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08-28-19 HPC Packetn�rie itlA 1111111111 HISIMA TORIC PRI R\ LION COMMISSION CITY OF YAKIMA HISTORIC PRESERVATION COMMISSION Special Meeting Agenda Joint Meeting with Planning Commission Date: August 28, 2019 Time: 3:00 p.m. Place: City Council Chambers Staff: Trevor Martin, Historic Preservation Liaison I. Call to Order Commission Chair II. Roll Call Staff Liaison III. Staff Announcements Staff Liaison IV. Audience Participation Commission Chair V. Approval of July Minutes Commission Chair VI. New Business A. Northwest Vernacular Presentation on Fruit Row Spencer Howard B. Appoint New Commission Chair C. Grant Update Staff Liaison VII. Other Business Commission Chair VIII. Adjournment Adjourn to next scheduled Historic Preservation Commission meeting September 25, 2019, at 5:30pm in the Council Chambers at 129 N 2nd St. Commission Members Cynthia Hall • Alixanne Pinkerton • Paul Edmondson • Joe Mann • Dawn King IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIII ''''''''g'u'll " 4111/m iil'".�„u,PG,,Vu,rIl,Il,ul,lllwl;ii�l,l�pIlq', l,I Ir11tI9!�1;I�(!��1II la�IhlIalIIl mIIlIIlIIlllIIlollIIi uI IPmII IIiIuuuuuuu l°l`IIIIIIIIIIIIII ,,fI ill 111111111111)/ uiliio;llIi�ililililililolllluiiii II I I '111lllllliiiJII�aallillllilmllll, lll,l , Illa1111111111111uu u uo111,,, mllIIll )1)1 ��lllllllllllllliii l )jllll, i,l'Illllill�lllll {JllilI 1111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111 liVul11111111111111::::,61'11111111111:,'' ƒ±d! /nom 0 100000000000000 ) 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 § 1111 111111 1 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 j /!f 0010 00011111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111 011111101/ I 2\ II ooloo1111111111111111111111111111111111 \1 2 ri \] 11 1111111111111 \\\\\ �` 1 \�, 11111111111111111111111 \ J &%(Jƒ/1 111111w1111111111111111111111\11 11 1 111,11,111 11111, VVI V 000iu� iiiiuii� ipqu I I„1111111 ilii iiiiu Im III > (D 11111111 :!; ,,''...4*F0t4)0,0"4....41m.,7"17m7M7IMMMPTIM, ' • • „' ..••• • • • •• lllllJrlll 1st Arre 49 t,J.... .,...........-- i•,. , ..... — — —,.--..........„.....,....., ..1 -,-1.--.„., f!! 1;1 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ,4 0 tn• lgo •2) 2 16 0 CI 0 •Tv" - a cr 0 0 HI 101111 SII II�I I�I fa! 1,1,1,11« r (1, lljilll���l�j������Jflll�ll�f IIIIIIV IIIIVU�IMaN °NSG,, I saiduaex3 ameaedwo 1 1 LLLLLaLnLLLLLL El EMI -< M O O.0 O.3 N r -r 0 .LDI A �a m O O sv 3 e -t' (D O = rnn 3 o m -h K k! gjvvvvvvvvvvvv, < D 11 } a� \ ) \ v N 0 unli:M"^ .'IRu�! e Y wmitmY� �IKC61Vd,a;Wum h u LW w+xllKl 4014000,4' VI \ t4„II' 4„1'11\i' p !/A�J 'IladJl�l'10"),�j➢IIIN��?�Y+ ll��ll�d�f%,IiII�111111j11111NI�lllliilijillllllglpll„, ��i�l `,111, ���`' �4� � IIVY!NI�V�tiilml l`fN;Milo'ii ll?ii 4�l �ui',QII0 �%Il�l i 1Illi@ff il,III111J�ip if p,,,,illll ��v YvlMMa wIwVI°-- ., %/ Ii, wMM4m ImM, r, VllwiIVm u I L ^ gI ,M'7'mirwri pp uMw AII. a ''� „d.�,• 111141111r11111 wgwT4C NI'M'V IpV� "W f w I�Vu'N"Ihlil'I ”'„+I 11.0 lutl�ll'Nv �W^M�,yv'.r'wuMUIM '�Im,o it ��M1f�ll II "'.0 n,"„I♦'w�u pVr, alb! _.. �l III lVl a dl 1 i dh 0 u11 1u141u11,1�9���,���I;IflNIN�����ulN����,�h�ulp�l�ININgoI�NIINip�uI��IN��uN�N`�r�Jk�"J��� � I�IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII1I lp ,Iu,rI�i4IVVi�'Ii1lI'lq�III!fjVIi�l�+'li1tl1pluw/",r%l�I'� l�Vij!�rl/V�u+rlGpnN/ lll!lrlrlltor�lO� illauqlrl/llr(11 Ijri1jS1flip 1/111 010, �l(iil(rIl '!1/f+fBr(,/,,mllllIIrVp� /011) JO, lI,I�lII �j1.I�IN�l��llr l/uilllll+„l l�j/l��ii,InIrIIlIfIu iu11 i/ �V�1�IJIIlJI+l ljIIlU(( fflfifllolll,l ,lrrl IIIlllcl/ I'lI l� �lIr p'47V1IIIIlifIJd 1. 11l 111 •,,,I,1,1111,111.11111.1,111,1.11„11,,11,1111.111111 SII 00000000 YON � nommu�iu��!N�IVi4uNwoulu�v 1111,111,111111 OltfMi `llVV1111 oi(oigooloolotoow �I III ISN IN yyfi J)1 ,Ilii fll 1111ul11iiiiluiil7111011 thiti rn No I � imulwr r.ul rr'p muHrp ",�”' ul 11' )wr r', p L .ullir 4 Ptl � Iq N i°���°� � I�"41i1 i.1)011)111)1)111 11��111111 IIII �I;IIIJl 114J0,/;;r IIIIIIII I IIIII0gp01, lulu li+jVriueqjf1Iflpp9lf' �q)I�'.,�V�frI,+u4Il�V1llJIu1lw'ljr��+°l�I�lJl`lI/lllItl� 1b 1lljV�Vi+lPpIlltr,,ll!!!lrlllll>�ll�IlluIl�ltilll,k�rrl.1it/rj1+il�jSR1lillpl,r1 +I��lIli1lI(lulIiiiI'I7�f1„P„lluJl�lIu�Il�l A 1(, VII'1,1gv11�iII �VI IIInIIfIII IIII ���1J1JJI 111 ld 111111III11 11�111d1(11lr'�11111ll)11111l111 I 11111,, 1111l18I1 I1110i +//IIII1111ll rrluImml ihw Ylhi101 iiJill cito 1111111111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII�4;, uuuuuu111111111111111111h ;11/1/11111111111111111111111111111 1IIIIIIIIIIIII1,1,1,1,1�,��0???JJJJJJJJI ! 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JUOl /lu s IIII!',illl lull i'.•. uu mu iin.. um';�', I i i �„ uw ui it iu ,IyI 4 PREPARED BY KATIE PRATT & SPENCER HOWARD NORTHWEST VERNACULAR, INC. FOR THE CITY OF YAKIMA 11111111 1111'111110 1141 11111VII Cover image. July 13, 1929 view looking north along North lst Avenue from the inter tion with West Martin Luther Kinn .Jr. Boulevard. Photograph by. J. E. Stimson. Image property of the LIS. Bureau of 'eclumution. This survey has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, Department of the Interior administered by the Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (DAHP). However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior, DAHP, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior or DAHP. This program received Federal funds from the National Park Service. Regulations of the U.S. Department of Interior strictly prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally Assisted Programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, or handicap. Any person who believes he or she has been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: Director, Equal Opportunity Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20240. nw VERNACULAR historic preservation Contents ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 5 ABBREVIATIONS 6 1. RESEARCH DESIGN 7 A. OBJECTIVES 7 B. SURVEY METHODOLOGY 7 C. EXPECTATIONS 8 D. AREA SURVEYED 8 E. INTEGRATION WITH PLANNING 11 2. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT - YAKIMA HISTORY 13 A. NATURAL SETTING 13 B. DEVELOPMENT PERIODS — YAKIMA 13 C. YAKIMA'S FRUIT INDUSTRY 17 D. AREAS OF SIGNIFICANCE 24 E. PROPERTY TYPES AND FUNCTIONS 28 F. ARCHITECTURAL STYLES 29 G. COMPARABLE EXAMPLES 29 3. SURVEY RESULTS 32 A. NATIONAL REGISTER AND WASHINGTON HERITAGE REGISTER ELIGIBILITY 33 B. NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT ELIGIBILITY 35 C. YAKIMA REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES ELIGIBILITY 38 D. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS 42 E. RECOMMENDATIONS 42 4. BIBLIOGRAPHY 43 5. MAPS 46 Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular LIST OF TABLES AND MAPS TABLE 1. SURVEY REPORTS OVERLAPPING THE STUDY AREA 9 TABLE 2. ARCHAEOLOGY REPORTS OVERLAPPING THE STUDY AREA 9 TABLE 3. NATIONAL REGISTER PROPERTIES ADJACENT THE STUDY AREA 9 TABLE 4. PREVIOUSLY SURVEYED PROPERTIES WITHIN THE STUDY AREA 10 TABLE 5. POTENTIAL NATIONAL REGISTER ELIGIBLE PROPERTIES 35 TABLE 6. POTENTIAL PROPERTY STATUS 38 TABLE 7. POTENTIAL YAKIMA REGISTER ELIGIBLE PROPERTIES 40 MAP 1. 1889 MAP. 47 MAP 2. 1908 MAP. 47 MAP 3. 1889 VIEW OF NORTH YAKIMA. 48 MAP 4. CA. 1905 STATION MAP OVERLAY. 49 MAP 5. 1955 AERIAL OVERLAY. 50 MAP 6. 1956 AERIAL OVERLAY. 51 MAP 7. 1964 AERIAL OVERLAY. 52 MAP 8. 1974 AERIAL OVERLAY. 53 MAP 9. SURVEY AREA AND SURVEYED PROPERTIES. 54 MAP 10. PREVIOUS SURVEYS. 55 MAP 11. INDIVIDUAL NRHP ELIGIBILITY RECOMMENDATIONS. 56 MAP 12. NRHP HISTORIC DISTRICT ELIGIBILITY RECOMMENDATIONS. 57 MAP 13. INDIVIDUAL YRHP ELIGIBILITY RECOMMENDATIONS. 58 MAP 14. DEVELOPMENT PERIODS. 59 MAP 15. BUILDING STRUCTURES BY MATERIAL. 60 Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 4 Acknowledgments The authors of this historic resources survey report wish to express their sincerest thanks to the following organizations, departments, and individuals for providing their insight and assistance throughout this project. We are greatly appreciative of the time Will Hollingbery took to walk us through several buildings and talk about the history of Fruit Row. CITY OF YAKIMA • Trevor Martin CITY OF YAKIMA HISTORIC PRESERVATION COMMISSION • Cynthia Hall • Nancy Kenmotsu • Alixanne Pinkerton • Leslie Wahl CITY OF YAKIMA PLANNING COMMISSION • Bill Cook • Jacob Liddicoat • Patricia Byers • Al Rose • Leanne Hughes -Mickel • Philip Ostriem • Robert McCormick YAKIMA VALLEY MUSEUM • John Baule YAKIMA VALLEY MUSEUM • Brigid Clift Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 5 Abbreviations NRHP National Register of Historic Places WHR Washington Heritage Register YRHP Yakima Register of Historic Places DAHP State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation YHPC City of Yakima Historic Preservation Commission NWV Northwest Vernacular, Inc. WISAARD Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 6 1. Research Design A. OBJECTIVES The survey objectives listed below support the continued growth of the City's Certified Local Government (CLG) program, goals established in the City's Historic Preservation Element, and the identification and protection of historic buildings within the city. • Objective 1: Historic context development for the Fruit Row area (survey area) and fruit packaging and storage industry in Yakima to support the identification and evaluation of potential historic properties. • Objective 2: Evaluate identified properties for potential eligibility (individually and as a potential historic district) to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), City of Yakima Register of Historic Places (YRHP), and Washington State Heritage Register (WHR) to establish a baseline for potential outreach to property owners to encourage the preservation and rehabilitation of eligible historic properties. B. SURVEY METHODOLOGY The project consisted of a survey and inventory of 24 properties at the intensive level, and development of a historic context. Archival research entailed the review of published secondary sources relating to the history of Yakima, fruit processing and store, and transportation. Research was conducted at the Yakima Valley Museum, University of Washington Special Collections, Department of Natural Resources, Seattle Public Library, Chronicling America newspaper records, Bureau of Land Management photograph records, and the Washington State Archives Central Regional Branch