your New Roof? be,” she says. 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"We're forever changed." • Is prefabricated to fit each roof precisely, meaning less installation waste, less on -site seaming, less chance for leaks down the road, Some of the changes include and less lifetime maintenance costs. getting by with a smaller staff with a • Is non - curing — new flashings and accessories can be installed higher skill level, and support from easily throughout the life of the roof. } neighborhood volunteers and local • Is backed by the industry's best warranty, provided at no cost and businesses. Deciding which services offering long -term peace of mind to Cool Zone customers. still remain with the city has been Cycle your roof costs down with the part of a strategic planning process Duro -Last Cool Zone roofing system. that forced a ranking of the most o ��a important functions of the city, out " -" „" CRC a � z n_n.r � � Coo< of the hundreds that were cataloged. THE woo•• COOLEST ROOF o, • : EN Flu 545 clump: M "This financial situation has forced . 14 a prioritization;" Walesh says, "not 2 To learn more, call us or download our free brochure. just a downsizing. This has forced a t - 41 0 4 redesign of the city government." �` =� y " ° "� ® www.duro last.com /valu � „ g 800- 248 -0280 Despite the trauma of the harsh e .. ,, Find us on Twitter: adurolost _- . 7 � 4e sr RV _ Duro - Lass Goal Zone . and tee VJsn Best Ralf are reglsrerad marks ov:ned h, "— : cutbacks, the city ultimately will Duro-Last Roofing. Inc. ENERGY STAR. s on!v valid 5+ the United States s www.americancityandcounty.com I May 2012 29 Politics +Policy GREEN GOVERNMENT By Torn Annandale Soak Up or Pay Up Ph i s f stormwater runoff by revamping i ts water and sewer rates. n Philadelphia, homeowners pay a flat $13A8 monthly charge for lions to install green projects that will generate stormwater fee maintainitt the city's stc�rntwatereirdinat drainage system. Commercial credits "that help people get their bills down," says Erin Williams. a propertieapayagreatdxcl mare The Lin iversityof nnsylvania, city stormwater engineer. Applicants have asked for amounts that I for example, pays about $14,000 a month, and The Philadelphia range from $40,000 for a charter school rain garden to $2.5 million International Airport pays around $53,000. Come 2013, however, to retain rainfall at a new mall near Philadelphia's sports stadiums. the university will be saving roughly $11,000 a month and the air - Once the market is established. Natural Resources Defense Council port's bill will jump to almost $126,000 a month. finance attorney Alisa Valderrama thinks investors will be willing Why? Because Philadelphia has redesigned its stormwater fees to raise as much as $376 million in private financing in Philadelphia to target the properties that contribute most of the pollutant -laced alone for converting barren lands into water- storing assets. water that flows into the city's 79,000 storm drains, as well as the One promising model for private investors is the energy con- nearby Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. Some monthly bills have servation firms that install insulation and efficient heating and already begun climbing thousands of dollars as they take into cooling systems in universities and hospitals. Those ventures pay account all the property covered by rooftops, parking lots and the upfront costs, and in return they earn profits from the savings other impermeable pavement— hardened surfaces that shed rain on clients' utility bills. "There are a lot of people who'd like to as fast as it falls to the ground. do a version of that for stormwater," says Christopher Crockett, As part of a $2 billion plan for complying with federal orders Philadelphia's deputy water commissioner for planning. With to stop sewage overflows, the City of Brotherly Love has commit- Philadelphia's incentives, "there's nothing preventing a company ted to refurbishing 9.500 acres of paved land. In 2010, the water from coming in to do that," he adds. "And there probably are a agency deployed GIS imaging to determine how much of a parcel dozen different ideas out there had been paved over by impervious structures. Two years from Next year, Washington. D.C., plans to give one other emerg- now, Philadelphia will finish phasing in fees that require land- ing market device a try. The city's regulations will require major i owners whose properties shed the