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11/05/2019 13 Summary of Actions to Encourage Housing Diversity 't..an,gtntj ka d E$A aY BUSINESS OF THE CITY COUNCIL YAKIMA, WASHINGTON AGENDA STATEMENT Item No. 13. For Meeting of: November 5, 2019 ITEM TITLE: Summary of actions taken by the City of Yakima to encourage housing diversity SUBMITTED BY: Joan Davenport, Director of Community Development Sara Watkins, Senior Assistant City Attorney Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager SUMMARY EXPLANATION: At the October 15, 2019 City Council meeting, staff was directed to provide a report that summarizes actions taken to date that promote housing desegregation and develop more housing diversity throughout the City limits. Staff has provided a narrative of 7 action steps taken by the City of Yakima to highlight housing diversity and affordable housing issues. Also included in this information packet, is a copy of the 2017 Equity Study which provides data and background in some of the equity issues the community has experienced. ITEM BUDGETED: NA STRATEGIC PRIORITY: Neighborhood and Community Building APPROVED FOR -��� Interim City Manager SUBMITTAL: � `r �--- � STAFF RECOMMENDATION: Provide any guidance as deemed appropriate. BOARD/COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION: ATTACHMENTS: Description Upload Date Type um ma report off, tons Taken to =num e Nmein / 3I20� ackup M fi rial i r�ity 2 D 7017 WSLI equity study 111117019 Cover Menlo 3 MEMORANDUM To: Honorable Mayor and Yakima City Council Members From: Joan Davenport, Community Development Director Sara Watkins, Senior Assistant City Attorney Joseph Calhoun, Planning Manager Date: Council Meeting on November 5, 2019 Subject: Summary of City of Yakima Actions to Encourage Housing Diversity Purpose of the Memorandum At the October 15, 2019 City Council meeting, staff was directed to provide a report that summarizes actions taken to date that promote housing desegregation and develop more housing diversity throughout the City limits. 1. Affordable Housing Regulatory Changes, Especially in the R-1 Zone In September 2018, staff was asked to provide an over-view of Affordable Housing issues in the City of Yakima. Due to other Council priorities, the presentation of this report was delayed until March 12, 2019. The City Council gave staff direction to engage quickly in all recommendations that would reduce regulatory barriers to encourage the construction of affordable housing. The Yakima Planning Commission was directed to identify tools that would increase the density and diversity of housing, especially in the R-1 zoning district. Communities throughout the nation have been evaluating methods to encourage diversity and more density in the R-1 zones. The City of Yakima Planning Commission (YPC) held 12 study sessions to develop the recommendations for regulatory amendments. The YPC held a final public hearing on Wednesday, October 23, 2019. The Yakima City Council is scheduled to hold a public hearing on December 4, 2019 to consider the Findings of the YPC. Amendments adopted by the City Council will become effective in January 2020. The draft regulatory changes include: • Modification to Accessory Dwelling Unit definition which would provide for stand-alone ADU structures, like tiny homes, to be located on a single family lot in addition to the single-family home, increasing density and housing types available in the single-family residential zone; • Modification to the Multi-family development definition which would provide for a diversity of housing types on the property without the restriction of having common amenities such as open space or recreational facilities; • New definition for Congregate Living Facility which adds a new type of residential option for builders and developers; • Modification of R-1 Zoning District Intent Statement to allow density of up to 7 units per acre, regardless of housing type; • Changes to Permitted Land Use Table to reduce level of review for various housing types to provide streamlining of permits and increase the zoning districts where different housing types are permitted; 4 • Various amendments to clarify short term rental standards, providing owner-occupied and non-owner-occupied options; • Modifications to development standards for Accessory Dwelling Units; • Increase SEPA exemptions to the maximum level allowed under Growth Management Act (GMA) which decreases cost and time associated with development for projects that qualify; • Add additional optional exemptions for infill development consistent with Comprehensive Plan and GMA; • Allow private streets as part of new subdivisions, outside of the Master Planned Development process which may decrease costs associated with development; and • Allow duplexes on corner lots in new subdivisions in the R-1 and SR zoning districts. 2. Engage the Building Community The City Council Partnership Committee, on June 26, 2019, invited the representatives from the Central Washington Homebuilders and the Yakima Housing Authority to discuss the housing market. Questions about infill housing, townhouse type development and other related topics were covered. The Housing Authority also talked about the role of housing Vouchers and the shortage of vouchers compared to need in Yakima. It was agreed that continued discussion about the business climate, housing market and cooperation would occur in the future. 3. Adoption of Sales Tax Option for Affordable Housing (enabled by HB 1406) The City of Yakima opted to retain a portion of the State Sales Tax authorized by the State Legislature in HB 1406 for the exclusive use of Affordable Housing. The City Council adopted the required Resolution (R-2019-076) and the Ordinance to amend YMC 3.78 on September 9, 2019. The funds may be used by the City for acquiring, rehabilitating or constructing affordable housing, including new units of affordable housing within existing structures or facilities providing supportive housing services, or for providing rental assistance to tenants. The affordable housing assistance is available to persons whose income is at or below sixty percent of the City's median income level. Annual revenue for the city of Yakima from the retention of 0.0146% sales tax for Affordable Housing is expected to yield about $146,500 for this purpose. At this time, the Yakima City Council has not discussed a strategy for using these funds. 4. Participation in E2SHB 1923, Increasing urban residential building capacity With the adoption of E2SHB 1923, the Washington Legislature recognized the statewide need for more affordable housing. The adopted program includes strategies available to Washington communities to increase residential density, streamline permitting and create more diversity in housing development. The City of Yakima, in March of 2019, moved forward on a number of these initiatives prior to the adoption of"E2SHB 1923" as described in Item #1 above. Therefore, consistent with 1923, the City was able to apply for a planning grant that includes Community Engagement. 5 The City Council authorized a grant application to the Washington State Department of Commerce for$100,000 to fund a "Housing Action Plan", as authorized by the Washington State Legislature and specified in ESH 1923. This grant will be used to create an actionable plan to: • Provide community engagement and stakeholder meetings on Affordable Housing issues; • Promote infill on vacant and underutilized lots, • Promote home-ownership for low to moderate income families; • Develop partnerships to construct senior housing and • Support partnerships to construct temporary housing or permanent supportive housing for very low income households or homeless The City of Yakima will be informed in early November about the status of this grant. 5. Equity Study Findings An Equity Study was conducted for the Yakima City Council in 2017, written principally by the Washington State University's Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension (Metro Center) with extensive data support from city staff. Data regarding City assets and development is included in the City web site: hlips://www.yakimavvaxiovicouncil/equity-study/ The final report, dated December 4, 2017, included a variety of data, conclusions and recommendations. One of the most compelling portions of the Study include the maps that present demographics of the City of Yakima. Characteristics of the community are markedly different east and west of 16'h Avenue. The neighborhoods east of 16'h Avenue are characterized by a concentration of lower median family incomes, families living below the poverty line, older homes, and higher percentage of non-white residents. While the 2017 Equity Study does a good job of providing context to the "why" this development pattern exists, the Study encourages the City of Yakima to take actions to create more diversity and density in all neighborhoods in Yakima. An Equity Toolkit approach was recommended to Yakima that would assist in evaluation of the equity of policies and decisions on racial equity and diverse groups. This task could be assigned to the Community Integration Committee if the City Council decides to move forward with those recommendations. 6. City of Yakima Comprehensive Plan Housing Element The Comprehensive Plan 2040 Update was adopted on June 6, 2017 by Resolution R-2017- 071. The Plan, required for compliance with the Washington State Growth Management Act, includes detailed demographic and neighborhood characteristics. The Housing Element (Chapter 5), encourages diverse and affordable housing choices (Goal 5.1) and includes many specific policies and related goals to support the current efforts of the City Council to diversify housing, create density and affordable housing stock. 7. 2018 Legislative Amendment Allows Transfer of Property for Affordable Housing In 2018, the Washington State Legislature amended RCW 39.33.015 (8)(a) to allow a city to transfer or dispose of its property for public benefit purposes —specifically affordable housing — without having to receive fair market value in return, under specific circumstances. This provision allows the City to transfer property without receiving fair market value in return, as long as the housing providers agree to encumber the land, under mutually agreeable terms, for affordable housing developments. it Metropolitan Center for N-2 Applied Research & Extension wvsiIINGTON STATE UN WE RS FlY EXTEN S iON City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis Conducted by the WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension Final Report, Revised December 4, 2017 The Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension WSU Everett 915 N. Broadway Everett, WA 98201 206-219-2426 http://metrocenterwsu,edu 7 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Contents Executive Summary 3 Scope of Work 7 16th Avenue—demographics over time 8 Task 1, Part A: Summary of the City of Yakima's Data Collection Methods 11 Terminology 11 Methods 11 Findings 12 Public Safety Calls for Service 12 Streetlights 12 Code Compliance Requests 13 Parks 13 Transit(Ridership, and shelters/benches) 13 Conclusion 14 Task 1 Part B: Process and Accuracy Audit Site Visit 14 Methods 14 Findings 16 Conclusion 16 Task 2 Part A: Data Quality and Limitations 17 Task 2 Part B: Confirm the input and output variables for the analysis 17 Methods 17 Task 2 Part C: Statistical Analysis 18 Methods 19 Results: Analysis of Historical Data - Parks 19 Results summary- parks 28 Results: Analysis of Current Data 28 Police Department calls for service 28 Fire Department calls for service 32 Streetlights 34 Code compliance requests 38 Transit ridership 41 Bus stop benches 45 Bus stop shelters 49 Conclusion and Recommendations 52 November 2017 8 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 2 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4 17 About the Metro Center 55 Appendices 56 Appendix A—Complete City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis 57 Appendix B—City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Task 1 Report 58 Appendix C—Demographic Variables Over Time 63 Appendix D—Project Proposal 72 Appendix E—Summary of Accuracy Audit Findings 75 Appendix F— Estimated Census Tract Population Over Time 77 Appendix G —Census Tract Maps Over Time 78 December 2017 9 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 3 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Executive Summary Washington State University's Metropolitan Center for Applied Research and Extension (Metro Center) was contracted by the City of Yakima to conduct of an analysis of a specified range of variables using data compiled for the City of Yakima's Equity Study.This report presents the principal findings from the analysis (Appendix A—Complete City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis) and an overview of the city's methods for collecting, storing and sharing that information. This analysis of the Equity Study data is one of a "series of actions the Yakima City Council has taken to address equitable distribution of resources throughout the City of Yakima related to social, racial and economic benefits" (https://www.yakimawa.gov/council/equity-study/). On June 6, 2017,we met with Yakima City Council members on the Neighborhood and Community Building Committee: Chair Dulce Gutierrez,Carmen Mendez and Avina Gutierrez,to clarify the scope of work,define the specific variables and geographic dividing line to be analyzed, and the overall intent of the study. Data used in the analysis came from existing sources, including data collected by the city and census data. We were not contracted to collect additional data for this analysis. This report includes characterization and analysis of data sets specified in the scope of work which follows,and provided to us by city staff: ® Public safety calls for service ® Streetlights ® Code compliance requests ® Parks (excluding privately funded parks, or those that charge for use) ® Transit ridership, shelters, benches These data were compared across demographic variables obtained from U.S. Census Bureau and the geographical dividing line of 16th Avenue. In addition to examining the applicability of the data for the purposes of the Equity Study, we also documented the methods of collection,storage,and sharing of these data between departments. On September 15, 2017 we submitted an initial report(Appendix B—City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Task 1 Report) which concluded that City of Yakima has a professional and appropriate process for collecting,storing, and analyzing data,and a staff knowledgeable in the data infrastructure. Additionally,the data is recorded and handled in a reasonable and professional manner for its original intent: to support the city's geospatial data and land use planning. However, our examination revealed that while most of data sets assessed in this contract were developed using best practices and are a professionally appropriate resource for the operations of their associated departments,with the exception of the Parks and Recreation and Parcel data, the data did not include date attributes. For example, the data indicated the presence of a streetlight, but did not indicate the date it was installed. As a result,while the data are appropriate for their designated use in city asset management,they could not be used to evaluate budgetary decisions and resource allocation over time, making it difficult to use the