looking at Yakima County Assessor records, historic maps, photographs, and company records. NWV developed a digital form for field use based on WISAARD intensive level survey needs and prepared field maps showing the properties to survey. As part to the survey work, staff assessed building integrity level (plan, windows, cladding, and other) and made recommendations based on National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) Criterion C and Yakima Register category 2 architectural significance for potential individual NRHP and Yakima Register of Historic Places (YRHP), as well as if the property is in a potential NRHP historic district and if so, if it potentially contributes based on Criterion C or category 2. Staff also identified character -defining features for each property, which were then used in writing up the physical descriptions. Staff took multiple digital photographs of each property recording overall views and details. All images were renamed using the following convention: StreetName_Building#_threedigitseries#. Recommendations for potential individual NRHP eligibility under Criterion A, B, and D and Yakima Register categories 1, and 3 through 7 were based on archival research conducted following the site visit. Writing, editing, Washington Information System for Architectural & Archaeological Records Data (WISAARD) data entry, and production followed. NWV staff wrote physical descriptions and Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 7 significance statements for each property. Staff uploaded and captioned photographs and completed form data entry for each property. Layout for the historic context and survey report occurred in InDesign to integrate text and graphics. All analysis maps were produced using QGIS by NWV. NWV staff member Spencer Howard conducted a site visit with Will Hollingbery, property owner and Trevor Martin, associate planner with the City of Yakima on March 28 touring buildings 201, 202, 205, 209, and 213 North 1st Avenue, owned by Hollingbery and Sons Cold Storage and discussing mechanical systems and historic uses of buildings within the survey area. Public participation and project publicity consisted of public meetings held at regularly scheduled public meetings of the City of Yakima Historic Preservation Commission on June 26, 2019 and a joint public meeting of the City of Yakima Planning Commission and the City of Yakima Historic Preservation Commission on August 28, 2019. The City notified property owners within the survey of the public meetings. lm1UVl�r� ILII ����� [',�r�/; jH<A Surveyed properties ED Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 Yakima County tax parcels t__: Survey area nw Survey Urec mop _`>howingJ .survey bouncIUrie_`> Unci proper - tier .surveyec1. C. EXPECTATIONS NWV expected only warehouses within the survey area. We expected a moderate to high level of alterations to existing buildings based on ongoing upgrades to modernize the buildings. Refer to survey results for how surveyed properties related to our expectations. D. AREA SURVEYED The survey area extends along either side of North First Avenue from West Yakima Avenue north to West D Street. Refer to the Survey Area map for the overall extent and the properties surveyed. The survey area is parallel with the former Northern Pacific Railroad, now the BNSF Railway Company rail corridor. The city's commercial core is located on the east side of the BNSF Railway Company rail corridor, across from Fruit Row. Thematically, the survey project focused on common and cold storage warehouses used predominately for the cold storage and packaging of fruit and produce. Temporal boundaries for the survey project were from the ca. 1898 through 1968. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 8 Survey work in 1985 completed inventory forms for several of the properties within the survey area, no cultural resource survey report had been previously prepared for this survey area. Refer to the table below for a list of previous survey work based on data available from WISAARD. Table 1. Survey Reports Overlapping the Study Area AUTHOR COUNTY TITLE NADB REPORT DATE DOCUMENT TYPE Artifacts Consulting, Inc. Yakima Cultural Resource Survey for Downtown Yakima 1348284 9/1/2006 Historic Structures Survey Report Artifacts Consulting, Inc. Yakima Historic Preservation Element NA 9/1/2016 Historic Preservation Plan There are no cemeteries recorded in WISAARD within or adjacent the survey area as of January 31, 2019. The following archaeological site is adjacent the survey area. Table 2. Archaeology Reports Overlapping the Study Area ELIGIBILITY NAME ARCHAEOLOGY ID RESOURCE ID DATE RECORDED FIELD TEMPORARY NUMBER(S) SMITHSONIAN NUMBER Potentially Eligible 22321 652484 6/10/1996 WC -96 -WA -00A YA00832 There are no National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), Washington Heritage Register (WHR), or Yakima Register of Historic Places (YRHP) listed properties within the study area. The following properties are adjacent the study area and one property removed from listing. Table 3. National Register Properties Adjacent the Study Area SMITHSONIAN NUMBER YEAR BUILT LISTED DATE LISTING NUMBER ADDRESS RESOURCE ID REGISTER NAME REGISTER STATUS YA01048 1925 NA NA North 2nd Avenue and West Yakima Avenue 676899 Holtzinger, C.M., Fruit Company Building Removed from Listing YA00902 1923 1988- 09-08 88001519 104 West Yakima Avenue 676846 Union Pacific Freight Building - Yakima National Register; Washington Heritage Register Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 9 SMITHSONIAN NUMBER YEAR BUILT LISTED DATE LISTING NUMBER ADDRESS RESOURCE ID REGISTER NAME REGISTER STATUS DT00175 NA 1986- 86000960 Roughly 674718 Old North National 12106 Inland Fruit Co. 05-02 J.M. Perry Ice and Cold Storage Bounded Yakima Historic Register; 12108 Hollingberry and Son, Inc. 302 N 1st Ave, Yakima, WA Sundquist Warehouse By East a Street, South First W.E. Roche Fruit Co. District Washington Heritage Register 537978 101 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 98902 Street, East 202 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 98902 538261 102 W MARTIN LUTHER KIN JR BLVD, YAKIMA, WA 98902 Yakima 132 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538794 132 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA Avenue, and the 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538796 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA Northern 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA Pacific RR Tracks Previously surveyed properties within the study area follow below. Forms in 12000 Property ID series stemmed from 1985 survey work, with the other forms started as part of the 2011 county assessor base data upload. Table 4. Previously Surveyed Properties within the Study Area PROPERTY ID COMMON NAME ADDRESS RESOURCE NAME 12092 SE Corner N. 1st Ave and W. B St., Yakima, WA Helliesen Lumber and Supply Co. 12101 Yakima Fruit and Cold Storage 107 N 1st Ave, Yakima, WA Ritchie -Gilbert Co. Warehouse 12105 Prentice Packing and Cold Storage 202 N 1st St, Yakima, WA 12106 Inland Fruit Co. 210 N 1st Ave, Yakima, WA J.M. Perry Ice and Cold Storage 12107 301 N 1st St, Yakima, WA Sundquist Fruit and Cold Storage, Inc 12108 Hollingberry and Son, Inc. 302 N 1st Ave, Yakima, WA Sundquist Warehouse 12109 W.E. Roche Fruit Co. 309 N 1st Ave, Yakima, WA 537978 101 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 98902 537979 202 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 98902 538261 102 W MARTIN LUTHER KIN JR BLVD, YAKIMA, WA 98902 538793 132 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538794 132 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538795 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538796 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538797 201 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 10 PROPERTY ID COMMON NAME ADDRESS RESOURCE NAME 538798 215 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538799 609 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA 538800 609 N 1ST AVE, YAKIMA, WA E. INTEGRATION WITH PLANNING The survey supports local comprehensive planning and the purpose of the city's Historic Preservation Ordinance 2005-02, adopted in 2005, stated in Section 11.62.010 Purpose to: To provide for the identification, evaluation, designation, and protection of designated historic and prehistoric resources within the boundaries of the city of Yakima and preserve and rehabilitate eligible historic properties within the city of Yakima for future generations through special valuation, a property tax incentive, as provided in Chapter 84.26 RCW in order to: A. Safeguard the heritage of Yakima as represented by those buildings, districts, objects, sites and structures which reflect significant elements of Yakima history; B. Foster civic and neighborhood pride in the beauty and accomplishments of the past, and a sense of identity based on Yakima history; C. Stabilize or improve the aesthetic and economic vitality and values of such sites, improvements and objects, D. Encourage capital investment in the rehabilitation of real property and assist in strategic economic development through the creation of jobs, construction spending and physical improvement within Yakima, E. Promote fundamental growth management principles and the development of sound tools for land use planning, urban design and environmental protections, F. Conserve valuable material and energy resources by ongoing use and maintenance of the existing built environment, and G. Assist, encourage and provide incentives to private owners for preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, redevelopment, and use of historic buildings, districts, objects, sites and structures The survey supports the following goals from the 2016 City of Yakima Historic Preservation Element incorporated into the Yakima Comprehensive Plan 2040: • Goal 1: Promote broad awareness and appreciation of Yakima's heritage. • Goal 2: Integrate historic preservation into Yakima's planning and development strategies. • Goal 3: Identify, register, and protect historic buildings, places, landscapes, and trees. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 11 • Goal 4: Encourage building rehabilitation and heritage projects in downtown Yakima. Although not directly within downtown Yakima, these buildings are directly adjacent and visible from downtown Yakima with a strong historical association between the warehouse district and the downtown commercial core. The survey supports the following goals from the 2014-2019 Washington State Historic Preservation Plan: • Goal 1. Enhance communities by actively engaging historic preservation with other forces shaping our environment. E. Enhance local program support. • Goal 2. Engage a broad spectrum of the public in preservation; and improve access to information. D. Build awareness, enthusiasm, and support for historic preservation. • Goal 3. Strengthen policies and planning processes to enhance informed and cross disciplinary decision-making for managing cultural and historic resources. A. Position historic preservation to be more fully integrated into land use decision- making processes. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 12 2. Historical Development — Yakima History Fruit Row (also historically known as Produce Row) is located adjacent the city of Yakima's downtown core and extends parallel to the historic Northern Pacific Railroad transportation corridor. At its peak, Fruit Row extended over a mile along the rail corridor, with primarily agricultural packing and cold storage warehouses. Fruit Row got its start in the 1890s, following the 1885 arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad with several periods of growth as the agricultural industry rose to prominence and growers, cooperatives, and commission houses updated and added buildings to meet consumer demand and technological advances. The following context provides a brief overview of Yakima's history and its development periods and how the growth of Fruit Row fits within the city's broader narrative and the fruit packing and shipping industry. A. NATURAL SETTING The Fruit Row warehouse district is in downtown Yakima, which is southwest of the confluence of the Yakima and Naches Rivers. The Yakima River's headwaters begin at Keechelus Lake near Snoqualmie Pass in the Cascade Range and flows southeasterly before emptying into the Columbia River near Richland, Washington. The Naches River flows into the Yakima River on the north side of the city of Yakima. These two rivers flow through the Yakima Valley within the larger Yakima River Basin. The Yakima River Basin extends from the peaks of the Cascades to the Columbia; the basin drains an area of 6,155 square miles and, according to the United States Geological Society, "is one of the most intensively irrigated areas in the United States." The Yakima River and its tributaries are an oasis within the sunny semi -arid climate of the region. The fertile valley has long supported people and wildlife. B. DEVELOPMENT PERIODS — YAKIMA According to the City of Yakima's Historic Preservation Element (2016), Yakima's history can be divided into seven development periods: • Pre -1860 • 1860-1884 • 1885-1899 • 1900-1917 • 1918-1939 • 1940-1949 • 1950-1970 Unless otherwise noted, this section on development periods has been summarized from the Historic Preservation Element. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 13 PRE -1860: YAKAMA PEOPLE AND EARLY CONTACT Yakima and the surrounding region has been home to the peoples of the Yakama Nation since time immemorial. The tribal people, comprising the Yakama Nation, organized today as the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, occupied the land of the Yakima River Basin and beyond, from the peaks of the Cascades to the lowlands of the Columbia River. The Yakamas traditionally gathered camas, roots, and berries from the fertile land, harvested salmon from the local rivers, and hunted wildlife. They wintered on the valley floor siting their villages close to water. As the weather warmed and snow melted in the mountains, the Yakamas moved out of the valley to hunt, fish, and gather.' White settlers arrived in the region beginning in the 1840s; the earliest arrivals were members of the Catholic Oblate Missionaries of Mary Immaculate. They established missions throughout the Yakima Valley in 1848 with a larger mission, St. Joseph's Mission on the Ahtanum, established in 1852. Washington Territory was formed out of Oregon Territory in 1853 and Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens began executing treaties with tribes throughout the territory. The Treaty of Yakima was signed on June 9, 1855, ceding over 12 million acres of land to the United States Government and creating a reservation for area tribes. Fourteen leaders signed the treaty, representing 14 bands and tribes: Palouse, Pisquouse, Yakama, Wenatchapam, Klinquit, Oche Chotes, Kow was wayee, Sk'in-pah, Kah-miltpah, Klickitat, Wish ham, See ap Cat, Li ay was, and Shyiks. The descendants of these bands and tribes are known as the Yakama Nation today. The treaty was ratified in 1859, but Stevens broke the treaty terms within one month of signing the treaty, declaring the ceded lands open for white homesteading. 1860-1884: EURO -AMERICAN SETTLEMENT AND THE RAILROAD The first non -missionary non-native settlers to the Yakima Valley were Fielding Mortimer Thorp (1822-1894) and Margaret Bounds Thorp (1822-1898) and their nine children. They settled at the future location of Moxee in 1861. Thorp had driven a herd of 250 cattle to graze in the area the prior year, following in the footsteps of cattlemen Ben Snipes and John Jeffries. Cattle drives were a common occurrence in the area for the next two decades. Other families and young men followed and were typically associated with the thriving cattle culture. A town was established in 1861, eventually called Yakima City (present). Yakima County was established in 1865 (containing present-day Yakima and Kittitas counties); Kittitas County was divided from Yakima County in 1883. Yakima City became the county seat of Yakima County in 1870. The population reached nearly 2,000 by 1880. Yakima (city and county) was slow to grow initially, as its dry, semi -arid climate seemed more suitable to cattle grazing than soil cultivation. However, the arrival of the railroad changed the course of Yakima's history. The Northern Pacific Railroad, as it extended its Cascade Branch across the Cascades at Stampede Pass, selected a station location north of Yakima City in a 1 Don Healy, "Yakama Nation History," Yakama Nation, http://www.yakamanation-nsn.qov/history.php (accessed ................ April 12, 2019). Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 14 less swampy location. The Territory of Washington sued the railroad to force them to establish the depot at Yakima City and won. However, local business owners began to move north and Northern Pacific picked up the tab for the relocation—offering landowners lots in the new town and shouldering the cost to move buildings. The new town, North Yakima, was soon platted and over 100 buildings were moved from Yakima city between winter and spring of 1884-1885.2 1885-1899: EARLY CITY DEVELOPMENT North Yakima's population quickly rose to 1,200 by the end of 1885. North Yakima incorporated in 1886 and confidence in the new city abounded; the county seat was also moved to North Yakima the same year. Early city improvements during this included the construction of the first park (1885) and high school (1898, demolished 1924), installation of a water system (ca. 1889), and electrification (1890). Two fires, in 1890 and 1892, damaged many of the city's buildings, but construction efforts in 1898 and 1899 helped grow the city. The railroad—the location of the tracks and the depot—had a profound impact on the developing community as its earliest buildings were sited close to the railroad with city blocks oriented to the tracks. The city's first commercial buildings and warehouses were constructed between the tracks and the Yakima River. Additional industrial buildings and warehouses then jumped the tracks to the west with some of the first stone warehouses built along North First Avenue. Irrigation projects, started in the 1880s by private companies, began to transform the region's economy from farming through cattle ranching of the preceding decades to farming through soil cultivation. The rich volcanic soil covering the valley floor and the warm climate provided excellent conditions for growing fruit, vegetables, and hops, but the lack of rainfall was a stumbling block to large scale production. 1900-1917: AGRICULTURAL BOOM Yakima began seeing the dividends from the railroad's decision to run through the Yakima Valley particularly as large-scale irrigation projects improved farming in the region. By the early 1900s, Yakima had established itself as an agricultural and shipping center. The increasing wealth in the community was reflected in the built environment, as masonry buildings replaced wood -frame structures. Yakima's population exploded during this period, growing 346 percent between 1900 and 1910. Transportation continued to improve, both to and from and within Yakima. The Northern Pacific replaced their original depot with a new passenger depot in 1909-10. The Union Pacific Railroad arrived via their subsidiary, Oregon -Washington Railway and Navigation Company, in 1911, and developed spur tracks and purchased several blocks along the west side of North 1st Avenue of Fruit Row. A streetcar system developed in the early 1900s, founded by the Intervalley Traction Company (ITC) in 1906. The Yakima Valley Transportation Company (YVTC) purchased the ITC in 1907. The streetcar lines ran through the downtown and then extended outward to the 2 HistoryLink.org the Free Encyclopedia of Washington State History, "Northern Pacific reaches Yakima City, where it declines to build a station, on December 17, 1884," by Kit Oldham, February 18, 2003, https://historylink.orq/File/5237 (accessed March 28, 2019). Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 15 fairgrounds and nearby communities. Boosters extolled the virtues of the Yakima Valley for farming—promoting its rich volcanic soil, 300 days of sunshine, railroad transportation, markets, and irrigation projects—to encourage farmers to relocate to Yakima.3 1918-1939 Yakima reincorporated in 1918, opting for "Yakima" over "North Yakima." The city continued to thrive during this period as the downtown commercial core filled in and its residential neighborhoods were established to the north, east, and south. Fruit Row continued to expand during this period with several new warehouses. Important civic and recreational developments occurred during this time, with the formation of the city's parks department (1933) and construction of prominent buildings such as the YWCA (ca. 1935) and The Capitol Theatre (1920). A concentrated wave of Mexican American farmworkers arrived in the Yakima Valley from Texas during the early 1930s. The valley became a temporary stop for migrant workers. 