most stormwater to pick up construction projects to incorporate enough water-holding struc- an even bigger share of the tab —hence the hefty increase in the tures to retain 1.2 inches of rain on the property. Landowners who airport's bill. In addition, the city will also be collecting stormwa- prove they'll do better than that will earn credits they can sell at a 1 ter fees for the first time from 40,000 parking lots and other paved profit to other developers. in rundown neighborhoods, that kind parcels that don't connect to city water. of deal could spiff up vacant lots, create green jobs and help relieve I But the Philadelphia Water Department is willing to cut corn- contaminated upstream hot spots in Potomac River tributaries. mercial customers a lucrative break. In fact, the city will forgive Crockett suggests that Philadelphia could create credit -trad- z. the entire bill if owners create wetlands, plant trees, install rain ing formats for its college campuses "to try it out in a couple of barrels, cultivate rooftop gardens, lay down permeable pavement places and then make adjustments." To make private stormwa- - or add other water- absorbing features that restore the landscape's ter ventures work, Crockett says, "we'll need to create certainty 1 natural capacity to absorb summertime cloudbursts and soak up about the rates, certainty about the rules and certainty about the winter snowmelt. rewards, then let the market do what the market does best." G This summer the water department will distribute $5 million _ . ,, in grants as seed money for businesses and community organiza- Email arrandaletom @gmail.com The University • - '' r of Pennsylvania's r i� t w grassy campus r %. 1r } I t will ultimately • 4 _ _ •e. 1 W help it save 1 .. _ ' . thousands on i ts '• * ' • monthly water and . "' - sewer bill. lo ft y - , 4 - ,��---....- 20 c .. P/ r, ,. a 1 , 7i - Politics +Policy ECONOMIC ENGINES v. By Alex Marshall 4 11 1 Tunnel Vision Have we lost our capacity to think and build big? 1 The first part of y t,: New York City's 2nd Avenue • subway project s' will be coin- 4 pleted in 2016. Iii i' . I ' ..4* v if , -.K.airv. .111116 \\ M I °o - IP, • • Z r ■ � .F i r ; . t F E 2 T o stand in the cavernous spaces 2nd Avenue subway line; the $7.3 billion have few if any counterparts here. They underground that will become East Side Access project, which will carry include the Chunnel, the 31 -mile train stations on the new 2nd Avenue train passengers from Long Island into a tunnel between England and France subway line in New York City is new station beneath Grand Central Termi- that opened in 1994; the Oresund Bridge to feel pride as an American that we can nal; the $2.1 billion extension of the No. 7 between Denmark and Sweden (the lon- still do work on this scale. I didn't know subway line on Manhattan's West Side; and gest in Europe), completed in 1999; the we had it in us anymore. I'm glad we do. the $1.4 billion Fulton Street Transit Cen- Gotthard rail tunnel, which will run 35 Today, work on the line takes place 24 ter, which connects multiple subway lines miles under the Alps and will be the lon- hours a day, five days a week, but its con- underneath a glittering new dome. Collec- gest of its kind when it opens in 2016; struction history, with a number of starts tively, they are an example of something and many others. and stops, stretches back 75 years. When we don't do enough of in this country: big, Of course, that infrastructure - building finished in 2016, this phase of the 2nd ambitious and expensive infrastructure is dwarfed by what's happening in Asia, Avenue subway line will run for two miles, projects, ones that change our worlds for like the relatively new airport in Hong only a fifth or so of the planned route. But it the better. In their design and thorough- Kong that includes direct train service '. is still something It's the first new subway ness, the New York mega - projects could into the city, or China's $62 billion South - line constructed in New York City since have been bigger, longer and fancier. But to -North Water Diversion Project. We 1932, and it will alter life for tens of thou- that they are being built at all is progress. are still doing some big projects here. In sands of residents. We don't do public works in this coun- its April issue, Governing named the five The subway project is one of a half try as ambitiously or as comprehensively as biggest projects under way now. But