data to address the equitable distribution of resources throughout the city. The specific details of the utility of the data, and a summary of the analysis of the data sets,appear in the body of this report. December 2017 10 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 4 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Findings and Recommendations Demographic Change over Time The City of Yakima has undergone many changes since it was incorporated in 1883.Yakima's population has become more diverse, more educated,and median family incomes have risen (Appendix C— Demographic Variables Over Time). However, although social conditions in Yakima improved overall, they have not been shared by all residents as demonstrated by the ethnic segregation marked by 16th Avenue: ® The proportion of residents who are of Hispanic origin has increased at a greater rate on the east side ® Median family incomes have increased at a greater rate on the west side ® College graduation rates have increased on the west side and decreased on the east side ® The proportion of youth has increased over time on the east side. Whereas the number of seniors has steadily decreased on the east side and steadily increased on the west side over the same period City of Yakima's Data Collection Methods Our analysis suggests the City of Yakima has a professional and appropriate process for collecting, storing,and analyzing data,and a staff knowledgeable in the data infrastructure. We found no major sources of explicit bias in the collection, handling or storing of data. However, we did find several opportunities to improve data quality and quantity related to equity analysis ® Develop the Yak Back application in Spanish to meet the needs of more residents • Develop an anonymous way to determine the status of Yak Back complaints to eliminate duplicate complaints and illustrate the city's responsiveness • Create a system to allow residents to request additional street lights ® Create criteria for prioritizing code compliance requests, including those that do not threaten public safety ® Creating a formal system of reporting the conditions of bus benches and shelters ® Add the condition of park amenities to the data currently collected Process and AccuracyAudit Site Visit Our team was able to confirm the accuracy of the parks data provided for the Equity Study. Using the parks data as an indicator of overall quality, and in combination with the assessment of data collection methods, we can infer the general reliability of the city's data. We also identified opportunities to provide park improvements with an increased emphasis on equitable distribution of parks and amenities. ® Add qualitative data (condition of amenities) to supplement the quantitative data (existence of an amenity) ® Develop a set of criteria for prioritizing park improvements that include indicators of equity, in addition to the current practice of informing service organizations of planned capital improvements ® Provide the prioritized list, and suggestions,to private entities seeking to fund park improvements ® Develop a policy whereby the city keeps a percentage of private contributions for parks to support park improvements and amenities across the city December 2017 11 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 5 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis-Final Report 12.4.17 Statistical Analysis of Historical Data-Parks Parks were the only data that included an attribute storing the year of establishment, allowing for an analysis from 1980-2015. Much of the data needs to be considered in historical terms; the east side was developed earlier, following typical pre-WWII patterns (smaller parcels on regular street-blocks), whereas the west side was more recently developed,with more suburban forms(larger parcels, some irregular street patterns). More recent developments often include parks as formal design elements, whereas older developments frequently did not include similar land set aside for parks. ® When stratified by 16th Avenue, it appears that far more persons on the east side reside within -mile of parks than on the west side. ® While many demographic variables showed little change over the years, it appears that within the %-mile area around parks,there were lowering proportions of persons of Hispanic origin, younger and older persons, married persons, and home owners. ® Some notable trends are the decrease in the number of persons residing within 1/4 mile of a park on the east side, and an increase on the west side; a drop in younger persons within buffers on the east side; and changes in the proportion of Hispanics that seem to mirror general demographic shifts over time. Statistical Analysis of Current Data Most of the GIS data sets were not encoded for longitudinal analysis-that is,the features in the GIS do not contain attributes representing the time at which the real-world features were created, installed or developed. Therefore,analyses for specific data sets were restricted to examination of current features and data sets with respect to current demographic data. These data sets therefore represent a benchmark more than allowing for analysis. No regression trend lines were added to the graphs; due to the small sample size, trend lines are easily leveraged by outlier points, and correlation coefficients and p-values are unstable. Findings include: ® Police department calls for service o The tracts with the greatest number of per-capita calls were on the east side, but there appeared to be no association between demographic characteristics and counts of calls per capita. ® Fire department calls for service o There is no consistent trend of more calls coming from tracts with differential income, percent of residents of Hispanic origin, or renters. ® Street lights o There appears to be no general association between streetlight density and demographic variables that cannot be explained by basic principles of urban form and historical development. ® Code compliance requests o Code compliance requests per capita appear to occur in greater numbers on the east side. o The data do not indicate whether the resident who submitted the code compliance request is a neighbor, landlord,or someone who is just driving by.Therefore, the origin of the request cannot be directly ascribed to any difference in services provided. o The data did not include any consistent record-level information on either status or date of resolution; it is not possible in this analysis to make any conclusions on questions of equity related to how the City responds to such requests. December 2017 12 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 6 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 ® Transit ridership o Patterns in transit ridership are similar to those of streetlights, and are likely due to similar underlying urban characteristics. O There is slightly higher ridership in tracts containing lower proportions of persons under 18 years of age, pointing to a potential mismatch between level of service and need. O The patterns of bus stop bench density are similar to those of transit ridership, likely indicating that benches and shelters are placed in locations with greater ridership. O Bus stop bench density appears to be higher in tracts with lower proportions of persons 65 years or older on the east side. Conclusion and Additional Recommendations Over the course of this project we found that the city is doing professional work in the development and management of the various data sets under their purview,gathered for specific purposes related to city and department management.The data sets are useful for their original purpose but, as this analysis has shown, the data sets within the scope of this study cannot adequately provide an assessment of whether city resources have been equitably distributed. While this determination cannot be made,we believe that information in this analysis, and the act of engaging in this analysis, can prove valuable to the city. City Council approved this analysis of the Equity Study data with the intention of using it as a tool to move forward, and to inform data driven decisions to benefit the city. Data driven decisions cannot be made without reliable data and proper systems for handling them. Our study concluded that Yakima has both the staff and the systems to support the use of data as a powerful tool for decision making,and data that can be used as an initial conditions statement and a base upon which to build. This is a tremendous asset for the city. The city can now determine what additional data it needs to collect-date and time attributes, for example—based on the questions the city wants to address in the future. We provide the additional recommendations to assist the city: ® In order to look forward, the city may benefit from also examining its history and the current conditions that evolved from typical patterns of growth. ® As a reference for understanding the forces leading to modern inequities in the City of Yakima, it may be useful to place Yakima in the larger context of other cities across America that are facing similar situations. ® Many cities, large and small, have developed criteria for making decisions that include equity, typically called an Equity Lens. An Equity Lens is a practical tool to help insure that planning, decision making and resource allocation lead to policies and programs that help to achieve equity across the community, racially, socially and economically. ® To evaluate progress toward equity,the city must determine what it should measure. Hence, the value of a reliable system of collecting and managing data,which this study concluded that Yakima possesses, becomes critically important. ® A cornerstone of equitable decision making is authentic community and stakeholder engagement. It,too, is a process that requires care and commitment to insure that engagement sparks lively civil discourse without resulting in acrimony and deep division. December 2017 13 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 7 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Scope of Work The Metro Center's Scope of Work consisted of the two tasks listed below, as specified by the City Council.The findings of this report are organized by these tasks. The complete project proposal is found in Appendix D—Project Proposal. Task 1: Validate Equity Study data Methods Confirm with City Council up to 6 data sets identified in Task 2 B, excluding US Census Bureau data, to assess the validity of those data. For each data set selected we will conduct, as appropriate: A. A process audit by interviewing City staff and reviewing documents associated with how these data were collected,compiled,summarized,and made accessible to the public. B. An accuracy audit of the data by randomly selecting a representative sample of data points,and independently determining the accuracy through direct observations. Task 2:Analyze existing Equity Study data to assess the geographic distribution of public resources and funds(e.g. city,State, or Federal) Methods A. Assess the quality of the data to understand any qualitative concerns and limitations that would impact data analysis or interpretation (i.e. period of time collected, geographically resolution of the data, etc.). B. Confirm the input and output variables for the analysis, and the geographical dividing line. Initial request included the following 6 data sets, upon which this estimate is based: ® Input variable: o Demographics, to include income, race, education level, marital status, home owner or renter, property value and age ® Output variables: o Public safety calls for service (location, response time) o Streetlights o Code compliance requests o Parks (exempt parks that are privately funded or charge for use) o Transit ridership, shelters, benches ® Geographical dividing line o 16th Avenue C. Perform the appropriate statistical analyses to assess any relationships amongst the input and output(i.e. response)variables. December 2017 14 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 8 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 16th Avenue - demographics over time The City of Yakima has undergone many changes since it was incorporated in 1883. Economic and demographic transitions,as well as geographic changes have been ongoing for the city as it adapts to regional and national influences. In the past thirty-five years,Yakima's population has become more diverse, more educated, and median family incomes have risen (Appendix C—Demographic Variables Over Time). However, although social conditions in Yakima improved overall, they have not been shared by all residents as demonstrated by the ethnic segregation marked by 16th Avenue. The following four sets of graphs illustrate different trends that residents in eastern versus western Yakima have experienced between 1980 and 2015. These figures show the significance of the dividing line of 16th Avenue, which was identified by the City Council as a demarcation line for this project. Figure 1 shows that the proportion of residents who are of Hispanic origin has increased at a greater rate on the east side; Figure 2 shows that median family incomes have increased at a greater rate on the west side, and Figure 3 shows increasing college graduation rates on the west side and decreasing rates on the east side. Figure 4 shows dramatic changes in age profiles; the proportion of youth has increased over time on the east side, particularly from 2000 onward,whereas the number of seniors has steadily decreased on the east side and steadily increased on the west side over the same period. percent Hispanic 60 oxixixt oxixixt — 16th Ave divide C secs 2weake a ass weak mem NAWAWN 20mwmwm mwmwm - mwmwm mwmwm mwmwm xixixittx xixixittx xixixittx 0- 1980 1990 2000 20'I0 29f5 year Figure 1: Percent Hispanic, east and west of 16th Avenue December 2017 The WSU MetroResearch City ofy PoRan ° alame Equity Center for Apsi. ISS Study A Flied is nattis. Is—Fi & Extension median tam. IlY income nal Report ension 9 12010.7 600--On111111 .- 11111 .........s _ ....... 40000 ..,. ' ("<" 1 6ti, I' 20000 ....00 owym e!!!!!!!:Ve dill i—ri e .., u --.__.. __.. 1980 -...... .Avenue Figure 2: family income, 19.90 coo Median fa • 2010 .. year east and west of . 16th -- December 2017 16 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 10 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 percent college graduate ............. ............ 15- . 16th Ave divide 'E" 4) 10- . :$$$$$$$$$: 2 or o_ w 5- 0- 140 1990 2000 2O0 2015 year Figure 3: Percent of residents who are college graduates,east and west of 16th Avenue percent c 18 years percent>t 65 years ....... hen wee weer en' weer rya??? Qii? .,.. w..... Ay? hy.‘ ay in'''rii =Ay yiany ay ay ........ wan' •ca' 1 eth Ave divkie VA VA ta 16t?,Ave divide 0........ 