1940-1949 This period includes the years of World War II and the initial post-war years. Between 1940 and 1950, the population grew from 27,221 to 38,486.4 In 1941, the U.S. Army established the Anti - Aircraft Artillery Range east of the city (known today as the Yakima Training Center). Additionally, over 1,000 individuals of Japanese descent were forcibly relocated from Yakima to internment camps under the authority of Executive Order 9066. 1950-1970 Change arrived in Yakima in the post -World War II years. Neighborhoods expanded and older buildings were modernized or lost to urban renewal efforts. Fruit Row continued to modernize during this period to keep pace with fruit and hop shipping. New buildings, designed in the Modern style, included Yakima City Hall (1950), Yakima Valley Regional Library (1959, replacing the 1907 Carnegie Library), and the Yakima County Administration Building (1960). Yakima retained its status as a commercial hub for the surrounding area, but its population showed limited growth between 1960 and 1970 with only a 5 -percent increase. 1971- TODAY Yakima remains a prominent agricultural center, both in Washington State and the nation. Historically well-known for its apple and hops production, Yakima and the surrounding environs have become award-winning viticultural areas. The Yakima Valley American Viticultural Area 3 G. Thomas Edwards, "'The Early Morning of Yakima's Day of Greatness': The Yakima County Agricultural Boom of 1905-1911," The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 2 (April 1982), 78. 4 Jim Kershner, "Yakima — Thumbnail History," HistoryLink.org The Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, October 16, 2009, https//www.historylink.orq/File/9187 (accessed April 23, 2019). ................ Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 16 (AVA) was the first AVA established in Washington State, gaining recognizing in 1983. The Downtown Association of Yakima (DAY), established in 2006 as the Committee for Downtown Yakima, achieves Main Street status to spur downtown revitalization. C. YAKIMA'S FRUIT INDUSTRY Today, Yakima County is the top - producing county in Washington State for apples, sweet cherries, pears, and melons. In addition to fruit, Yakima view down c street lined Neth box houses olonp o slur truck of the Union Pacific Railroad ca. 7948. Source: Yak' urn, Accession Number 2001-800-081. County farmers produce grapes, nuts, Volley nh..se vegetables, and hops. In fact, Yakima County is the leading county in the U.S. in hops production. The Yakima Valley comprises the majority of arable land within the county related to fruit crop and produce production. Irrigation projects helped establish the region's agricultural prominence. Irrigation canals helped support and expand commercial orchards and the railroad helped farmers access larger markets in the Midwest and East.' Although white settlers originally utilized the Yakima Valley for cattle grazing, they soon realized the area had the right climate and soil for crop production through soil cultivation. According to historian Amanda Van Lanen in her dissertation, Po While fruit cultivation was initially widespread throughout the Pacific Northwest, the dry interior of Washington state proved the most commercially viable due to its fertile volcanic soils, warm summer temperatures, and, surprisingly, its lack of moisture, which initially seemed to discourage fungi, scabs, and other tree pests.6 Cultivators in the Yakima Valley only lacked water, but irrigation projects soon remedied that problem. The Sunnyside Canal was started in 1885, drawing water from the Yakima River, and opened in 1892. Commercial apple orchards were started in the Yakima Valley in the late 1880s. Henry Pinchwell started the first known commercial orchard in 1887 and Fred Thompson planted his commercial orchard in 1889. In the 1910 agriculture census, the percentage of Yakima County land in farm use was 9.9%, compared to a statewide average of 27.4%, due in part to the west portion of the county including a large swath of the east slope of Cascade Mountain range. However, the value of Yakima County 5 R. Thomas Schotzko and David Granatstein, "A Brief Look at the Washington Apple Industry: Past and Present," htt ://citeseerx.ist. su.edu/viewdoc/download?dot=10.1.1.492.6148&re =re 1&t e= df accessed April 12, 2019). 6 Amanda L. Van Lanen, "'We Have Grown Fine Fruit Whether We Would Or No': The History of the Washington State Apple Industry, 1880-1930," PhD diss., (Washington State University, 2009), 43. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 17 farmland was over $125 per acre, compared to the statewide average of $44.18.' In 1910, Yakima County was the second highest producer of orchard fruit in the state with just over $450,000 generated in bushels; Chelan County was the highest with over $600,000. With over $4.2 million in bushels from orchard fruit statewide, Yakima County had approximately 10% of the state's tree fruit production value and Chelan County had approximately 14%. This corresponded with a period of warehouse growth along Fruit Row, including the 201, 205, and 215 N 1st Avenue warehouses and development in 1911 of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company (a subsidiary of the Union Pacific) tracks. Man Wpw �Y 1 M ri 00 HONIPgiuA itru �lr 6'r prp I it Muer u414, view c f thr Union 1'crcific 1=rr rclht Depot, CC.7 19 rood relied on the storage and pocking facilities of the fruit poi ers and shippers to handle the volume of fruit and produce grown in the Yakima Volley. Source: Yakima Volley Museum, Accession Number 2002-802198. C 4,1 ge.44,1,A,111111 i;... In the 1925 U.S. census of agriculture, totals for orchard fruit were segregated into fruit type without an overall total. However, while Chelan County beat out Yakima County in production for apples, Yakima's production in other orchard fruits like peaches, topped Chelan's production. The total value of all crops reported in Yakima County in 1924 for the 1925 census eclipsed Chelan County Yakima had over $17 million compared to Chelan County's over $9 million. In fact, Yakima had the highest total value of all crops for Washington State reported in that census, accounting for over 18% of the state's $91.9 million in crop value.8 As reported in 1925, Washington only had .005% of the total crop value in the nation. The valley's growth in production supported the further expansion of warehouses along Fruit Row, including the 15 W Yakima Avenue, and 15 through 29, 202, 213, 301, and 312 N 1st Avenue warehouses. By the 1964 census, including legacy numbers from 1959, the U.S. Department of Commerce was calculating production in pounds rather in revenue for comparison. In 1959, Yakima produced over 529 million pounds of apples and 73 million pounds of peaches. Those numbers decreased in 1964; Yakima County produced over 522 million pounds of apples and 58 million pounds of peaches. Yakima County's 1959 production of apples accounted for nearly 49% of Washington State's production and its production of peaches accounted for 74%. Yakima County's 1964 production of apples accounted for only 42% of Washington State's production and its production 7 Department of Commerce and Labor, Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910, Volume VI, Agriculture, 1909 and 1910, Reports by States, with Statistics for Counties (Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. 1913), 824, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/ AgCensuslmages/1910/07/01/1834/41033898v7ch7.pdf 8 Department of Commerce, United States Census of Agriculture 1925: Reports for States with Statistics for Counties and a Summary for the United States, Part 11 (Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. 1925), 386-391, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/AgCensuslmages/1925/01/46/1925-01-46.pdf. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 18 of peaches remained steady at 74%.9 These production levels supported the sustained role of Fruit Row and the addition of new warehouses, including 130-134 N 1st Avenue. FRUIT ROW/PRODUCE ROW Fruit Row's origins as a warehouse district extended along North First Avenue (formerly Selah Street) from West A Street north to West D Street by 1889. By 1920, the district had extended south to West Pine Street, north to just past West Willow Street, and west to North Second Avenue. This general footprint remained through the 1950s with some additional westward extension to North Third Avenue. The bulk of fruit warehouses remained concentrated in the area between West Yakima Avenue and West D Street. Since the 1970s warehouse development and shipping has expanded north of West D Street with significant building loss south of West Yakima Avenue. The following discussion focuses on the core between West Yakima Avenue and West D Street, which retains the highest concentration of early warehouses and the greatest concentration of fruit warehouses and encapsulates the formative development of warehouses along with subsequent modernizations of both warehouses and cooling systems. a Ill fir d 11111111111111111111 doe Co. 1937 to 19510(.9w of the warehouse ct 213 North lst Avenue while operated by Marley'�> Inc. Source: Yakima Valley Museum, Appleland News Photos collection, Fruit Warehouses and Storage Plants %older. As production increased at these orchards and other farms, farmers began seeking non -local markets to sell their products. Shipping produce requires the goods to be packed and stored in preparation for rail transport. Some growers packed on site, while others joined together in cooperatives to streamline the process. Individual growers could construct their own packing sheds and storage houses on their farms, the periodical Better Fruit even published do-it-yourself guides for small storehouses. Cooperatives and cash buyers—buyers who paid cash for fruit upfront upon harvest—established larger packing houses and storage warehouses, usually in town and close to the railroad. Quality packing ensured the product arrived at its final destination in the best shape possible; improperly packed produce was sold for a lower price. In Yakima, those packing houses and warehouses were established adjacent to the Northern Pacific Railroad and Oregon Railroad & Navigation Company (Union Pacific subsidiary) tracks in an area soon called Fruit Row (and also known during its formative years as Produce Row). Small-scale wood frame and stone warehouses were started along the railroad tracks by the late 1880s, but the number of warehouses increased and shifted to brick and concrete throughout the 1910s and 1920s as the Yakima Valley fruit industry grewt0 Many of these new warehouses 9 U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1964 United States Census of Agriculture: Volume 1, Part 46 (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.,1964), 57-363, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/AgCensuslmages/1964/01/46/809/ Table-13.pdf. 10 Shirley Courtois, "C.M. Holtzinger Fruit Company Building," National Register of Historic Places Nomination (April 1988), Section 8, Page 1. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 19 were typically funded by cash buyers, commission houses, and cooperatives" J.M. Perry—cash buyer, commission house owner, and fruit dealer—had a cold storage facility constructed in his warehouse (201 North First Avenue) on Fruit Row in 1906-07. According to The Yakima Herald, the cold storage facility was the first of its kind in Yakima t2 By 1911, the area was referred to as Fruit and Produce Warehouse Row and was roughly bounded on the east by the Northern Pacific tracks, on the west by the "western horizon," the Oregon -Washington Railroad and Navigation Company spur line west of North 1st Avenue (current alley), on the south by West Yakima Avenue.'t3 As the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company (a subsidiary of the Union Pacific) laid its tracks parallel to the Northern Pacific tracks in 1911, the following warehouse and commission firms were located along North First Avenue: Co. 1937 to 1951 view of.fruit .sorting incl pocking operation.s. Source: Yakima Valley Museum, Applelancl New.s Photo.s collect tion, Pocking, Sorting /older. • Yakima Milling company • J.M. Perry & Company, incorporated, fruit and produce shippers • Pacific Fruit and Produce company • Pioneer Lumber and Coal company • Yakima Transfer and Storage company • Horticultural Union • H.M. Helliesen, lumber • J.A. Cook, coal and wood • Thompson Fruit company, fruit and produce • Yakima Coal company, real Roslyn coal • Northwestern Produce company • Fruit Growers' warehouse • Yakima Valley Fruit Growers' association • The Bradner company, creamery • Yakima Ice and Cold Storage company 11 Van Lanen, 168. 12 "Desires a Correction," The Yakima Herald, October 3, 1906, via https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/Iccn/ sn 88085 523/1906-10-03/ed-1/seq-7.pdf. 13 "Produce Row Gets O.W.R.&N.," The Yakima Herald, August 16, 1911: 3, via https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/Iccn/ sn 88085 523/1911-08-16/ed-1/seq-3.pdf. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 20 • Rose -Sullivan company The volume of warehouses along Fruit Row reflect the increase in fruit production in Yakima in the early 1900s. In 1912, the Yakima Republic reported 10-20 railcars leaving Yakima daily loaded with fruit14 As competition for freight service picked up, the warehouse district strengthened its status as a prime distribution center in Yakima. Construction commenced on additional warehouses between the two sets of tracks in the 1910s. According to the Yakima Valley Progress, a monthly periodical, numerous permanent warehouses were constructed on Fruit Row in the spring and summer of 1919 to increase warehouse and storage facilities t5 The construction boom reflected the agricultural boom; 1919 was a banner growing season for the Yakima County Horticultural Union which shipped 1532 cars of fruit (apples, pears, peaches, and cherries). 1111111111111111:1111111 1111 Cc 192/ -o 1951 view of pc Eked fruit being loaded onto a truck. So tree: Yakima Valley Museum, Ahhleland News Photos collet. tion, Pocking, Sorting folder. Cooperatives were developed to help control surpluses and distribution, increase prices, and coordinate marking—and were utilized in a variety of industries, not just agriculture. The oldest agricultural cooperative in Yakima, the Yakima County Horticultural Union, was established in 1902. They established a relationship with J.M. Perry, a local cash buyer, to handle their fruit. The Yakima County Horticultural Union were using a stone warehouse building by 1906 (now demolished) and an adjacent two-story cold storage facility by 1920-21 (predecessor building to the current 117 North First Avenue building). By 1922, the Yakima County Horticultural Union handled accounts for 400 to 500 members. Another cooperative, the Yakima Fruit Growers' Association, was founded in 1911 and had 300-400 accounts by 192216 By the mid -1920s, Fruit Row was fully established. A January 1925 article in Yakima Valley Progress described First Avenue as such prior to 1925, First Avenue—now familiarly called Produce Row—was then [1908], and even until four years ago [1921], a broad assortment of rocks and dust in the summer and mud of uncertain depth in the winter. There were no fruit warehouses south of[West] Yakima Avenue, few north of 14 Van Lanen, 130. 15 "Building Permits for Last Month Total $132,685," Yakima Valley Progress, Vol I., No. 2, December 1919, 9. 16 "Cooperative Marketing, Big Factor in Handling Valley's Fruit," Yakima Valley Progress, Volume 3, No. 9, July 1922, 8. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 21 [West] C Street." J.M. Perry's ice production and cold storage warehouse (201 North First Avenue), constructed in 1906-07, helped build Fruit Row and concentrate fruit storage and cold storage in the neighborhood. As of 1925, the three of the largest cold storage plants in the area were located on Fruit Row, those of J.M. Perry & Co., Richey & Gilbert Co., and the Yakima County Horticultural Union. By 1920, railcar icing sheds extended along the east and west sides of J.M. Perry's ice production facility and cold storage warehouses. Co. 1951 view of trucks along North lst Avenue in front of the warehouse at 301 North lst Avenue. Source: Yakima Valley Muse urn, Appleland News Photos collection, Transportation folder. A few large warehouses were constructed in 1925 in Fruit Row to take the place of those destroyed by fire in previous years.18 One of these warehouses constructed was C.M. Holtzinger's cold storage plant (C.M. Holtzinger Fruit Company Building, NRHP-listed, demolished). Holtzinger's first warehouse (1918) was only a common warehouse and a fire destroyed the building in the summer of 1924. Holtzinger's new building, opened on August 28, 1925, had frontage on West Yakima Avenue, and included shops and office space to tie in with commercial activity along West Yakima Avenue in addition to the cold storage plant's As the Great Depression swept the nation in the 1930s, Yakima was not spared from the economic downturn. Crop prices dropped substantially, affecting everyone in Yakima who relied on the previous prosperity of the valley's agriculture—fruit growers, pickers, packers, shippers, buyers, and consumers. Apples were left to rot on the trees or the ground as costs to pick the crop exceeded the fruit's price on the market.20 The fruit market rebounded by the 1940s, as the U.S. entered World War II. Processing and shipment advances in the post-war years helped maintain the importance of Fruit Row to the valley's agricultural companies. By this time, cold storage plants and refrigerated railcars were the standard for shipping perishable items. Simple advantages, such as design improvements in pallets and skids, helped improve handling for storage and loading for transport.21 New warehouses constructed in Fruit Row utilized pallets to move and stack fruit within the buildings; these buildings began to use large trusses without intermediate supports to increase ceiling 17 Rolfe Whitnall, "Produce Row and Valley Storage Big Factor in Yakima's Prosperity," Yakima Valley Progress, January 1925, Volume 6, No. 3, 5. 18 "Yakima Important Scenic and Agricultural Center," Yakima Valley Progress, January 1925, Volume 6, No. 3, 7. 19 Courtois, Section 8, Page 2. 20 Artifacts Consulting, Inc., "Downtown Yakima Cultural Resource Survey," prepared for the City of Yakima (September 2006), 11. 21 "Palletizing Provides New Materials, Handling Economies, Speeds Shipment," Appleland News, June 1947, 20. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 22 height for stacking boxes. The use of pallets in fruit warehouses was uncommon in Yakima prior to the mid - 1940s.22 Additional advancements included air purifying systems for cold storage warehouses. Apples, for example, emit ethylene gas which causes them to ripen; removing the gas through an air purifier ensures longevity in cold storage.23 Fruit Row continued to be an important commercial and industrial hub in Yakima into the 1950s and 1960s. Several warehouse buildings were constructed in the late 1960s, reflecting changes in technology and continuing demand for fresh produce. In the late 1950s, wooden apple boxes—in use in the apple industry since the 1890s—were phased out in favor of cardboard boxes. uuNua11uiuul 1.11140 IA ‘iiii111111111111111 Undated vies of the interior of the Wiley Warehouse showing typ- ir_al storage conditions. Source: Yakima Volley Museum, Ar_r_es- >ion Number .2005-800-048. Although Fruit Row developed and remains along the railroad corridor in Yakima, truck transport has emerged as the preferred shipping method. In 1956, the Federal Aid Highway Act was established, which provided allocations to states for highway projects. Highway construction in Washington State increased with this funding and $143 million in contracts were awarded between 1957 and 1958.24 The 1968 construction of the warehouses and associated three truck loading dock (130 to 134 North First Avenue) within the center of a former railroad -based warehouse district underscored this transition. Interstates were constructed, the north -south Interstate 5 and the east -west Interstate 90, more efficiently connecting Washington with surrounding states. Interstate 82 was mostly completed by 1972, connecting Yakima and Ellensburg and providing a link for Yakima to Interstate 90 for traffic west to Seattle and east to Spokane and beyond.25 A 1993-1994 survey of the Washington apple industry indicated that trucking had surpassed rail as the preferred method of transport—on average, 69% of apple products utilized trucks to ship to their final destination, 8% used rail to final destination, 1% used trucks to ship to a river port, and 22% used trucks to ship to an ocean port.26 22 R. W. Strausz, "Palletized Warehouses," Appleland News, December 1947, 16. 