we dozen or so mega - projects under construc- we should. We don't even do it as well as we could still do more. lion in New York City right now. Four of used to. In comparison with other coun- Michael Horodniceanu, a dapper them are for the Metropolitan Transpor- tries now, we lag even further behind, not man in a bow tie who leads MTA Capi- tation Authority (MTA), the state agency only in size and scale but also in execution. tal Construction, a division of the MTA that runs the city and regional transit sys- Western Europe has recently built or that manages capital projects, acknowl- terns. The projects include the $4.4 billion is building a series of mega - projects that edges that he labors in an environment 22 GOVERNING I June 2012 URBAN NOTEBOOK i I , By Tod Newcombe in which America asacountryisnotcur- The Parking Challenge + rently embracing infrastructure spending e 1 n e n e as much as it should. With fewer Americans driving, what will become of the parking lot? "Everyone else is beating the crap out l of us," he says from his office overlooking Parking lots and spaces are a necessary evil of city living. They can be hard to find, Lower Manhattan. Even Great Britain, take up a lot of valuable space and are symbols of their car- dependent stepchild, from which the United States derives its the suburb. Yet parking spots always seem to be in demand. A mix of new attitudes, fragmented and incomplete approach to needs and technology, however, is challenging the status quo of how and why we infrastructure, is pursuing several ambi- park in cities. tious projects, says Horodniceanu. "We Take, for instance, the recent news that demand for parking spaces at rental apart- ' seem to have forgotten how to do this." ment buildings in downtown Chicago have fallen significantly in the past three years, Of course, we should only spend part of a decade -long slide in demand, according to Crain's Chicago Business. While money on public works projects that are it's not entirely clear why demand is dropping (condo developers continue to offer a intelligently and gracefully designed, and space for every owner), there are some broad trends that indicate America's love for that fulfill a need, either known or antici- cars —and spaces to park them —may have finally coaxed out. pated. Just as the late Steve Jobs of Apple Young Americans no longer are as devoted to cars as their parents and grand- : bragged that his company could create parents once were. The average annual number of vehicle miles traveled by young products people would love before they people (ages 16 -34) in the U.S. decreased by 23 percent between 2001 and 2009. It knew they needed them, great infrastruc- seems more Americans are commuting by public transit. It also seems Americans are ture can fulfill a need people didn't know buying fewer cars. Yes, auto sales have crept back up since 2008 to more than 14.4 they had million annually, but that's still far below the annual average of nearly 17 million cars "You don't know about demand until sold during the nine years leading up to the recession. you build it," says Robert "Buzz" Paaswell, With Americans driving fewer cars and more commuters opting to bike, use pub - who co- authored a study analyzing the lie transit or telecommute, demand for parking will drop over time, predicts The New York mega - projects and is a distin- Washington Post. Until that moment arrives, however, cities are beginning to look at guished professor of civil engineering at new technologies that make it easier to find a parking spot in congested downtowns. the City College in New York. "It's been So- called smart parking changes the price of a parking space based on demand. Smart proven in Europe. High -speed rail has parking is considered so promising that IBM, the Citi banking group and Streetline, changed the geography" there a wireless software firm, have partnered to provide $25 million in financing to cities Thanks to low interest rates caused that plan to adopt the technology. by the ongoing financial crisis, coupled So what does a city do with a potential parking space surplus? Some have already with the need for an economic jumpstart begun to reconfigure streets so that what were once parking spaces are now bike and construction companies in need of lanes. On weekends, municipal parking lots in many cities become community farm - work (and able to work more cheaply), ers markets or sites for temporary events, such