'e • . in e 0 '4... **X 0....... a — — a a — a a a — a — - a a- a a a a a a a a- a a a a- a a a year year Figure 4: Percent of residents by age (< 18, left; right),east and west of 16th Avenue December 2017 17 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 11 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Task 1, Part A: Summary of the City of Yakima's Data Collection Methods This section provides an overview of the methods used by City of Yakima employees to collect,store and share data for five city-provided data sets: public safety calls for service,streetlights, code compliance requests, parks, and transit(ridership, benches, and shelters). Terminology Throughout this report the following terms: equity,equality and bias will be used. As it relates to the scope of work of this project, the following definitions will be used ® Equality—an equal service level regardless of need Equity—a service level appropriate to need, regardless of the absolute amount of service • Bias—intentional or unintentional (systematic) treatment or distortion of either equity or equality in favor of,or against, one group as compared with another Methods After receiving portions of the data and conducting an initial review, we met by phone with City Manager Cliff Moore, Community Development Director Joan Davenport, and city staff to clarify the intent of some portions of Task 1 of the Scope of Work, and to make sure there was a common understanding of the city's interest in positive strategies for the future. Through this discussion we came to understand that the language of the scope required clarification. Task 1 "Validate Equity Study data" means something different in the academic realm and the applied real-world one. A technical data validation process would be overly statistical, particularly with a "representative sample of data points" across the various datasets,would be prohibitively expensive and, most important, would not achieve the city's objectives. Instead, we decided that we needed to determine if the city's data are being collected and recorded in appropriate ways(Task 1, part A), and whether the data are useful to the current analysis (Task 1, part B).Then, as appropriate,we would check for accuracy of the acceptable data by ground-truthing through site visits (Task 1, part B) to complete Task 1. For our process audit we reached out to city staff in multiple departments to learn about the internal processes used to gather,compile,and store data for the Yakima Equity Study. Staff were uniformly open and helpful in sharing their processes for data collection and handling with us, as well as the data itself. We contacted the City of Yakima's Supervising Senior Analyst,Tom Sellsted, to obtain the five datasets of interest. After reviewing the data available, we spoke with Tom Sellsted and Jill Ballard to discuss the methods used to collect and display datasets in the Equity Study's ArcMap Online Story Maps (https:((ya ki m a.maps.a rcgis.comic pps/Ma pJou rna I ji ndex.htm I?a ppid=ed b33521fed 7400e839ae 1b1e7a d3fcc). Mr. Sellsted also provided us with contact information for the city data steward(s) of each of the five datasets, and we scheduled one-hour phone calls with each data steward. During these calls we asked questions to identify and clarify our understanding of the methods used to collect the data used in the Equity Study. We took detailed notes during the call and, in some cases, followed up with additional emails or calls for clarification. December 2017 18 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 12 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Findings Public Safety Calls for Service Public safety calls for Yakima Fire and Police services are recorded by the 9-1-1 dispatch center operated county-wide by Yakima County's Suncomm. When a call is received by Suncomm,the call taker confirms the physical address and inputs it into a database shared with city staff. As call takers continue gathering more information from callers,a dispatcher simultaneously contacts the appropriate agency to provide services to the caller. The location,type of response,services provided, and department providing the services are all recorded in real time. Because this information is being input directly into a database shared with the city, current data on public safety calls for service are continuously being recorded. This method is used to record all calls received by Suncomm,from all city locations, and for all types of service needs. Data for the Fire Department and Police Department calls for service are both recorded in the same way. The data displayed in the story maps of the city's Equity Study is populated by the data in the database shared by Suncomm and the city. A programming code (using Python, the same coding language used by ArcMap, a geographic information system software) collects the real-time data being input into the database by Suncomm call takers,and displays it on the Equity Study story map. Although the story maps only display the most recent month of data, Suncomm has been recording data for Public Safety Calls for Service in a way that can be displayed on GIS maps since 2012. Calls that are made directly to the Yakima Police Department are manually added to the database shared by the city and Suncomm as are service requests from walk-in visitors to the Police Department offices. Streetlights Digital maps of streetlight locations were developed over 15 years ago,and display the current locations of streetlights throughout the city. Originally satellite photography was analyzed to identify and geolocate streetlights within the city. Since then,the digital maps have been updated as needed to show the addition of new streetlights, or the acquisition of streetlights formerly owned by Pacific Power. The Public Works Department identifies damaged or non-functioning streetlights in two ways: first from phone calls and submissions on Yak Back (the city's web application to report potholes, graffiti,etc.) and from residents who observe a streetlight that needs repair. There is no documentation to indicate how many residents call rather than use the Yak Back application. The second way that staff identify streetlights needing maintenance is by direct observation -driving along portions of the city's street grid after dark between November and March, beginning with main arterials and streets around schools, and working their way along the grid to residential streets. In this way, all streetlights are assessed for maintenance by City staff annually. In 2017 the Public Works Department is overseeing the installation of LED light bulbs in all of the city's streetlights. During this upgrade process the GIS locational data is being updated and revised. Residents can request a new streetlight be added to their street by contacting the city. Those requests are prioritized by the city's transportation engineers,who review crime statistic data,the cost of installation, and the length of time a request has been on the list. The target for the spacing of streetlights is between 200 and 250 feet, but can be as far as 400 feet apart, depending on the dispersion of the light by a given streetlight. December 2017 19 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 13 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Code Compliance Requests Data used in the Equity Study to show the locations and type of code compliance request are recorded by the Yak Back web application.The Equity Study story maps only display data from the Yak Back application; those data do not reflect the code compliance requests made by phone,or those initiated by Yakima Code Compliance Officers or other city staff. When Code Compliance Officers receive code compliance requests, from either the Yak Back application, phone calls,or from other city departments,that information is entered into the SMARTGOV database used by the Code Administration Division. Because the code compliance cases managed in SMARTGOV do not have a method for tagging whether a case was submitted by Yak Back or other means, it is not clear how many cases are initiated by phone versus Yak Back. City staff report that requests submitted via Yak Back make up the majority of requests.Yak Back provides an anonymous means of contacting the City and can be used by anyone with internet access, however,Yak Back is only available in English, and no other languages spoken by city residents—a limitation to this type of request system. After a code compliance request is made and a case is opened by Code Compliance Officers in SMARTGOV, the officers update the information related to the case on a daily basis until the case has been resolved. When resolved,cases are marked as"closed" in the SMARTGOV database, and no longer receive updates unless re-opened. In this way, up-to-date information on the progress of code compliance requests is available to city staff, and can be used to develop GIS maps as needed. Code Compliance Officers prioritize their responses to code compliance requests based on the degree to which they believe a case threatens public safety. There is no formal criteria for prioritizing the officers' decisions—only their judgment. By developing an anonymous way to find out the status and resolution of Yak Back complaints, such as a case number that could be entered into the application,the city could potentially reduce the number of duplicate or follow-up complaints,and illustrate its responsiveness to residents'concerns. Parks The Yakima parks inventory is updated in every Comprehensive Plan cycle. During Comprehensive Plan updates, the Yakima Parks and Recreation department(YPR) surveys the parks and their amenities, takes note of needed improvements,and assesses current conditions. The updated inventory of parks and their amenities is then compiled by YPR into a report,which is shared with the data analysts who created the online Equity Study maps.The data analysts translate the parks data into GIS format, and develop ArcGIS maps with attribute tables that describe information about each park, such as Capital Improvement Plan spending, types of amenities,and completed projects. Details about the condition of the amenities are not recorded,only that it exists. Transit(Ridership,and shelters/benches) Transit ridership in the City of Yakima is recorded by the bus drivers who enter rider information, including the number of passengers entering and the method of payment, into an application on an iPad.The iPads on city buses run a JavaScript application that submits data to a database shared by Yakima Transit and the city GIS analysts.These data were used to populate Equity Study maps with December 2017 20 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 14 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 ridership information as soon as it is recorded. There is no alteration or editing of the data between when they are taken from the recordings of the bus drivers and uploaded onto the Equity Study maps. In the event of failure of an iPad or the network, manual devices for counting ridership are also available to bus drivers.These manually recorded data are later entered into the database by transit staff to maintain accurate ridership data. The transit benches and shelter location data are the product of annual inventory surveys that Yakima Transit conducts. The GIS data are also updated to reflect the removal or addition of benches and shelters between annual surveys. The condition of benches and shelters is informally observed both by riders and bus drivers,who typically notify Yakima Transit maintenance crews if a bench or shelter is damaged or needs maintenance. Creating a formal system of reporting these conditions would help reduce the possibility of any bias in the reporting. Either residents or Yakima Transit employees can suggest the placement of a bench or shelter.The criteria for approving the addition of a bench or shelter focus primarily on the availability of space in the public right of way, condition of the sidewalk and the volume of riders who use that bus stop. Conclusion. Our analysis suggests the City of Yakima has a professional and appropriate process for collecting, storing,and analyzing data,and a staff knowledgeable in the data infrastructure. Most of the city's data is recorded and handled in a reasonable and professional manner for its original intent: to support the city's geospatial data and land use planning. We note that Yakima's GIS architecture was developed over more than 30 years,and that the city benefits from having a mature system in place. We found no major sources of explicit bias in the collection, handling or storing of data; although we did find opportunities for the city to decrease the possibility of unintentional bias by creating additional criteria as noted in this assessment. Task 1 Part B: Process and Accuracy Audit Site Visit To complete the accuracy audit described in Task 1, part B,we reviewed the Yakima Parks and Recreation (YPR) parks data. This data set was selected in part because of its applicability to the City's Equity Study,specifically the ability to track parks over time. The accuracy audit was conducted on September 12th at ten city parks to verify the parks data provided by YPR for the Equity Study,and to further assess differences in parks on either side of 16th Avenue that may not be recorded,or obvious, in the data. YPR staff provided information and support during the sit visit. It should be noted that privately funded parks were included in this process to provide a more comprehensive assessment however, per the scope of work, privately funded parks were not included in the statistical analysis. Methods We developed a set of criteria for selecting ten parks at which to perform direct observations in order to confirm the amenities listed in the parks data, and to compare the accuracy of the data on either side of 16th Avenue.The following criteria were used to select ten parks for onsite observation: December 2017 21 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 15 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 ® Geographic Location: select parks that are entirely located on either the west or east side of 16th Avenue, and do not span across that dividing line. o For eight parks: select only parks that have not received funding from private donations o For contrast,select two additional parks,one on each side of 16th, that were built using private donations ® Data Enumeration or Completeness: select parks for which data was not richly recorded and amenities enumerated,to possibly provide YPR with a more complete inventory. This would include for example: o Counts of amenities rather than binary observation of presence vs. absence of an amenity o Presence of parking lots o ADA parking compliance ® Variability: select parks with different types of amenities (fields, usage type, bathrooms,courts, etc.) as well as variations in size and age of the park ® Amenities: select parks in pairs,one on the east side of 16th and one on the west side that have the same type of amenity,and could have their condition and quality assessed and directly compared Ken Wilkinson,Yakima Parks and Recreation Manager, and Jenise Sanders, Parks and Recreation Administrative Assistant,showed us each park and answered questions pertaining to the current information provided and the history of park development. During the visits to each park we walked through the park, and recorded notes on data collection sheets. We paid specific attention to the amenity that was selected for comparison (e.g., horseshoe pits at both Milroy Park and West Valley Community Park). We also took photographs of the parks and the built environment of the surrounding neighborhood. Table 1 shows the complete list of the parks visited. Appendix E—Summary of Accuracy Audit Findings shows a summary of findings at each park. Table 1: Summary of parks visited,and the amenities of interest Side of Council Park Name Amenity Comparison 16th District E 1 McGuinness Picnic Shelters W 3 Emil Kissel Picnic shelters E 2 South 2nd St Open space W 6 Gilbert Park Open Space E 1 Milroy Park