23 "Cold Storage Extends Season," Appleland News, November 1948, 40. 24 Washington State Department of Transportation, "A History of Highways & Transportation," 1993, 12, Ihttps //www. wsdc:Awa., pv/IN IR/irdc::)nll ares/i5AA9ui91[)8-A1[:)8A-4311 A-87AII== 11==7C1C704C329/O/WAII NO hwa II NOstoi df( accessed April 26, 2019). 25 Washington State Department of Transportation, "A History of Highways & Transportation," 14. 26 The Gillis Group with Kenneth L. Casavant, "Transportation Needs of Eastern Washington Fruit, Vegetable and Hay Industries," Eastern Washington Intermodal Transportation Study Research Report Number 7 (March 1995), 23, http°,//sesws.::u,ed La!1p.::::conten......11loads/ ._u / 1 /einr.f,..pd (accessed April 26, 2019). Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 23 D. AREAS OF SIGNIFICANCE The Fruit Row warehouses relate to the following four areas of significance: Architecture, Commerce, Industry, and Transportation. The Fruit Row warehouses reflect the predominance of agriculture in the Yakima Valley and relate to Yakima's economic development, particularly Yakima's role as a shipping center for getting agricultural goods to market. Although called "Fruit Row" due to the preponderance of fruit -related companies, the warehouses were not exclusively fruit storage and processing warehouses; other goods stored in the warehouse buildings included lumber, building materials, coal, produce, paper, flour, hops, and grains. Furthermore, the warehouse buildings and equipment demonstrate the shifts in the fruit processing and shipping industry with the advent of cold storage and specialized processing and packing methods. The properties also demonstrate the impact of rail transportation on Yakima's development. Nfi� aNr�a�a(Ir��uui����rtr%l oti 11111111111111111 �refalNwpNm�W[aAWW'UTAIf �NNrt �qpi R 111)11111,11,1 2019, anginal Frick Company gouge from 1923 in the basernent of the warehouse at .201 North 1.st Avenue. The Fruit Row warehouses appear to meet Criterion A in the areas of Commerce, Industry, and Transportation and Criterion C in the area of Architecture as a collection of utilitarian warehouses. ARCHITECTURE 1 WAREHOUSES The warehouses within the survey area predominately represent two types of warehouses: common and cold storage. All the warehouses are largely utilitarian with construction dates spanning from ca. 1898 (stone construction) to 1968 (precast concrete construction). The warehouses are not individually noteworthy for their architectural style but as representatives of a type of construction (warehouse), particularly as they span several decades of development. The building exteriors reflect their utilitarian nature and often feature loading docks and doorways. Construction types represented include stone, brick masonry and concrete with heavy timber interior floor framing and roof trusses, and concrete block and precast tilt up concrete with engineered roof framing and single volume interiors. COMMERCE 1 YAKIMA'S DISTRIBUTION CENTER The Fruit Row warehouses are deeply connected with Yakima's economy. The buildings reflect the dominance of the agricultural industry and associated business ventures. Non-agricultural warehouses within Fruit Row connect with other significant industries—building trades and fuel—in the community. The proximity and visual relationship of Fruit Row to Yakima's downtown commercial separated by the railroad corridor underscores this critical dependence between commerce, agriculture, and transportation. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 24 INDUSTRY 1 PROCESSING AND COLD STORAGE The Fruit Row warehouses reflect changes in the produce processing and storage industry. Some of the warehouses even contain multiple generations of ammonia compressors, effectively showcasing the incremental changes in the industry. As previously mentioned, the warehouses within the survey area contain both common and cold storage warehouses. While these specific property types will be discussed in the "Property Types and Functions" section, the industrial uses associated with these property types will be outlined here. 11111)))11),1,11„111,111,1,1,1,11...111,111).1)111.1.1111,11111 2019 view of an original arnrnonia compre.ssor in the bosement of the warehouse at .201 North 1.st Avenue. Cold storage techniques developed in the nineteenth century, with natural ice used for cooling until the 1890s. Natural ice is ice that has been harvested from ices caves, lakes, and rivers and the ice is formed when water solidifies when temperatures drop below freezing.27 The ice was stacked in large quantities to freeze together in insulated buildings. Sawdust was typically used as the primary insulating material between floor systems within these insulated buildings (at least in Fruit Row). However, the sawdust often caused condition issues as condensed water vapor saturated the sawdust and lead to rotting in the floor framing.28 Mechanical cooling methods, which did not rely on ice, began in the 1880s. Early mechanically - cooled warehouses were constructed in Boston (1881) and East St. Louis, Illinois (1882). According to Van Lanen, Mechanical refrigeration worked by the basic principle of evaporation. Gas, usually ammonia, was compressed to form a liquid and pumped through a series of pipes. As the liquid changed back into a gas, it absorbed heat from its surroundings to produce a cooling effect. In some plants ammonia was used to chill a salted brine, and the brine was then pumped into pipes throughout the warehouse. In other plants, ammonia was piped directly into the warehouse to chill the air.29 These mechanical cooling methods not only cooled the cold storage buildings but could also 27 Paula Becker, "Diamond Ice & Storage Company of Seattle Incorporates on November 25, 1892," HistorryLink. org the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History, April 4, 2018, https://www.historylink.org/File/20532 (accessed April 29, 2019). 28 Interview with Will Hollingberry, March 28, 2019. Hollingberry, owner of the J.M. Perry building, has trained in cooling systems. 29 Van Lanen, 119. Van Lanen cites Oscar E. Anderson, Jr.'s Refrigeration in America: A History ofa New Technology and Its Impact (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University, 1972). Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 25 create artificial ice. Ice could be used to cool common warehouses and for icing railcars. Cold storage facilities, which utilized mechanical cooling methods, arrived in Washington by the 1890s and reached Yakima by 1906-07 with J.M. Perry's cold storage addition to his warehouse (which utilized artificial ice). Cold storage became widespread in use by the 1910s as the apple industry expanded in the Yakima Valley. In J.M. Perry's cold storage building, n H r U /Y F H R Ne r c'a N metal pans set in chilled salt water brine 1924 inborn Fire Insurance mop sheet 35 showing cur icing baths (double walled steel pools) froze platforms along either side of the J. M. Ferry & Company build- ings. the water and a chilled ammonia system Source: Yui irr�c Volley Museum. cooled the salt water. Small wood trolleys hauled the resulting 3001b ice blocks around the building. This system could produce nearly 600,000lbs of ice every 12 hours.30 Ammonia cooled buildings typically had ammonia tanks in the basement (low point for the system) with recirculating pumps moving the ammonia or chilled brine through a system of heavy wall steel pipes throughout the building, typically mounted to the underside of the floors, or along the upper walls in hanger systems. Each building would have miles of piping within it. 11111 U(t, In addition to their relationship to the storage industry, the Fruit Row warehouses reflect the fruit packing industry. Many of the warehouses had floors dedicated to packing or utilized a separate building specifically for packing, with the associated packing machinery and staff spaces built out. Centralized packing houses, like the Yakima Horticultural Union, were located in the warehouse district. These types of houses served hundreds of growers and enabled use of larger machinery to ensure efficiency and standardization. Packing houses also created longer-term employment.31 Packing houses cleaned, graded, and then packed the apples for storage and/or shipment. Early sorting and packing was done largely by hand. Machines were created to clean the apples, then the apples were passed through a sizing machine, and then wrapped and placed into clean boxes. Elevators within the warehouses were then used to move materials between floors and small upper facade doors allowed the use of conveyor systems to move packed goods out for shipping. TRANSPORTATION 1 RAILROAD AND SHIPPING GOODS The Fruit Row warehouses are parallel to the Northern Pacific Railroad line, less than a block west of the main tracks, and the Oregon -Washington Railroad and Navigation Company spur tracks (along and west of North First Avenue). Side tracks ran along the buildings to their icing and loading platforms. The freight depot (constructed 1910, demolished) for the Northern Pacific 30 Interview with Will Hollingberry, March 28, 2019. 31 Van Lanen, 139. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 26 was located west of its passengermucup 1111111atva depot (1910, contributing property in �� . NRHP-listed Old North Yakima Historic District), close to where the tracks intersect with West Martin Luther King Jr Boulevard (formerly West B Street). The Union Pacific Freight Building (1927, NRHP-listed) housed both passenger and freight functions and is located at 104 West Yakima Avenue. Prior to this 3 building, the Union Pacific had a freight depot located on North First Avenue, across the tracks from its passenger depot in the Stone Building at the corner of North Second Avenue and East Yakima Avenue.32 The OWRN Company spur tracks branched off to North First Avenue north of West Willow Street and then expanded at West Elm Street with tracks running south to West Spruce Street through the blocks along the west side of North First Avenue and along the middle of the block west of North Second Avenue south to West B Street. By 1920 the OWRN shifted their tracks that ran down the middle of the blocks west of North First Avenue to run down North First Avenue south to West A Street and began leasing the blocks for cold storage and common warehouse development. )111110111 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1924 Sanborn Fire Insurance map sheet 36 showing warehouse development along North lst Avenue north of West Yakima Ave- nue. Source: Yakima Valley Museum. Together with the development of cold storage facilities came the introduction of refrigerated cars. Cold storage allowed the fruit to stay in good condition prior to and after shipping, while refrigerated railcars maintained this condition during shipment. Refrigerated railcars, cooled by ice, began in the 1840s and their design was refined over the next few decades to ensure consistent temperatures. Mid -trip re -icing facilities were also used to help ensure consistent temperatures. Up until the 1880s, though, refrigerated railcars were predominately owned by private companies rather than the railroads due to the cost of construction. However, railroad companies soon began to acquire their own cars and by 1915, the Northern Pacific alone owned 36,000 refrigerated cars.33 While early fruit shipment railcars (fruit express cars) were attached to passenger trains, in the 1900s, the railroads began shipping fruit in "fruit blocks" — with trains entirely comprised of fruit cars. The existence and location of the Fruit Row warehouses is in direct relationship with the adjacent railroad tracks. Both the shippers and the railroad companies were mutually dependent in order to sustain this lucrative commercial enterprise. The sole purpose of many of the warehouses was to prepare and store produce for shipment out of the city via railroad. The proximity of both the Northern Pacific and Union Pacific freight depots to the survey area and development of the OWNR Company side tracks within Fruit Row, further underscores the connection of the warehouses to transportation activities in the city. 32 Section 8, Page 2. 33 Van Lanen, 134. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 27 E. PROPERTY TYPES AND FUNCTIONS WAREHOUSES The warehouses within the survey area predominately represent two types of warehouses: common and cold storage. Prior to the 1920s, the common warehouses were in use the most in the Pacific Northwest. Common warehouses relied on passive insulation to maintain temperatures while cold storage warehouses were mechanically cooled.34 Many larger warehouses, like 15 North First Avenue, 202 North First Avenue, and 201 North First Avenue in Fruit Row, included both packing houses and storage, allowing the produce to be packed, then stored as they awaited shipment to market. airvism TiOW11111111111111111111111111IIIII111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 )111.11111:1,1i,111 111.10111 11'111q11 1111111111111,111111)11,. Cu. 1979 view looking s 0 . th along North lst Avenue towards the two cold and one common .storage warehouse.3 Cons trueted in 1968 (130..134 North lst Avenue). Source: Washington State Ar- chives Central Regional Branch, Collection Number CE. -339 1-0 17 Property Record Cords. By 1920, cold storage warehouses were more common within the area, particularly as the Northern Pacific had acquired refrigerated boxcars.35 Cold storage had the ability to keep apples for three to six months, slowing the decay of the harvested apples (not improving their quality).36 This shift in storage practices is reflected in the Fruit Row warehouses, evidenced by the 1920 Sanborn Fire Insurance maps (with updates from 1924). J.M. Perry had the first cold storage plant in Fruit Row (1906-07). Prior to the use of cold storage, produce needed to be shipped out much faster. Warehouses with cold storage capability in Yakima's Fruit Row by 1924 included: • Pacific Fruit & Produce Co. (ca. 1923, 15 West Yakima Avenue, extant, replaced three smaller brick buildings owned by the company at this location) • Yakima County Horticultural Union (ca. 1922, 29 North First Avenue, extant) • Yakima Fruit & Cold Storage Co. (1910s, 30-38 North First Avenue, demolished) • Richey & Gilbert Co. (1910s, 120-132 North First Avenue, demolished, current site of 134 and 136 North First Avenue built in 1968) • C.M. Holtzinger, Fruit & Produce (1925, North Second Avenue and West Yakima Avenue, demolished) • Roche Fruit & Produce Co. (ca. 1923, 17-29 North Second Avenue, demolished) • J.M. Perry & Co. (ca. 1907, 201 North First Avenue, extant; ca. 1919, 205 North First Avenue, extant; and the ca. 1919 predecessor building at 209 North First Avenue, demolished) 34 Van Lanen, 117. 35 Shirley Courtois, "C.M. Holtzinger Fruit Company Building," National Register of Historic Places Nomination (April 1988), Section 8, Page 2. 36 Van Lanen, 117. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 28 • American Fruit Growers, Inc. (ca. 1898, 311 North First Avenue, extant; ca. 1898, 313 North First Avenue, extant; both were common warehouses converted to cold storage warehouses.) COMMON WAREHOUSE Common warehouses can range in size from a small storage house to the large warehouses in Fruit Row. Unlike cold storage warehouses, common warehouses did not have mechanical cooling systems. They were typically constructed along rail lines, like those in Fruit Row, to ensure easy transportation access. They may have been constructed with additional insulation and ventilation shafts to lower interior temperatures, but they lacked the ability of cold storage warehouses to maintain consistently cool temperatures.37 Good examples of the common storage warehouse type are 309 North First Avenue, built ca. 1898 for common storage and ca. 1980s converted for cold storage use and 312 North First Avenue, built ca. 1928 and ca. 1980s converted for cold storage use. In both cases this conversion resulted in the blocking in of window openings. COLD STORAGE WAREHOUSE Cold storage warehouses were a greater construction investment than common warehouses, requiring more substantial buildings to house packing machinery and cold storage systems and piping. A typical cold storage building would have an exterior platform to receive deliveries of unpacked fruit. Workers transferred the fruit to the sizing machine, then packed them in boxes. They boxes would be nailed closed and labeled and then sent, often by conveyor, to cold storage rooms.38 Good examples of purpose built cold storage warehouse type are 301 North First Avenue (ca. 1927), operated by American Fruit Growers Inc.; 201 North First Avenue (ca. 1907), operated by J. M. Perry; and 29 North First Avenue (ca. 1922) and 27 North First Avenue (ca. 1927), operated by the Yakima County Horticulture Union. F. ARCHITECTURAL STYLES The buildings within the survey area are utilitarian and not representatives of any one architectural style. A few exhibit interesting architectural elements, but overall, the building exteriors reflect their industrial warehouse character. G. COMPARABLE EXAMPLES State-wide, Fruit Row stands out as a unique example of extant properties in terms of the sheer breadth of periods of construction represented (ca. 1898 to 1968), level of ongoing original uses, number of extant warehouses and their physical concentration within a focused area; relationship with the downtown commercial core; and the variety of building materials and systems retained from stone to precast concrete and 1923 ammonia compressors. 37 Van Lanen, 117-118. 38 Rolfe Whitnall, "Produce Row and Valley Storage Big Factor in Yakima's Prosperity," Yakima Valley Progress, January 1925, Volume 6, No. 3, 6. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 29 The scale of use for fruit and produce warehouses within the state cuts a vertical path from the Canadian to Oregon borders, bounded by the crest of the Cascade Mountain range to the west and the wheat fields of the Palouse to the east and the predominance of granaries on the landscape, and the timber stands of the Colville National Forest in the northeast. The concentration of fruit and produce warehouses generally aligns with railroad corridors to provide transportation access with the warehouses serving as collecting, packing, and storage facilities for the farmers in the broader surrounding area. Chelan County to the north was the other leading fruit producing county in the state by 1910 and contains the majority of other comparable warehouse examples. The former Northern Pacific Railroad now the BNSF Railway Company has the following key concentration areas: • Yakima's Fruit Row • Prosser: Warehouses along the track are adjacent the downtown commercial core, though on a smaller scale than Yakima. • Wapato: Warehouses along the track and are immediately north of the downtown commercial core, though on a smaller scale than Yakima. • Selah: Warehouses along the west side of the tracks. • Ellensburg: Some warehouses exist, though not nearly the same scale as Yakima. The former Great Northern Railway crossed the state north of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the following key concentration areas of fruit and produce warehouses remain along that rail corridor: • Quincy: Warehouses remain along both sides of the track, though west of the downtown. Going east there are a few warehouses at Winchester and then the industrial areas starting with Ephrata change to granaries. • Wenatchee: Warehouses extend along both sides of the track, though predominately along the west side and are directly east of the downtown commercial core. These do not have the same level of concentration and ongoing original uses. • Monitor: Warehouses remain along the southwest side of the track and the commercial core on the opposite side, but at a significantly smaller scale compared with Yakima. • Cashmere: Warehouses extend along both sides of the track and are adjacent the commercial core. • Dryden: Warehouses remain along the southwest side of the track and are near the commercial core, but at a significantly smaller scale compared with Yakima. • Peshastin: Warehouses remain northwest of the town along the rail line. The former Washington & Great Northern Railway, under construction as of 1907, extended north from the Great Northern Railway corridor and supported the subsequent development and ongoing use of the following key concentration areas of extant fruit and produce warehouses: • Sunnyslope: North of downtown Wenatchee, these warehouses extend along both sides of the track but lack a relationship with the downtown commercial core. • Chelan: Warehouses are present east of the downtown along the Columbia River and Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 30 Chelan Falls; each retains (as of 2019) a single corridor along the east side of the track. The area east of Chelan is set of industrial use warehouses. The area in Chelan Falls is similar to Yakima with warehouses on one side of the track and the town on the other side, though the scale is significantly different. • Brewster: Northwest of downtown, these warehouses consist of a single row generally along the southeast side and following the curve of the track. • Okanogan: East of town across the Okanogan River, these consist of a row of warehouses and a former flour mill along the east side of the tracks. • Tonasket: Consists of warehouses on either side of the tracks that are adjacent to the downtown commercial core, similar to Yakima, though on a smaller scale. • Oroville: Like Tonasket, consists of warehouses on either side of the tracks that are adjacent to the downtown commercial core, similar to Yakima, though on a smaller scale. 