as a concert or craft show. one would have thought this would be a But if you think parking spaces and lots in cities will gradually disappear, think perfect time for a massive renewal effort again. Eran Ben - Joseph, author of Rethinking a Lot: The Design and Culture ofPark- in this country. ing, estimates there are 500 million surface -lot parking spaces in the U.S., covering But after an initial spurt of money an area that is larger than Puerto Rico. They are ugly, environmentally unfriendly, A from Congress when President Obama waste space and are very cheap to build. Just because we're stuck with them, how - took office, that hasn't happened. The ever, doesn't mean they can't be "modest paradises," Ben - Joseph writes. "Designed political forces have not been right for it with conscious intent, parking lots could actually become significant public spaces, As the presidential race between Obama contributing as much to their communities as great boulevards, parks or plazas." G g and former Massachusetts Gov. Mitt Romney heats up, as well as countless Email tnewcombe @governing.com • state and local elections, I hope that pub - lie works spending makes an appearance - as an issue. "You should invest in hard times," says Paaswell, not only because the work _� _ says - �• is cheaper, "but because it will make the hard times shorter." G A Email alex @rpa.org .tune 2012 i3QVERNINC1 23 Problem Solver I PUBLIC MONEY ilk By Girard Miller 0 fl The Doublespeak On Debt If a city pleads poverty in public, it can't tell the muni market its bonds are safe. M ayors and city leaders in -' i :. { { "fiscally challenged" commu- p : ;_ ua i{ : {r:s{ .t 4t'fi nines need to steer clear of .i...:: ,; ni u l; :. loose talk about "bankruptcy" 'l it l { { i: • i t cr i; .' i} #',' t ti.::. i,4 ? ' z, and "insolvency." Sometimes politicians - ';ti use these words while the city's finan- • : ia= , " t 'i' cial officers tell bond ratings agencies \ ,:::.,_;. '`' `i.: fi that everything is under control. That's k • :,f fi.t ii i . • : _ asking for trouble. k r :, z l {4; Often, these simplistic household r?:I1 terms are used by local leaders to make ;:,,,, ` r their point about fiscal challenges. Every- .. ,. r_ body knows that bankruptcy is bad —that "' you're out of money—so that's the easiest , term to use to connect with the public. In municipalities that are actually en route to federal bankruptcy court, the . 4 B -word is totally appropriate. No city or county should kid itself or its stakeholders when seeking a federal court reorganiza- tion of its financial affairs. In some cases, the only way to compel changes in union contracts and retirement plans is for the That's where doublespeak creates a services, even though it presently enjoys a receiver to order reforms that employees tangled web. good bond rating. The soundness of exist - and retirees won't accept voluntarily. The Bond ratings analysts don't wear ing bonds, especially general obligation receiver for Central Falls, RI., has made blinders. They read the newspapers, so debt secured by taxes, doesn't mean that a exactly that point in public remarks. we should expect them to push back at public employer has unlimited capacity to This becomes a central issue in states optimistic presentations made by the pay pension and retiree medical benefits where retirement benefits enjoy osten- financial teams who are trying to show at any cost. Public employees and retirees sible constitutional vesting protections or their community in the best possible are playing with fire when they push their the law is unsettled. In the states where light. Let's not worry too much about employer into harm's way, and some of bond laws are conducive, the bankruptcy analysts being fooled. But there is a good them will eventually be burned as a result. path may also be necessary to fix a fiscal chance that those ratings agency presen- My point is that the chief executives, problem from a financial blunder like a tations could be subpoenaed back home their public relations teams, their lawyers sports stadium, an incinerator or a sewage in legal proceedings, often by unions and their finance officers need to coor- system that failed to live up to inflated seeking to prove that fiscal conditions dinate their communications to these dreams. In these cases, we never —and really aren't bad enough to warrant cut- various audiences more carefully. At the shouldn't — see the financial officer of the backs