Horseshoe pits W 7 West Valley Community park Horseshoe pits E 2 Yakima Arboretum Arboretum (landscape, maintenance) December 2017 22 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 16 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 W 3 Fisher golf course Golf course (landscape, maintenance) E 2 Kiwanis park (private funding) Recreation facilities- baseball fields W 4 Franklin Park (private Recreation facilities- Pool funding) Findings The direct observations of the selected parks confirmed the accuracy of the documentation of the amenities, approximate size,and location of the parks. Appendix B provides a summary of the audit findings. While these data might be used for the Equity Study, there are observable differences in the age and size of amenities between parks that are not described by the data. For example,while both McGuinness Park and Emil Kissel Park each have one picnic shelter, the available data does not describe the size,age,or condition of the respective picnic shelters. By adding qualitative data to supplement the quantitative, primarily binary data,the Equity Study can be better informed about the conditions that city residents experience. According to YPR parks data and conversations with staff,a portion of the improvements to Yakima's parks have been made possible by contributions from several non-profit and service organizations.The city benefits from the generosity of those organizations, however, improvements to city parks by donation have been made based primarily on the interest of the group providing the donation. This finding provides an opportunity for the city to make future decisions that increase the equitable distribution of parks amenities by, for example,developing prioritization criteria to determine the order in which parks receive funding for improvements (from both public,and private sources). Including considerations of equity in these criteria provides the YPR with a valuable tool for guiding the donations and volunteer efforts of Yakima's highly engaged service organizations. Conclusion Given that the parks data can be analyzed to show its relationship between demographic "input" variables over time, it is likely the only directly applicable dataset of the five "output"variables provided to the Metro Center team. This was an important factor in choosing parks as the dataset for which to conduct an accuracy audit. By making direct observations at ten parks with the assistance of YPR staff, we were able to confirm the accuracy of the parks data provided for the Equity Study. Using the parks data as an indicator of overall quality,and in combination with the assessment of data collection methods in the previous section,we can infer the general reliability of the City of Yakima's data. Although intention bias was not observable, we identified the opportunity to provide park improvements with an increased emphasis on equitable distribution of parks and amenities by providing guidance regarding donations and efforts of service groups. This would entail developing a set of criteria for prioritizing parks investments to include indicators of equity(such as income,educational achievement, property value, race,and distance to parks).These criteria could be added to the comprehensive planning documents and planned capital improvements to parks that YPR already shares with service organizations. December 2017 23 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 17 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Task 2 Part A: Data Quality and Limitations The city is to be commended for its long commitment to a citywide Geographic Information System. However, it is important that staff and council recognize the limitations of that data to answer questions for which it was not originally designed. Because the datasets were collected and developed for purposes other than to assess equity,they are insufficient to do so because they lack necessary elements including but not limited to: an accurate recording of the date of resource development(e.g. the date a streetlight was installed), qualitative characteristics of variables,or the method that data are collected by the city (e.g.Yak Back). In Appendix B,we provide a summary table of the data sets and the possible usage of each. We hope this will help council understand possible approaches they might take, and what analyses are not supported by the data as composed. Task 2 Part B: Confirm the input and output variables for the analysis Methods The data provided were limited with regard to being able to answer questions of equity,so we developed additional datasets by compiling data sets for each of the demographic "input"variables: income, race,education level, marital status, and homeowner or renter. These data sets were collected for years 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010,and 2015. It should be noted that the 1970 Census data contained no values for Yakima County,so analyses for 1970 were not possible. Census data came from three sources: • 1970, 1980, 1990-time series data: NHGIS (https:Jjwww.nhgis.orgj) • 2000 Decennial data, US Census:Summary File 3, 2000 (https:jjwww.census.govjmpjwwwjcatjdecennial census 2000jsummary file 3.html) • 2010, 2015 American Community Survey data: censusreporter.org (http:jjcensusreporter.tu m bl r.ca m/postj73727555158/ea sier-a ccess-ta-a cs-data) The Census data collected also included: • Total population • Persons by sex • Persons by age,with specific classes<18 and >_65 • Persons by race (white, nonwhite) • Persons of Hispanic origin • Total households • Total families • Persons by nativity • Persons 25 years and over by educational attainment • Household income in previous year • Family income in previous year • Occupied housing units by tenure • Marital status • Poverty (percent of population below poverty level) December 2017 24 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 18 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 These data sets were used as input variables to perform statistical analysis of output variables (Task 2, part B),as well as to tell the demographic story of Yakima over time (Appendix D). Data for property value and age was also obtained from city GIS staff. Since these data include time stamps (i.e. a specific date and/or time associated with the variable),they allowed for a longitudinal analysis of age and value through the years of census data available. Data obtained from city GIS staff were converted to a PostgreSQL/PostGIS database, used to run tabulations, and then used to determine any correlations. For each data set and each field of interest, we generated tabulations of values.These tabulations should prove useful as a guide for city staff in forming particular questions about data sets. Overlay analyses were performed (e.g., point-in-polygon) to generate summaries by administrative unit. Administrative units were represented by sociodemographic variables,and bivariate scatter plots were generated for each pair of variables of interest. Task 2 Part C: Statistical Analysis Results are presented in two sections,one for data that were encoded with temporal data (i.e., date of infrastructure installation),and one for current data that did not have attributes representing date of installation. In order to perform longitudinal analysis of infrastructure data stored in the GIS, it is necessary to have GIS data sets that include variables that represent when a feature of infrastructure was created or installed (e.g., installation date for a streetlight or patch of sidewalk). Throughout this report,graphs were selected that best illustrate the findings. All of the graphs created for this study can be found in the online Appendix A at http://gist.gis.washington.edu/yakima equity. It should be noted that the data and analysis in Appendix A will be transferred to the city in the near future,and this URL will cease to be active once that transfer has occurred.The city will determine how to make this information available. Scatter plot graphs illustrate results of the statistical analysis. Scatter plot graphs present demographic variables of interest on the X-axis (horizontal) and compared to quantities,such as per-capita area of parks on the Y-axis (vertical),time-matched by year. The dots indicate individual census tracts (or tracts that were bisected by 16th Avenue),with census tracts east of 16th represented by orange dots,and west of 16th indicated by blue dots. In cases where a census tract crosses 16th Avenue,some pairs of points represent the same tract ID, but the E and W portions, respectively. To aid in interpretation of the demographic graphs,the table (Appendix F) and set of maps (Appendix G) enumerate census tracts with population (in the table) and tract IDs(in the table and on the maps). The tract IDs can be used to cross-reference the graphs and the maps. It should be noted that some tract IDs changed over time, such as tract 900 being split to 901 and 902 after the year 2000,and some tracts had no overlap with the city limits in earlier years (e.g., 2802). The set of Census tract maps display the census tracts with census tract identifier and "e"or"w" based on the 16th Avenue dividing line. These maps, along with the tables of Census tract demographic December 2017 25 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 19 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 aggregates should be helpful in interpreting the scatter plots, which include text labels showing the tract identifiers. It should be noted that 16th Avenue divides some tracts; for those tracts that span 16th Avenue, there will be two data points on the map,each with an area-weighted estimate of the proportion of the both X and Y variables. Methods Historical Demographics In the first set of analyses, historical boundaries (i.e. annexations) of City of Yakima were overlain with contemporaneous Census data to provide estimates of the demographic conditions of Yakima as a whole,and also as stratified by the 16th Avenue geographical dividing line. In the GIS overlay process, census tracts that are straddled by the city limits are "clipped."The ratio of clipped area to original area gives a value that can be multiplied by the original census values to produce an estimate of the enumeration within the clipped area (assuming a uniform distribution across the census tract). For example, if a census tract had 4000 persons, and 75%of the tract was within the city limits,the estimate of the number of persons in the portion of that tract within the city limits would be 3000 (4000*0.75=3000). For enumerated variables (i.e.,counts of persons), the sum of these area-weighted estimates was generated. Parcel-level data were used for historical analysis of property value and year built. Because each parcel is recorded with its year of construction and assessed value, it was possible to select parcels that were in existence at each census year. It should be noted that this analysis is not truly historical, in the sense that we did not have access to data representing parcels that were redeveloped between the original year built and the census year used for the analysis. Historical Infrastructure Allocation In order to perform longitudinal analysis of infrastructure data stored in the GIS, it is necessary to have GIS data sets that include variables that represent when a feature of infrastructure was created or installed. As mentioned previously, most of the GIS data sets do not include variables that can be used for historical analysis except for parks data. Results:Analysis of Historical Data - Parks Most parks were encoded for historical analysis with an attribute storing the year of establishment. For these analyses, the park data were selected to match the year of the census data, such that the GIS data selection represented those infrastructure features that existed at the time of the census.The park polygon data were then overlain on the census polygon data to generate tables that were then graphed, allowing comparison of potential park accessibility and demographic patterns. Parks Historical analysis of parks was done using two separate methods. For both methods, per the scope of work, parks which received private funding in the past were excluded from the analysis.The following parks were not included in the analysis: ® Chesterly Park ® Franklin Park& Pool ® Harman Center at Galleon Park December 2017 26 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 20 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 • Kiwanis Park&Gateway Sports Complex • Larson Park • Miller Park • North 44th Ave. Park • Randall Park • Rosalma Garden Club Park • Southeast Community Park The parks within Yakima City limits are shown in Figure 5. It should be noted that some of the parks did not have a value for the "year created" field and were not included in this analysis; results would differ with the use of a fully attributed data set. Note that there are generally larger and fewer parks in west side tracts, and smaller, but more dispersed parks on the east side. This is consistent with parks distribution in other cities where more space and larger parcels of land are available in the newer, expanding, portions of the city, compared to smaller parcels in the older,original portions. Parks ......... ................................................................................................... AM 5lkv a - ..................................................................... : ':: :::::.. :::::::::: .............................. 5 ................ ................. ............................. .............. Figure 5: Parks in Yakima with 2015 city limits December 2017 27 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 21 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 For parks and census data sets,years were matched (e.g., for the 1980 census,only those parks that existed in 1980 were selected). A GIS intersection was performed to tabulate the total area of parks within each census tract. Demographic characteristics of the tract and the area of parks within the tract were graphed as XY scatter plots. Because many tracts had no parks overlapping their boundaries,the number of available points is small, therefore no formal statistical tests were performed. The area of park per capita across 1980-2015, stratified by the 16th Avenue divide, is shown in Figure 6. Overall,there was more park area per capita on the west side versus the east side. The other noticeable trend appears to show that the amount of park area per capita was greater for western Yakima in 1980, but as the city grew in subsequent years, the area of park per capita became more uniform across the 16th Avenue dividing line. It should be noted that the calculation of per-capita area of park is dependent on both the total area of park as well as the number of residents. Additionally, the area of park does not necessarily reflect actual accessibility, and cannot reflect quality or amenities. Area of parks per capita stratified by 16th Avenue 400m 380- 16th Ave divide La 200 r � w 10,0 0- 1000 1090 2000 2010 20 a year Figure 6: Area of park per capita, 1980-2015 Figure 7 and Figure 8 show park data from 1980, plotting per-capita park area on the Y-axis (vertical) against the percent of residents on the X-axis (horizontal) who were Hispanic and median family income, respectively (including all data (left panel), and with a large "outlier" removed (right panel)). The obvious stratification in the X-axis (percent Hispanic and median family income) reflect the general segregation of ethnicity and income across the 16th Avenue divide. Overall,the amount of park per capita is uniform across census tracts, meaning that the data values (dots) are distributed vertically similar regardless of their location along the horizontal axis. Yet, there is December 2017 28 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 22 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 an overall greater variation on the west side,with a single west side tract having a relatively large area of park within the tract. This is tract 1100,at the southern end of the City, intersecting Fairbrook Islands, Kissel Park, and Tahoma Cemetery, and with an estimated population of 2,244 persons. The three tracts with the greatest per-capita area of park are on the west side.These tracts also have a relatively low Hispanic population, although one tract on the west side with the lowest Hispanic population also has the lowest per-capita park area. Figure 8 should be interpreted with caution since per-capita values are highly dependent on the denominator(i.e., tract population); two tracts with the same park area but different populations will have different per-capita area—which is not necessarily a good proxy for accessibility. 980:park area per capila a percent Hispanic 1980:park area per capita x percent Hispanic arc- :§On- 2rF.- 18th Ave dvide 16th Ave&vide m an.8 em SO6 CG- percent Hispanic percent Hispanic Figure 7: Park area per capita by percent Hispanic, 1980. All data (left); outlier removed (right) Figure 8 is more or less a mirror of Figure 7,since median family income and percent of residents with Hispanic origin are strongly correlated. 1980:park area per capita x median family income 1980:park area per capita x median family income rd 16th Ave divide - f em Ave divide E f a wn..♦ t6 a,n=R F v p. §c: melon family income i,$j median femdy income($i Figure 8: Park area per capita by median family income, 1980. All data (left); outlier removed (right) December 2017 29 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 23 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 The same data are shown for 2015 in Figure 9,and Figure 10. There are more data values, reflecting both the geographical growth of the city as well as some census tracts being subdivided,this is indicated by the larger number of both orange and green dots. Comparing 1980 data with those for 2015 show similar patterns, but now with a single east side tract having a relatively large per-capita area in park land.This represents tract 1602 at the far eastern side of the City, containing the large areas of Sarg Hubbard Park and the Yakima Area Arboretum, but with an estimated population of only 791 persons. Therefore,while this city has grown geographically and in the number of residents,the general uniform distribution of park area per capita relative to percent Hispanic and median family income has not changed overtime. 2916:Mark area per capita x percent Hspar,ic 2016:park area per capita x percent Htsparic leti5 Aye thvele 151h Ave dvate u m w:n w.n=e d percent Hispanic percent Hispanic Figure 9: Park area per capita by percent Hispanic, 2015. All data (left); outlier removed (right) December 2017 30 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 24 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 2036:park area pe capita x median family income 2015.park area per capita x median Family income 62.6 16th Ave divide 161h Ave divide n.a n •n h..R R " YY.n. 'I yi u tr median family income(S) median family income tat Figure 10: Park area per capita by median family income, 2015. All data (left); outlier removed (right) One method to assess accessibility and equitable distribution or access is look at how close individuals live to a park. Therefore, Buffers of 1/4-mile, as a proxy for locations within reasonable walking distance, were generated for the parks polygons. These buffers were then overlain on the census tracts to obtain estimated demographic counts (converted to percentages using total tract population as the denominator) within and outside the buffers. This is similar to the approach used to assign absolute population numbers to census tracts that crossed the 16th Avenue dividing line in the above analyses. The relative proportion of persons in each demographic category was tabulated using the same year-to- year matching. Total area of parks per capita was tabulated for each year with stratification by 16th Avenue. December 2017 31 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 25 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Figure 11 presents demographic characteristics of the population residing within 1/4 mile of any park. For example,about 45%of Yakima residents have their home within the% mile buffer (upper left corner graph), and between 40%and 45%of residents whose homes are within the buffer are of Hispanic origin (upper right graph). While many demographic variables showed little change over the years, it appears that within the%-mile area around parks,there were lowering proportions of persons of Hispanic origin, younger and older persons, married persons, and home owners. percent of persons residing within 1/4 mile of any park total population Hispanic 40- 35- 30- nonwhite ape a 1 s 45- 40- 35- �Y 30 age>=85 cdilege graduate 45 ¢7 40- 9t 35 0- 39- below poverty married 45- ---..""`----- 35- 30- renter owner 45- 40- 35- 39- I980 1990 2000 2010 1980 '990 2000 20e10 year Figure 11: Demographic characteristics of the area within 1/4 mile of parks, 1980-2015 December 2017 32 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 26 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 When stratified by 16th Avenue, it appears that far more persons on the east side reside within %-mile of parks than on the west side (Figure 12). This appears to be due to larger parks on the west side that are not uniformly distributed; whereas on the east side there are more parks that are both smaller and more uniformly distributed over space (see Figure 5). Trends generally follow overall demographic patterns with respect to the east and west sides. Some notable trends are the decrease in the number of persons residing within 1/4 mile of a park on the east side, and an increase on the west side (top of graphs); a drop in younger persons within buffers on the east side; and changes in the proportion of Hispanics that seem to mirror general demographic shifts over time. December 2017 33 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 27 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 percent of persons residing within 1/4 mile of any park - -0 3C- 2C- le- 40- 3C- 20- 3. 1 ° 40- 3C- 20- 10- 4C- 3C- 1 C- 40 3C- 2C- 10- 4C- so a 3c 20- 411. 4C 13 30- 20- 1C- 40 - a 2C- I C :IC- :30- - 1C- 4C- 30- 20- 1C- 1 0 1990 200:) 2010 198.') 199U 2 OtOC 2010 year Figure 12: Demographic characteristics of the area within 1/4 mile of parks, stratified by 16th Avenue 1980-2015 December 2017 34 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 28 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Results summary-parks The results presented above should be interpreted with some caution for several reasons,a few of which are enumerated as follows. First,the use of census areas in a GIS overlay analysis assumes that there is a uniform distribution of persons across the census unit,which is generally not true. Second, not all parks are equal in terms of the amenities they provide as attractors of activity. For example, use of a cemetery is likely to be very different from use of a sports complex. Third, simple overlay ignores actual location; having a park overlapping a census unit at one side of the unit does not provide equal accessibility to all persons residing in the unit. Fourth, residents of a census unit that has no overlap with a park may actually reside close to a park that lies in an adjacent census unit; in fact, some of these persons may reside closer to a park than some of the residents in the adjacent unit but whose homes are relatively far from the park. In addition, these data need to be considered in historical terms; the east side was developed earlier, following typical pre-WWII patterns (smaller parcels on regular street-blocks), whereas the west side was more recently developed, with more suburban forms (larger parcels, some irregular street patterns). More recent developments often include parks as formal design elements, whereas older developments frequently did not include similar land set aside for parks. Results:Analysis of Current Data Most of the GIS data sets were not encoded for longitudinal analysis (that is, the features in the GIS do not contain attributes representing the time at which the real-world features were created/installed/developed).Therefore,analyses for specific data sets were restricted to examination of current features and data sets with respect to current demographic data. These included public safety calls for service, streetlights, code compliance requests, and transit(ridership, benches, and shelters). These data set therefore represent a benchmark more than allowing for analysis. The scatter plots presented on the following pages are the result of performing the GIS and statistical analyses per Task 2, Part C.These plots also include the stratification by the 16th Avenue geographical dividing line. The scatter plots here are a representative sampling of the demographic variables. The complete set of graphs for each selected GIS data layer and demographic variable are provided in Appendix A. Maps showing changes in demographic variables over time are presented in Appendix D. A general trend to be noted in these graphs is the obvious stratification between west and east sides of Yakima in the X-axis (horizontal axis). This is a reflection of the city's underlying sociodemographic stratification. While segregation itself is of concern, these graphs would indicate inequity in city- provided service only if there appears to be increasing or decreasing trends (i.e.,a visible slope in the point pattern); if the point pattern appears to be uniform (equally distributed across the horizontal axis) or random,that would not indicate inequity in services. It should also be noted that no regression trend lines were added to these graphs, and no formal statistical tests were performed; due to the small sample size, trend lines are easily leveraged by outlier points,and correlation coefficients and p-values are unstable. Police Department calls for service Police Department calls for service per capita are graphed in Figure 13, Figure 14,and Figure 15 (median family income, percent Hispanic, and percent housing renter occupied respectively).The tracts with the December 2017 35 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 29 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 greatest number of per-capita calls were on the east side, but there appeared to be no association between demographic characteristics and counts of calls per capita. There is no consistent trend of more calls coming from tracts with lower or higher incomes, percent of Hispanic residents,or renters. There are four tracts with high values that warrant further investigation.The other tracts are uniformly distributed in terms of the count of calls per capita (y-axis) and the demographic variable (x-axis). YKPD calls x median family income to 1 6th Ave divide c gtsii e,n=ld CL m SG w,n=10 1z 4-0 0 54'6fl4' 8vtl0v median family income ($) Figure 13: Police Department calls for service by median family income December 2017 36 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 30 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 YKPD calls x percent Hispanic • cs 20- 1 6th Ave divide e e,n=14 CI_ w n=10 c n 10* e „•• •• e 20 0 60 80 percent Hispanic Figure 14: Police Department calls for service by percent of residents who are of Hispanic origin December 2017 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extensio37n 31 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 YKPD calls x percent of housing renter-occupied cq 20- 0 zone 16th ,a5 C n io e - a 30 0 50 70 percent of "lousing renter-occupied Figure 15: Police Department calls for service by percent of residents who are renters December 2017 38 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 32 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Fire Department calls forservice Similar to Police Department calls for service,there appeared to be no association between demographic characteristics and count of Fire Department calls for service (Figure 16, Figure 17, and Figure 18). It should be noted that there is one tract on the east side that had a relatively high number of calls per capita. Other than this one "outlier;' there is no consistent trend of more calls coming from tracts with differential income, percent of residents of Hispanic origin, or renters. YKD calls x median family inc€rme - 6th Ave avid C.) 2 v 400w0 00000 80000 median family Income ($} Figure 16 Count of Fire Department calls for service per capita by median family income December 2017 39 ter for App..e h eel Report politan Cen .y Analysis— i The wsp mocrkoima Equity StUd CitY pf Ya li d Research & E x it e2 nAs i oi 7n 3 3 MiSpanIC y FD k .4c calls x percent ' isle Ave div 1 attl re in ;r.... e , t2/ 0 Q.,'53 • '''' ,•1 n , ,4 0 8 . • * ,, • so 0 , e -• • ,„• , 60 8• 80 .. who are of - C 20 111 HI parli S of of residents percent perce capita by per service for ent calls Department of Fire 17 Count Figure Hispanic origin December 2017 40 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 34 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 YKFD ca3Is x percent c# housing renter-occupied a- .- ttf 16th A ve divide of a 4.. m3 war,. 0 n V wil lil Oil Percent of housing renter occupied Figure 18 Count of Fire Department calls for service per capita by percent of residents who are renters Streetlights There appears to be a greater number of streetlights per square mile in tracts on the east side (Figure 19, Figure 20, and Figure 21). Streetlight density was greater in tracts with lower college graduation levels, which is also mirrored in ethnic composition and median family income.These differences are likely due to the greater street density in the older part of Yakima that was developed previous to the newer areas on the east side.There appears to be no general association between streetlight density and demographic variables • that cannot be explained by basic principles of urban form and historical development. It should be noted that this analysis did not include any consideration of streetlight type or condition (type and condition were not available consistently for all streetlight records). December 2017 41 ion 35 r for App 12.4.17 I litan Center Final ReD°rt cl 1 metropo alysis— The W-"J lty Study An kima Equi CitY of Ya lied Research & Extens e graduate S x percent coileg lightS Street , Co- isth Ave cr) .E. 4 n n 13 e„ CO n----9 in 4 w, cri • a (4 divide cr400 ,,.... re a' = 0 Co ir a , 40 t 30 0' 110 20 I .... percent graduates P who are college percent of residents' ht density : by 19: Streetlight college graduate Figure December 2017 42 cener Metropolitan t . EiEsis—Fl ru metr0P E Eity StUdY An The W3 f Yakinla q citv 0 lied for Ap,p R eaneaal rRcehp&o...rtExide2nAsioil; 36 nt Paqic 0 rds His lights A, tit ne i:i. street i e divide dth A0 Co 0.) E 0 0 9 9) 0 C9" 488 0' cri z ' • (.0 9._ 0 8 er a 0 0' 0 0 Co a S 89 80 8- 40 . antc • origin 20 percent 'lisp Hispanic density . y percent n Streetlight Figure 20: of residents who of December 2017 43 Center forA .. Final Repo O The WSU m etr politan Analysis— Study city of Yakima °EquitY ppliea_d Research &rtExite2nAsioii; 37 Street hg • hts x median family income ,or Co ,...E. • e,n— tit sir . w,ntt 9 • 16th Aveisdivide cs,. 