in labor contracts. least, they would be smart to acknowl- distressed bond issuer telling the credit This doesn't mean that a city with a edge the challenges they face and the rating agencies that the bonds are going high bond rating can't argue for substantial mitigation strategies they are pursuing. to be hunky -dory reforms of its pension plan on the grounds So be careful when you use the terms The scenario that becomes prob- that it's unsustainable. The mayor of San "bankruptcy" and "insolvency" unless lematic is when public officials plead Jose, Calif., has made a strong case that you really mean it. It may come back to poverty in public at the same time that continuation of the current retirement haunt you. G their financial team is trying to maintain benefits system will destroy the city's high, investment -grade bond ratings. financial capacity to provide essential Email millerg @pfm.com 62 GOVERNING I June 2012 :1 ) 1 r f` . r ; , r, r '7' .."...\' to ,,,i , ,,,,,...' ' ON_STREET ,1_,.,., ,.. _J PARK ,, f, I Parkiets are the next big tiny idea in urban planning. ..--., 4.. � 1, n a recent episode of the NBC sitcom Parks ' ai' � and Recreation, Leslie Knope, the unflappa- 4 t, •e .,0I r •, . ' I, 1 bly optimistic deputy parks director for the fictional city of Pawnee, Ind., enthusiastically ., � a. . �. ' �, j announced her latest plans for a new public !I, { },r " �' space. "I want this to be the most amazing, awe-inspiring, . , . _ fun filled park ever conceived!" said Knope, played by Amy a r � - __ . Poehler. How big was the proposed new project? As Knope proudly announced, "It is 0.000003 square miles." I ` * ' + ' Leslie Knope's plan for a tiny park was funny. (She rio Ej explained that the vacant space had formerly been the site of ` - A a phone booth.) But her idea actually isn't that far- fetched. i.1.1 _ _ — _ In what's become the latest trend in urban placemaking, cit- I!• - - ies across the country are converting public parking spaces }ti; „•, into postage stamp -sized parks called parklets. —ilk:. — — .. PUBLIC PARKLET It all started in 2005, when a San Francisco design company descended on a downtown parking space, fed ALL SEATING IS OPEN TO THE pig[ iG t he meter and created a pop-up park complete with sod, � public benches and leafy trees. They called it Park(ing) Day, dunaq�r =i .... ' which eventually became an annual event. Then in 2009, I ' llit when New York City began converting some street spaces into pedestrian-only plazas, urban planners started to see +' the appeal of pint -sized parks. Officials in different places — li , began working with local business owners to convert park - Parklets are mostly funded by businesses, but cities By Zach Patton insist they be open to everyone. "We want to make it very clearly visible that this is public space, not private," says San Francisco's David Alumbaugh. IMAGE FRANK CHAN/SAN FRANCISCO BICYCLE COALITION June 2012 I GOVERNING 53 - , _ I' • , -1 - • - -- `i idle --f 7^ it A te { , ., i "_ ;1 % . i ' � , Lt • i i , f w c I . - , _ ^ +�' � r Gp /• )1' i''' , :l I S. ! I . i , i : i,,i -4 - 7'. : 11 .-kil . ' i .1 is . . . 0 I r , , A - *a - , - ■ � " ' pat � I i 4 — i f i sr " .. Geis - .i - • -L:�� ! r 1 • 4 T + d ��J , _ n rr a . " L A I .t.. • • a , }. 1 I '- i ' i � ``r -'T'f S fl --il..........-',/, , �' r A —4411 —14 , i 11.4,... l � rr r `'� ' • / 1 '4'1 .. ---F ' • 't Ii 'ea.' ...,,,,,,_,,i. T'hi5 13* 1 L t = r j * * 7 the.. f _ �. `� .i. ' converting parking spaces to public }slates! \ ( . \ \ N -,... . ) r. In January, Long Beach .. Wm. . I •- I became home to the „ :, � � L ' 1. first parklet in Southern . - rte - - _ �_ " , ' _ 1 , Califomia. "As I drive along t + _ ' 4th Street, I see it being - . • ` utilized constantly," says • city Public Works Director V Mike Conway. He says the kl Il k f� 1 city is already looking ahead l to creating "bio -soil" paridets ti �lr + •� � - 1 ' intended to help capture I ?�j -,, - " and divert rainwater. `i- -A �= IMAGE STUDIO ONE ELEVEN T - — r I 52 GOVERNING I June 2012 • - _ .` r r . "* ` T . i.• ..e." %A. V ! .., F U • 7 �' lt�: Philadelphia's 43rd Street parklet, the city's f!-,• .•.,,; 1 - r 1 _ ' first, was a big success last year, according to - ... V '' .-;. '` _ s officials. "Of course we have to be careful about ` balancing transportation and pedestrian needs," - s . , I P ,. says Andrew Stoner of the city's transportation I -A pi, , r,. .11-41A,K department. "But a parking space maybe gets 74 Ifi I �, , • used by one or two people an hour. If you con- f _ i ' vert it to a parklet, it can be enjoyed by literally i 4 , . . 