400 a ice •• • - d = 0 tt 2t10' • 9 4 9 rr 0 0 ' 69,003, 43,r)09 ($) median family income 21: Streetlight Figure by median family density income December 2017 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 38 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Code compliance requests Code compliance requests per capita appear to occur in greater numbers on the east side, which is also mirrored by east side tracts having lower median family income, with higher proportion of residents of Hispanic origin, and who are renters (Figure 22, Figure 23, Figure 24). Code compliance requests originate from residents; however, the data do not indicate whether the resident who submitted the code compliance request is a neighbor, landlord,or someone who is just driving by. Therefore, the origin of the request cannot be directly ascribed to any difference in services provided. Additionally, as the data were delivered without any consistent record-level information on either status or date of resolution, it is not possible in this analysis to make any conclusions on questions of equity related to how the city responds to such requests. Gods camps anoe requests x median family Income • 006.4 esS co fy : 16th Ave divide • =13 CL w,n=10 0 •e 0.00- . ...... 40000 80000 8c000 median family inccsm ($) Figure 22: Code compliance requests by median family income December 2017 45 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 39 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Code compliance requests x percent Hispanic • 0.06-- •• ctS a 5:1 taf 16th Ave divid(a 0 04- • Ca w,n 10 C.> 20 40 6'0 80 percent Hispanic Figure 23: Code compliance requests by percent of residents who are of Hispanic origin December 2017 46 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 40 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 COdoom pliance requests x percertt of housirtg renter-occupied o oc• t.tf 16th Ave divide 4.(6 e,r1 13 0 0 02-- 30 50 7(3 9(..) percent of hous'ing renter-occupied Figure 24: Code compliance requests by percent of residents who are renters December 2017 47 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 41 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Transit ridership Patterns in transit ridership (Figure 25, Figure 26, Figure 27, Figure 28, and Figure 29) are similar to those of streetlights, and are likely due to similar underlying urban characteristics. Transit is economically feasible only in areas of relatively high residential density,which usually includes older developments. Newer, lower density, and more car-dependent communities are generally not served by transit. These types of newer developments also tend to have demographic characteristics that are different from areas that are well-served by transit. For this probable reason,there is generally higher ridership in tracts with lower median family income, lower rates cif. f college graduation,and greater rental rates.There is also slightly higher ridership in tracts containing lower proportions of persons under 18 years of age, pointing to a potential mismatch between level of service and need,since younger persons tend not to have access to cars and rely more heavily on public transportation. It should be noted that the transit data did not include school buses,which may confound interpretation of bus service to youths. Bus ridership x median family income divi 754020 or E lath Ave de 505U05• e333e,n 1 it m 333 w,n 9 T••a. E. 3 0 256 6 , n YUV VU eoacV V4V44 median family ifcc:ne ($) Figure 25: Transit ridership by median family income December 2017 48 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 42 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus ridership x percent college graduate E,1 150000- CO E cr) (Tr 16th Ave divide 0- 500000 w w n=9 a t 0 0 250000 0 10 20 30 percent college graduate Figure 26: Transit ridership by percent of residents who are college graduates December 2017 49 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 43 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus ridership x percent of housing renter-pccupied 150000 CO E ct) a‘- Sri 16th Ave divide o• 500000 a en-12, - w,nxi 9 a 0 0 250000 20 SO 90 percent of housing renter-ocoupled Figure 27: Transit ridership by percent of residents who are renters December 2017 50 1 44 Extension h & bete 4.17 Research Report 12' eed 1 for nee _Rea poiltan Center aReti Study Attatecb tro The WSU Mf Yeakima Equityclef e 18 years < hip x percent i - ridership io Bus r e die! -de 'I ete Av e et I 12 t= pee° 5 9 70 It- 0 "et 92 et z 50 cr tro 1... 05 • . ., , °C'0° 1 e 0 e c c . - 08 250000 0 . 5 '' 9. ,c • •• 40 ... ° 0 35 . ° 3 o r 18 Y of age percent iis ears 20 years under 18 18 y) 8 Transit ridership by age (< Figure 2 .. December Co1.7 51 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 45 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus ridership x percent 65 years • Isooco- 0) crs 16th Ave divide z 0- 500000 (I) 0 0 250000 0 ••••• "'" • , 0 20 percent 65 years Figure 29: Transit ridership by age 65 y) 65 and older Bus stop benches Not surprisingly,the patterns of bus stop bench density (Figure 30, Figure 31, Figure 33, and Figure 32) are similar to those of transit ridership, likely indicating that benches and shelters are placed in locations with greater ridership. December 2017 52 The WSU MetrkoimpoallEtagnuiCtlei.nstteurdfyoAr App.leisd_RFeisneaairRcehp&ortExite2nAs!oi7n 46 city of Ya nalyis Bus stop benches x percent Hispanic 40 '--- 20- a‘- Sri z 16th Ave divide w,n 9 as 20 * CL *C* 0 • * 60 80 20 pement Hispariic Figure 30: Bus stop bench density by percent of residents who are of Hispanic origin December 2017 53 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 47 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus stop benches x median family income 40 m Se- 16th Ave divide ' 20- 3ii wn=9 U x � sr 93ta9 60000 H5095 median family income (6) Figure 31: Bus stop bench density by median family income Bus stop bench density appears to be higher in tracts with lower proportions of persons 65 years or older on the east side with one exception (Figure 32). If a large number of riders are older, this could point to an opportunity for providing better service for these age groups. However, the proportion of elderly is also greater on the west side, where transit usage is lower, and where higher socioeconomic levels point to potentially less need for transit(if the elderly have access to cars). Likewise, the number of youths is greater on the east side. In order to come to any conclusions on whether the elderly are underserved in terms of bus stop benches, more data would be needed on the characteristics of individual transit riders. December 2017 54 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 48 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus stop benches x percent 65 years 40- (1.) 90- (1.) a‘- 16th Ave divid(a crs z e e,n n.12 cr) •v• w n n.9 • 1 0•• • . •'• , •°' n • 20 percent >. 65 years Figure 32: Bus stop bench density by percent of residents who are 65 years or older December 2017 55 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 49 City of Yakima Equity Study An —Final Report 12.4.17 Bus stop benches x percent 18 years 40- N to 1 dth Ave divide • �' =3 An®12 ?�— ;;;war,=9 Q. U 5 23 zs s0 r percent < 18 years Figure 33: Bus stop bench density by percent of residents who are less than 18 years old Bus stop shelters Bus stop shelters have patterns very similar to bus stop benches: they tended to have greater density in tracts with lower median family income (Figure 34), and higher proportion of youths (Figure 36), with one outlier having very high ridership but about 23%of younger residents. Shelter densities were slightly greater in areas with lower proportions of seniors (Figure 36). There were also more shelters in tracts with a higher proportion of persons of Hispanic origin (Figure 37). December 2°17 56 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 50 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Bus stop shelters x median family income 7.5 E 11) cis 16th Ave divide 50- cr • e,n=8 ca w,n= 7 o ft 00- 40030 66030 83603 median family income ($) Figure 34: Bus stop shelter density by median family income Bus stop shelters x percent c 18 years 7 5- a) E a) ELI 16th Ave divide 5.0- a e,n 8 cn • yv,n 7 o L) 2 5- • 20 25 percent < 18 years December 2017 57 H Metropolitan I Report 12. . The WS- Study Ana Elms Equity city 07 Ya Center for Appliqd 00Fesneaa r c h & Exten4sioi7n 51 lysis Figure 35: Bus stop shelter density by age (< 18 years) x percent >= 65 hel tars Bus s stop years 7 5' a) .1_1? 47 4t 1:6the•AnnarTe87divide ft) z_t) szt. — o o • . 0 ./...' ' . • "'" . • w 20 perytent›{. 65 years Figure 36: Bus stop shelter density b age (>-- 65 years) December 2017 58 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 52 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 124,17 Bus stop shelters x percent Hispanic ;s- m E 16th Ave divide SCE^ ei e,n=8 ' m 3ii wan=7 0 "mrff 40 60 £3w� percent Hispanic Figure 37: Bus stop shelter density by percent Hispanic Conclusion and Recommendations Over the course of this project we found that the city is doing professional work in the development and management of the various data sets under their purview,gathered for specific purposes related to city and department management.The data sets are useful for their original purpose but, as this analysis has shown, the data sets within the scope of this study cannot adequately provide an assessment of whether or not city resources have been equitably distributed. While this determination cannot be made,we believe that information in this analysis,and the act of engaging in this analysis,can prove valuable to the city. The City Council approved this analysis of the Equity Study data with the intention of using it as a tool to move forward, and to inform data driven decisions to benefit the city. Data driven decisions cannot be made without reliable data and proper systems for handling them. Our study concluded that Yakima has both the staff and the systems to support the use of data as a powerful tool for decision making,and data that can be used as an initial conditions statement and a base upon which to build. This is a tremendous asset for the city. The city can now determine what additional data it needs to collect-date and time attributes,for example—based on the questions the city wants to address in the future. In order to look forward,the city may benefit from also examining its history and the current conditions that evolved from typical patterns of growth.The legacy of annexation and other development patterns is both a benefit to the city and a challenge to overcome. For example, parks are larger on the west side, December 2017 59 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 53 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 likely because of the later annexation of larger county parcels. It is unlikely that the city would be able to agglomerate significant park acreage in the east side to match the west if residents prefer fewer, larger parks relative to more numerous, smaller parks. Understanding the existence,and some of the likely reasons for current conditions, can help the city strategically address this disparity without the need for an expensive historical analysis. The challenges of growth and equity facing Yakima are shared by many cities,and echo national trends described in a report issued by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Planning for Social Equity (2017) authored by Kathleen McCormick (http://www.lincolninst.edulpublications/articleslplanning-social- equity). In this report, it is noted that inequality is now at levels the U.S. has not seen since the 1920s. As a reference for understanding the forces leading to modern inequities in Yakima, it may be useful to place the city in the larger context of other cities across America that are facing similar situations. Many cities, large and small, have developed criteria for making decisions that include equity, typically called an Equity Lens. An Equity Lens is a practical tool to help insure that planning, decision making and resource allocation lead to policies and programs that help to achieve equity across the community, racially, socially and economically.The foundation of an Equity Lens is a set of values or principles. Each new policy or program is evaluated to see whether it upholds those values or principles using a set of questions or procedures that include equity. For example: "What is the impact of the policy or program on diverse groups?" While the questions may seem simple,the process of preparing for, and developing an Equity Lens takes time and commitment. To evaluate progress toward equity,each city determines what it should measure. Hence,the value of a reliable system of collecting and managing data, which this study concluded the city possesses, becomes critically important. Although each city must develop its own Equity Lens, the examples below provide some insight into the process. • City of Seattle Racial Equity Toolkit-"lays out a process and a set of questions to guide the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, initiatives, programs and budget issues to address the impacts on racial equity." http://www.seattle.gov/Documents/Departments/RSJI/RacialEquityToolkft FINAL August2012. pdf ® City of Portland—Racial Equity Toolkit https://www.portIandoregon.gov/oehrj71685 ® All-In Cities Policy Toolkit- Building an Equitable Economy from the Ground Up,an initiative of PolicyLink http://allincities.org(toolkit To explore a practical example of how an Equity Lens could influence policy decisions in Yakima, we turn to parks.The city has long benefitted from private funding for parks and other amenities. As part of an Equity Lens, the city could develop a set of criteria for parks around equity and inclusion. This criteria would rank possible investment opportunities for philanthropy and provide this rank ordered list to community partners.The city could also consider developing a policy whereby a percentage of any donation to a specific park project would be retained by the city to fund park amenities across the city. A cornerstone of equitable decision making is authentic community and stakeholder engagement. It, too, is a process that requires care and commitment to ensure that engagement sparks lively civil December 2017 60 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 54 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 discourse without resulting in acrimony and deep divisions.The Metro Center provides tools that promote understanding and assist communities in making difficult decisions. The Poverty Immersion, facilitated by the Metro Center, is an interactive workshop that changes attitudes and challenges stereotypes about the working poor.Through this experience, participants develop a better understanding of community needs, ultimately improving policy and program development and decision making. ® The Metro Center is part of a nationwide project with the Kettering Foundation to frame complex issues for public discussion. Using structured deliberative dialogue, the Metro Center facilitates productive community conversations aimed at understanding residents' perspective on their community and the issues that are of greatest importance to them. Throughout the course of this project,we have engaged with Yakima City Council members, city staff, and concerned residents. To a person they have shown a strong commitment to their work,and a deep affection for the city. Addressing equity is difficult under the best of conditions, and we commend the city for the progress it has made,and welcome the opportunity to support your efforts in the future. December 2017 61 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 55 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 About the Metro Center The WSU Metro Center connects decision-makers in Washington's cities with the expertise of Washington State University to produce practical solutions to the challenges of growth. Using a project- based and client centered approach,we respond to emerging needs, and help communities build capacity to create sustainable solutions for the future. We work at the direction of clients, and follow a defined scope of work which is negotiated with the client. For each project we compile a unique team with the necessary expertise and attributes to successfully complete all project goals. Team members include WSU faculty and staff; however, we also utilize external partners as needed to implement the project. This analysis of the City of Yakima's Equity Study was conducted,data compiled, and this report written by the following team assembled because of their expertise in urban planning and geospatial analysis. In particular we wish to acknowledge the work of Dr. Branden Born, with whom we have often worked on community based projects,and Dr. Philip Hurvitz,who led the data analysis. WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research and Extension ® Martha Aitken,Senior Associate and Project Manager ® Brad Gaolach Ph. D., Director University of Washington, Department of Urban Design and Planning ® Branden Born Ph.D.,Associate Professor ® Philip M. Hurvitz Ph. D., Research Assistant Professor ® Connie Combs MUP ® Kizz Prussia, MUP candidate December 2017 62 The VYSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 56 City vf Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 | Appendices • AppcnJixA—Connp|eteCityofYakinnaEquityStudyAna|yds w Appendix 8—City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Task 1Report ° Appendix C—Demographic Variables Over Time w ApprndixD—ProjectProposa| • AppenJixE—SunnnnaryofAccuracyAuditFindings * Appendix Estimated Census Tract Population Over Time * Appendix 6 —Census Tract Maps Over Time Decennbe,ZV17 63 The VYSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 57 City vf Yakima Equity Study Analysis-Final Report 12.4.17 | Appendix A -CVn|ploLo City VfYabimma Equity Study Analysis k»p://xistxis.waskinxtnn.r6u/vakinna envi\v/ (it should be noted that the data and analysis in Appendix A will be transferred to the city in the near future,and this URL will no longer be active. The city will determine how to make this information avai|ab|e.> Decennbe,ZV17 64 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 58 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix B —City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Task 1 Report Introduction: On June 28, 2017 the City of Yakima entered into an agreement with WSU's Metropolitan Center for Applied Research and Extension (Metro Center) to analyze data from the city's Equity Study (http://www.yakimawa.gov/council/equity-study/) for the purpose of helping inform the 2018 budget and future budget decisions. The contract's Scope of Work included two tasks listed below, with variables to be used in the analysis, and the geographical dividing line specifically stated. The Metro Center assembled a team comprised of experts in urban planning and geospatial analysis to perform the activities required to meet the deliverables of the project. This report serves as the Task 1 deliverable and provides an overview of the Metro Center's activities to analyze the data collection and handling processes the City of Yakima employs with regard to the data used in the Equity Study,and a preliminary summary of findings. This report also addresses aspects of Task 2, Parts A and B, much of which could most efficiently and appropriately be implemented concurrently with Task 1. Review of Scope of Work: Task 1:Validate Equity Study data Methods Confirm with City Council up to 6 data sets identified in Task 2 B, excluding US Census Bureau data, to assess the validity of those data. For each data set selected we will conduct,as appropriate: A. A process audit by interviewing City staff and reviewing documents associated with how these data were collected,compiled,summarized,and made accessible to the public. B. An accuracy audit of the data by randomly selecting a representative sample of data points,and independently determining the accuracy through direct observations. Task 2: Analyze existing Equity Study data to assess the geographic distribution of public resources and.fiords (e.g.city,State,or Federal) Methods A. Assess the quality of the data to understand any qualitative concerns and limitations that would impact data analysis or interpretation (i.e. period of time collected, geographically resolution of the data, etc.). B. Confirm the input and output variables for the analysis, and the geographical dividing line. Initial request included the following 6 data sets, upon which this estimate is based: Input variable: o Demographics, to include income, race, education level, marital status, home owner or renter, property value and age Output variables: o Public safety calls for service (location, response time) o Streetlights o Code compliance requests o Parks (exempt parks that are privately funded or charge for use) o Transit ridership, shelters, benches Geographical dividing line December 2017 65 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 59 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 i. 16th Avenue C. Perform the appropriate statistical analyses to assess any relationships amongst the input and output(i.e. response)variables. Methods: Clarify Intent WSU Metro team first met with Yakima City Council members on the Neighborhood and Community Building Committee: Chair Dulce Gutierrez,Carmen Mendez and Avina Gutierrez,to further clarify the scope of work, define the specific variables and geographic dividing line to be analyzed, and the overall intent of the study. After receiving portions of the data and conducting an initial review,the Metro Center team met by phone with City Manager Cliff Moore, Community Development Director Joan Davenport,and city staff to clarify the intent of some portions of Task 1 of the Scope of Work, and to make sure there was an understanding of the city's interest in positive strategies for the future. Through this discussion we came to understand that the language of the scope required clarification. Task 1 "Validate Equity Study data" means something different in the academic realm and the applied real-world one. A technical data validation process would be overly statistical, particularly with a "representative sample of data points" across the various datasets,and would be both prohibitively expensive and, most important, would not achieve the city's objectives. Instead,we decided that we needed to know if the city's data are being collected and recorded in appropriate ways (Task 1, part A), and whether it is useful to the current disparity analysis (Task 1, part B). Then,as appropriate, we would check for accuracy of the acceptable data by ground-truthing through site visits (Task 1, part B) to complete Task 1. We hope this clarification is helpful. If the city would like to pursue the academic level of statistical validation of their collected data,the Metro Center could assist in providing suggestions about how that could be done. City of Yakima Data For our process audit we reached out to city staff in multiple departments to learn about the internal processes used to gather,compile, and store data for the Yakima Equity Study. Staff were uniformly open and helpful in sharing with us their processes for data collection and handling, as well as the data itself. The Metro Center team contacted the City of Yakima's Supervising Senior Analyst,Tom Sellsted to obtain the five datasets of interest. After reviewing the data available,a Metro Center team member spoke with Tom Sellsted and Jill Ballard to discuss the methods used to collect and display datasets in the Equity Study's ArcMap Online Story Maps. Mr. Sellsted also provided the Metro Center team with contact information for the city data steward(s) of each of the five datasets,and the team scheduled one-hour phone calls with each data steward. During these calls the Metro Center team asked questions to identify and clarify our understanding of the methods used to collect the data used in the Equity Study. We took detailed notes during the call and, in some cases,followed up with additional emails or calls for clarification. The description of the methods used by the City of Yakima will be included in the final report. Additionai.Data. To supplement city data from the Yakima Equity Study,we compiled census data from the American Community Survey (ACS) for each of the demographic "input"variables: income, race,education level, marital status,and homeowner or renter. These data sets were collected for years 1980, 1990, 2000, December 2017 66 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 60 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 2010, and 2015. These data will be used as input variables to run statistical analysis of output variables (Task 2, part B), as well as to tell the demographic story of Yakima over time as discussed in the Metro Center/City staff telephone conversation mentioned above. Data for property value and age has also been collected. Since these data include time stamps,they will allow for a longitudinal analysis of age and value through the years that we have census data. Results and Analysis Process and Accuracy Audit Our analysis suggests the City of Yakima has a professional and appropriate process for collecting, storing,and analyzing data,and a staff knowledgeable in the data infrastructure. Additionally, most of the data is recorded and handled in a reasonable and professional manner for its original intent: to support the city's geospatial data and land use planning. We note that the city's GIS architecture has been developed over more than 30 years, a positive quality which means that the city has a mature system in place. An accuracy audit was conducted on a sample of city parks, on both the east and west sides of 16th Avenue, to assess parks data -one of the most complete and historically available datasets provided. This audit will also add richness to the binary nature of the parks data,and will help us understand whether there are qualitative differences in park resources across that geographic dividing line. The results of that audit will be presented in the final report. We found no major sources of explicit bias in the collection, handling or storing of data, but we do recognize some sources of potential unintended consequences that may insert bias into the city's data collection for some of the datasets provided. These will be detailed in the final report. Data Quality and Limitations While the city is to be commended for its long commitment to a citywide Geographic Information System,staff and council should understand that, because the datasets were collected and developed for purposes than an analysis,or to assess disparity, most are insufficient to demonstrate either disparity/inequity or associated causation. The original intent of the data collection ultimately limits our ability to use the data to answer some of the current equity questions regarding past city practices: it is simply invalid for those purposes based on the time period,scale,or collection method used. In the Table 2,we provide a summary table of this data and its possible usage. We hope this will help council understand possible approaches they might take,and what analyses are not supported by the data. Much of this work is part of Task 2, part A. Recommendations We note that while the data is too variable in quality,especially with regard to availability over time, to do historical examination of whether city resources have been distributed equitably, we think that a current"snapshot"or examination of existing conditions is appropriate and warranted. Most of the contemporary data statistical analysis on the correlation of demographic variables (such as poverty, race, etc.) with geographic location is appropriate. And, when compared or cross-checked with a historical analysis of the growth of the city through annexation and demographic change over 30 years,we think a reasonable story can be developed to answer some of the equity questions. Moreover, December 2017 67 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 61 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 we will be able to point to areas where the city may be able to implement future strategies that will lead to positive outcomes. Our understanding of the Code Compliance data, though, suggests that this dataset remains problematic for analyzing equity due to the anonymous nature in which the data is collected. However,further conversations with city staff might clarify for us some possible lines of inquiry for which the Code Compliance data could be used. Next Steps We will complete any remaining portions of Task 2 Parts A and B, and complete the analysis in Task 2 Part C including the accuracy audit on parks data, historic and contemporary demographic maps and historic demographic summary tables, and contemporary disparity/equity statistical analyses as appropriate.The demographic maps will show "input"variables across the period 1980-2015. We will then draft a final report of our findings for the city. Timeline to Completion Due to some of the challenges presented by the data, we request an extension of the contract to October 31,or a mutually agreeable date. December 2017 68 The VVSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 62 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 | Attachments Summary of Data Utility Table 2: Summary of data utility Output Recommended use in Limitations Recommendations Variable EquUtystxdy Public * Analyze current 0 GIS Data are only available from Safety Calls disparities inresponse 2012to present day(not suitable times for both Fire and for historical analysis) (fo r Police Services * Walk-in cases toYPD are not Service) * Analyze Fire and Police consistently tracked.The database services hycouncil is shared with SunComm district and hy16th Avenue dividing line Streetlights * Analyze current * Historical data not available in5|S * Define levels of service (L0S) disparities instreetlight format standards for streetlights presence per council throughout the City of Yakima district, hydemographic output variables Code * Display the data * Data in5|S format are only * Create tag to identify which Compliance spatially toidentify available from 2015to present day code compliance cases were possible disparities (not suitable for historical analysis) received hy Yak Back, phone Requests * There are many confounding calls,emai|s,or other methods factors that could lead to * Develop documentation of disparities in types ofcode response prioritization criteria complaints, and responses Parks Analyze the development of parks in each council district over time, hypopulation � Analyze the development of parks in each council district over time, hy demographic characteristics Transit * Historical data not available in5|S * Obtain data for analysis of (Ridership) format disparities in level of service for transit Transit * Review criteria for placement of (Benches) benches to prioritize need as well as feasibility,and ridership Transit * Review criteria for placement of (Shelters) shelters to prioritize need as well as feasibility,,and ridership ,,, Qecemnher2O{7 69 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 63 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis-Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix C-Demographic Variables Over Time All maps are available at http://gistigisiwashingtoniedu/yakima equity/ Income - Median household income 1980- 2015 1980 f?"''"""'''''''"'"zzzzzzz:EEEE.'EEEEEEEE7:'..