4.40,,;., ik tr virr - 41P• i Y _ . � s dawns of people an hour, all day long." Je 's - Y i 4 I lii r.'' ...re .--,,---- t 4 . I 0 I t"Atts,,,,,,,.. .f. ,, :_, NIP'. . — -- ; I 4 - , - - li .it, ,.. ,...,, . ._ 1 . mt..% • . -1111 !:,,,: . ; 4 , �' 1 . 1 ,-- . N * • ! -r,.. ' • ' San Francisco is requiring that all ne • have built-in seating, rather than nv. -- '+� ! t I and tables, which the city hopes will help rein- � Y k . , force the sense that these are public spaces t ' - available to everyone. This parklet was designed t \ . by REBAR, the firm that hosted the original Park(ing) Day in 2005. = -.1 - - . • , i ( li ai . 1 ing spaces. San Francisco cut the ribbon ;' - 'RA if on its first permanent parklet in March ` : '" 2010; today the city boasts 27 completed parklets with another 40 in the pipeline. In the past year alone, cities from Phila- r delphia to Oakland and Long Beach, /i Calif., have launched parklet programs; others, including Chicago, Los Angeles " ' i and Roanoke, Va., are exploring the idea. In most cases, business owners pay ` - for the construction and maintenance of the parklets, which vary in cost but aver- its first parklet last summer and is hoping , r, ti age $15,000 to $20,000. Cities may offer to add several more this year. "It's part of design help or a little extra cash —and a larger movement in the city as we think ' of course, they give up metered parking about how to make it a more livable place. " revenues —but most of the investment Some best practices have already is private. For businesses, it's a way to emerged. Parklets work best in front of beautify their block and help attract businesses such as coffeehouses and pizza more foot traffic. Cities see it as a next- places, which thrive on walk -up custom - to- nothing investment in innovative new ers. They need to be placed on streets with public spaces. "For very little or no dol- relatively low speed limits, and they're lars, we can change the shape of our city," too obstructive to work on corners. They says Andrew Stober, chief of staff in the should be visually distinct: San Francisco Mayor's Office of Transportation and requires that any benches or chairs in a par - Utilities in Philadelphia, which opened klet look different from the seating at the 54 GOVERNING I June 2012 • a djacent business, to reinforce the idea pensive, cities can easily experiment T . r ° s, that these are public spaces rather than an with what works and what doesn't, says 1 ' extension of a private cafe or coffeehouse. David Alumbaugh, the director of the 1 ! '. Similarly, those cafes aren't allowed to city design group in the San Francisco 04164 - V 1r siE . . t . , 4 serve customers sitting in the parklets. Planning Department. "The beauty of And what works in one place may not parklets is that they're very transforms f work elsewhere: Parklets in West Coast tive yet not very difficult." Alumbaugh cities can stay open year- round, while in notes that the city renews each parklet's Philadelphia, for instance, the parklets will permit annually, although so far none y *. .1" be packed up and put away in the winter. has been revoked. "It's a chance for us .' ! - i t ` .i,1 `' ("We don't want them to fall victim to a to say, `Lets just try it. If it doesn't work, V . _; 'f * snowplow," says Stober.) we'll take it out.'" G .. ' 5 The best aspect of parklets is that, r _ .. because they're so simple and inex- Email zpatton @governing.com . , y I L r - l r � �' '�� G '' 1 �' A San Francisco resident snapped this camera phone ... i 1` . r C •. ,7 ' , ' 1 , ,(` bp i ., F'' >r shot of a parkiet in front of the Devil's Teeth Baking r - , , . `► `or Company. Most parklets are the size of a couple of ' parking spots, at an average of roughly 320 square feet. / { #_ + • A r e } +� � - ' 'Y • A . %j ,. .4 NI r tttl f '' 1 / 7 - .. a J �pti /' • 't n ih ii 11 111N s . . 11 I ) ,, t► i I i. I . r, j II The development c. ....ration for Chicago's " st Andersonville neig • cod hosted this pop -up t ir park last summe • t: tit interest,. The group is now working with ■ Transportation Depart _ ..._ .00,49,. e ment to develop fihi . . --- �. 4, r - -� + , J I / / „ 11 ..... LL y / t ,L + � - '� • it I % %r e . : � . . �` ``�` ■ obi I I ., w ft — "......„..,_,,,,, u u.s , . I d 1 i NC,.._=.5 -,• s 1 / alb r , li