„LEHEEHEEHEEHE Median household income ..„,..., ..,,,,, " ------ "-------- ...... ..................................................... ..........., ice° s us ...., ----------..... — .......... .... , f 7 ..,... 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' 1111.a.............................................................................ZZZAll:II!] December 2017 70 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 64 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Marital Status—Percent Married 1980- 2015 1980 Percent married 10 5" 20 -,,,,,,,,,,,,,4 '-----------' 20 - 30 E.EEF7:::5E„::::::::::::::::. ..:.., ''zrzzzzzzz' .... 30 - 40 ---::-...,------ .: --------- ................... -- -------- ........................................................... ..................... ........................ .. ..................... 40 50 . ... 50 - 0 ---------. .................. ...........:::::::::: -----. ----.. ... -------.----.----. . ------------------------))--------... ---..---.----. 1990 2000 :::::::::1---.):::: ---'--)---------------------------- ------------------------'----. -------------..------------.. ------------------------.. --------, -----------.--------------..------------------------. :-.)' ---------...----------)---------.,-----.-----------------------.. :::::::::::::::::).'5)4:::::::::::::::::------------- -----------------------'----.. ---.,------------------. 45::z•- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::.5:::::::)---55151515.-------Z.).Z. 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December 2017 73 The VVSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 67 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 | Percent Hispanic 198O' 2O1S 1980 Percent Hispanic � 10 . 20 � 2@~ �� 50 ^ 6o 60 70 NNNNN70^ 80 1990 2000 _ : 2010maw 2015 MOM Qecemnber2O{7 74 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 68 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Education Level - Percent college graduate 1980- 2015 1980 Percent college graduate 74, : ................................................ ..................................... • :3,..:_ ::::::::::::::7::::::::...."—:77:""-----r--r 7": rr 77:::::::::::::::::::::::: [ 1 0 - 5 .................. ..... ................................ . 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"" ........rm t............................4..................... ....___...................... ...===========================;========.===.::::::::::: •S.?..:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ---- --------------------------- ---- ................................ . ......................................................................................... .............. ------------- December 2017 78 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 72 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix D —Project Proposal Objective: To analyze data from the City of Yakima's Equity Study to help inform the 2018 budget and future budget decision. Background In May 2016, the Yakima City Council directed City staff to begin an Equity Study to research the distribution of city funded services and improvements.This study was launched through the encouragement of a private non-profit organization.The data collected to date have been made available to the public on the City's website at https://www.yakimawa.gov/council/equity-study/. Representatives from the City of Yakima contacted WSU's Metropolitan Center for Applied Research and Extension (Metro Center) to assist the City with addressing equity concerns of Council Members around resource allocation. About the Metro Center The Metro Center helps Washington's cities and metropolitan communities create vibrant economies, healthy communities,and sustainable environments. We do this by connecting decision-makers with the expertise of Washington State University to produce practical solutions to the challenges of growth. Using a project-based and client centered approach,the Metro Center remains flexible to respond to emerging needs, and help communities build capacity to create sustainable solutions for the future. About our process The Metro Center compiles a unique team for each project with the necessary expertise and attributes to successfully complete all project goals.Team members include WSU faculty and staff; however,we also utilize external partners as needed for a project. Potential partners were contacted during the creation of this draft to ensure that the Metro Center has the ability to undertake and fulfill the actions proposed below.Their input and expertise is incorporated into this proposal. Project Tasks: Task 1: Validate Equity Study data Methods Confirm with City Council up to 6 data sets identified in Task 2 B,excluding US Census Bureau data, to assess the validity of those data. For each data set selected we will conduct,as appropriate: A. A process audit by interviewing City staff and reviewing documents associated with how these data were collected,compiled,summarized,and made accessible to the public. B. An accuracy audit of the data by randomly selecting a representative sample of data points,and independently determining the accuracy through direct observations. City of Yakima Responsibilities City staff will make original data available for an audit and staff members will be available for questions. Metro Center Deliverable December 2017 79 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 73 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 We will provide a written report of our findings to the City with an option for an in-person or remote presentation. Task 2: Analyze existing Equity Study data to assess the geographic distribution of public resources and funds (e.g.city,State,or Federal) Methods A. Assess the quality of the data to understand any qualitative concerns and limitations that would impact data analysis or interpretation (i.e. period of time collected,geographically resolution of the data, etc.). B. Confirm the input and output variables for the analysis, and the geographical dividing line. Initial request included the following 6 data sets, upon which this estimate is based: a. Input variable: o Demographics, to include income, race, education level, marital status, home owner or renter, property value and age b. Output variables: o Public safety calls for service (location, response time) o Streetlights o Code compliance requests o Parks (exempt parks that are privately funded or charge for use) o Transit ridership, shelters, benches c. Geographical dividing line o 16th Avenue C. Perform the appropriate statistical analyses to assess any relationships amongst the input and output(i.e. response)variables. Metro Center Deliverable We will provide a written report of the process we used for the analyses, results of the analyses, and an interpretation of the data,with an option for an in-person or remote presentation. City of Yakima Responsibilities City staff will make all data sets, including any meta-data available to the WSU team in mutually agreed upon format(S), documentation as to how data were collected,accessed, and/or manipulated as well as being available to answer questions as needed. Timeline Completion by 90 days from initiation of the contract,or mutually agreeable date. Budget: $25,100 The budget includes personnel, materials,travel, and WSU's required 26% indirect costs. Personnel Includes all salaries,wages and benefits of project personnel required to implement project tasks as well as administrative aspects of the project including, but not limited to, meetings, reporting, and communication. Materials Materiel costs will be minimal and may include photocopying and binding of final reports. Travel December 2017 80 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 74 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Travel costs will be incurred only as necessary to complete project tasks and will include: travel to and from Seattle and Yakima, hotel and meals while in travel status,and local ground travel,as set by the U.S. General Services Administration. Indirect Costs A Facilities and Administration (F&A or Indirect Cost) rate of 26% is added to all direct project costs. NOTE: These are preliminary estimates only, and have not been reviewed by WSU contracting or finance offices.As such, they are subject to modification as part of the formal contracting process. These estimates include a good faith assessment of the appropriate Facilities and Administration(F&A or Indirect Cost)recovery rates(26%for most activities herein), which may also be changed after formal review. These estimates are provided to facilitate discussion and negotiation, but do not constitute a formal offer or the basis of a formal contract—which may only be executed by the WSU Office of Research Support and Operations.All expenses regarding the venue,food, and rentals are to be paid for by the funder. December 2017 81 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 75 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix E—Summary of Accuracy Audit Findings Table 3: Park audit details Park Name Data Reported Location and Observed Location and Notes Errors Amenities Amenities (YEN) McGuinness N 14th Ave &Swan Ave 14th Ave &Swan Ave Shelter fits four Park • Playground • (1) Playground picnic tables • Picnic Shelter • (1) Picnic shelter • Basketball court • (1) basketball court • Asphalt pathway • Asphalt pathway Emil Kissel N 3000 W Mead Ave 3000 W Mead Ave Picnic shelter with Park • Tennis Center (12 • (12)Tennis Courts grill, wall on two courts) • (1) Restroom sides providing • (1) Restroom • (1) Playground shelter from wind. • Playground • Asphalt path • Asphalt path • (1) Picnic Shelter with • Picnic Shelter grill • Basketball court • (1) Basketball court • Parking lot (estimated* 83 stalls) Gilbert Park N 500 W Lincoln Ave 500 W Lincoln Ave • Open Space • Open Space • Parking lot • Parking lot (estimated* 87 stalls) South 2nd St N 706 E Race St 706 E Race St Park • Open space • Open space Milroy Park N SE Corner of 16th & Lincoln SE Corner of 16th & Lincoln horseshoe pits Ave Ave missing the posts, • Playground • Playground inoperable • Restroom • Restroom • Volleyball court • Volleyball court • Horseshoe pits • Horseshoe pits • Parking lot (estimated* 29 stalls) West Valley N 1323 80th Ave 1323 80th Ave Well maintained Community • (3) Picnic Shelters • (3) Picnic Shelters structures. Park • (2) Playgrounds • (2) Playgrounds Horseshoe pits • (1) Restroom • (1) Restroom unmowed, have tall • Horseshoe Pits • (4) Horseshoe Pits weeds. (unspecified number) • (2) Basketball Courts December 2017 82 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 76 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Park Name Data Reported Location and Observed Location and Notes Errors Amenities Amenities (YEN) • Basketball Courts • (2) Parking lots (unspecified number) (estimated* 54, and 60+stalls) Yakima N 1401 Arboretum Dr 1401 Arboretum Dr Arboretum • Open space • Open space • Parking lot • Parking lot • Jewitt center(owned (estimated* 135 by Arboretum, not stalls) YPR) • Jewitt center(owned by Arboretum, not YPR) Fisher Golf N 823 S 40th Ave 823 S 40th Ave Course • 9-hole 3 par course • 9-hole 3 par course • Starter house • Starter house • Maintenance building • Maintenance building • Small parking lot (estimated* 23 stalls) Franklin N 2101 Tieton Dr 2101 Tieton Dr Park • Outdoor pool • Outdoor pool • (2) Small picnic tables • (2) Small picnic tables Previous capital • (1) Pavilion • (1) Pavilion improvements • (1) Playground • (1) Playground received private • Tennis courts • (6)Tennis courts funding (unspecified number) Kiwanis Park N 1501 E Maple St 1501 E Maple St • Restrooms, • Restrooms/concessi Previous capital concessions ons improvements • Playground • (1) Playground received private • Picnic Shelters • (2) Picnic Shelters funding (unspecified) • (8) Baseball/softball • (8) Baseball/softball fields fields • (1) Basketball court • Basketball court • Concrete skate park • Concrete skate park • Large Parking lot (estimated* 441 stalls) December 2017 83 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 77 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis-Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix F-Estimated Census Tract Population Over Time Tract pop_1980 pop_1990 pop_2000 pop_2010 pop_2015 100 2113 2426 2778 3356 3094 200 3221 3665 5374 5787 5996 300 232 493 3905 4172 4216 400 1635 1719 2758 5011 5216 500 3327 3730 5011 5811 5141 600 3829 4566 6485 6866 7743 700 5995 6447 6684 6477 7520 800 5086 4822 4614 4398 4441 900 1325 1830 2596 NA NA 901 NA NA NA 7504 7464 902 NA NA NA 3341 4110 1000 5459 5689 5725 5541 5516 1100 2244 2749 4065 4460 4691 1200 5932 6509 9048 NA NA 1201 NA NA NA 3712 3859 1202 NA NA NA 6415 6344 1300 187 178 197 219 194 1400 630 591 660 674 726 1500 2841 6583 8380 NA NA 1501 NA NA NA 6132 7569 1502 NA NA NA 2616 2944 1600 42 154 215 NA NA 1602 NA NA NA 764 791 1702 NA NA NA 64 62 2802 NA NA NA 1784 1903 3100 NA NA 123 NA NA 3400 NA NA NA 182 212 December 2017 84 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 78 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 Appendix G—Census Tract Maps Over Time The set of Census tract maps display the census tracts with census tract identifier and "e"or"w" based on the 16th Avenue dividing line. These maps, along with the tables of Census tract demographic aggregates should be helpful in interpreting the scatter plots, which include text labels showing the tract identifiers. It should be noted that 16th Avenue divides some tracts; for those tracts that span 16th Avenue, there will be two data points on the map,each with an area-weighted estimate of the proportion of the both X and Y variables. All maps are available at http://gist.Ris.washington.edu/yakima equity/ 1980 wo 301 152E,2211}721211 ." Sc, N no. axe iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:` 13,fi4-eyd0d ............. c,y J 0 4.5 _ 1.5 2:ni t t December 2017 85 The WSU Metropolitan Center for Applied Research & Extension 79 City of Yakima Equity Study Analysis—Final Report 12.4.17 1990 222 22.. 22., 2.2) ood 1 oo t soo„ 690 e. aWlea SOO a L 900* AM9 at iv • 12°3-e---kr 111(M, _ e O, 1 it 1 i 2000 De L-1 3OP e 30C tv 200e 4te lizz) w cow »»»»»»»»soolgsoggs; mot is:90 lava lino v. 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