190.)7 Railroad Commi.ssioners' Mop of Washington with the central (runt production region outlined. A review of 20M - parable fruit warehouse concentrations focused on railroad line_ within this general area. Source: Washington State Depor'tmen't of Natural Resources. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 31 3. Survey Results Survey results exceeded expectations. The survey area retains a high level of cohesive visual character, an age range of buildings spanning from the 1880s to the 1960s and are associated with some of the key fruit packing and shipping companies in the Yakima valley. The survey area retains a high level of architectural integrity. Alterations recorded as part of field work identified the level of changes to building plan, cladding, and windows. Refer to Map TKTK to see these levels within the survey area. Visual character within the survey area reflects the progression of common and cold storage warehouses and associated cooling and transportation systems from the 1880s through 1968. Notable items observed during the field work: • The visual connection with downtown Yakima remains, visually linking the industry and commerce, though construction of the county jail has partially obstructed this visual connection. • The visual and physical relationship between the warehouses and the railroad remains, including loading docks to convey the historical association between industry and transportation. • The survey area along North 1st Avenue retains visual continuity and a strong sense of being within the warehouse district. This is supported by ongoing use of the buildings for common and cold storage. • The sequence of stone, brick, poured and pre -cast concrete warehouses convey the progressive development of warehouses within a concentrated area that supports the communication of these patterns. • The mechanical systems retained in the building at 201 North 1st Avenue and its connection with the J. M. Perry Company are unique within the survey area. • Several offices that are original or early additions to the buildings remain within at least two of the warehouses surveyed (201 and 202 North 1st Avenue). Exterior building alterations tended to include the following: • Infilling windows as part of converting common warehouses to cold storage. The 1968 warehouses had the unique alteration of adding windows to these cold storage building. • Removal of loading docks as the movement of goods shifted from railroad car to truck. Currently fork lifts run in and out of the buildings loading goods onto trucks. • Loading door replacement with new doors as original doors have either worn out or no longer provided an adequate seal for cold storage functions. • Replacement of wood windows with vinyl windows. • Adding new mechanical systems to the exterior of buildings to maximize storage space within the buildings. • Replacement of warehouses with new warehouses. This has occurred both within the potential period of significance and outside of the period in order to modernize facilities. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 32 • Building loss due to demolition or building failure leaving empty lots within the survey area. Interior alterations tended to include the following: • Removing framing to convert multiple floors to a single interior volume allowing for vertical stacks of stored goods that can be moved by forklift and eliminating the need for elevators or ramps between floors. These changes have kept the buildings in warehouse use without having to replace them with new warehouses. • Upgrading mechanical systems and removal of mechanical systems for dry storage. This typically resulted in the loss of original mechanical systems but has allowed the buildings to remain in cold storage use. • Adding insulation to the interior side of exterior building walls and the underside of floor framing in buildings used for cold storage. This typically consisted of spray foam. • Removal of packing equipment from cold storage warehouses as specialized packing warehouses were constructed, and then the removal of packing equipment from these buildings as storage shifted to prepackaged fruit, hops and other goods. A. NATIONAL REGISTER AND WASHINGTON HERITAGE REGISTER ELIGIBILITY Northwest Vernacular staff evaluated surveyed properties for potential eligibility for listing to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Staff utilized criteria cited below. The following addresses individual eligibility. Refer to the National Register Historic District Eligibility below for historic district eligibility evaluation. No criteria considerations were applicable for the evaluation of the properties surveyed. National Park Service's, National Register Bulletin No. 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation establishes the following criteria for evaluation and criteria considerations. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and: A. That are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or B. That are associated with the lives of significant persons in our past; or C. That embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or D. That have yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in history or prehistory. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 33 CRITERIA CONSIDERATIONS Ordinarily cemeteries, birthplaces, graves of historical figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, structures that have been moved from their original locations, reconstructed historic buildings, properties primarily commemorative in nature, and properties that have achieved significance within the past 50 years shall not be considered eligible for the National Register. However, such properties will qualify if they are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria or if they fall within the following categories: a. A religious property deriving primary significance from architectural or artistic distinction or historical importance; or b. A building or structure removed from its original location but which is primarily significant for architectural value, or which is the surviving structure most importantly associated with a historic person or event; or c. A birthplace or grave of a historical figure of outstanding importance if there is no appropriate site or building associated with his or her productive life; or d. A cemetery that derives its primary importance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, from age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events; or e. A reconstructed building when accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a restoration master plan, and when no other building or structure with the same association has survived; or f. A property primarily commemorative in intent if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has invested it with its own exceptional significance; or g. A property achieving significance within the past 50 years if it is of exceptional importance. Of the properties surveyed, one appears to have enough integrity, distinctive architectural character and historical associations to be considered for NRHP listing. All properties recommended for NRHP eligibility are also recommended for Washington Heritage Register eligibility. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 34 Table 5. Potential National Register Eligible Properties ADDRESS YEAR BUILT DESCRIPTION IMAGES 201 North 1907 ca. The property does appear individually eligible under "'d/ °047; ,i� 1st Avenue National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) Criterion C, as ;'" „ 1 , r�"" it embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type./�✓�;� d�„%� ;i% , property' The does appear individuallyeligible under 11101, „t i boa+ � � NRHP Criterion A, as it is does have a known important association with a single event or pattern of events significant to the city's architectural history. This was the first purpose-built ice manufacturing and cold storage building within the City of Yakima. 1 The property does appear individually eligible under NRHP Criterion B, as it is does illustrate a specific person's important achievements. This building illustrates the achievements of J. M. Perry, the growth of his company, and subsequent establishment of the Perry Technical i ;, 1/,,,, Institute in 1939 to educate and equipment students rrr for careers in industry. J. M. Perry's second floor officen� remains largely intact and was the business headquarters of one of Yakima's important industrialists. �, ,r The property does appear individually eligible under NRHP Criterion D, as it is does have important information that can contribute to our understanding of human �, ��� 1100 history. This is the only known building within Fruit Row y, o to contain a 1923 Frick ammonia compressor mechanical fppobso ill 'illn system, some associated piping, an associated counter- °/„ Rata flow chiller, and the next four generations of ammonia 1 Of , 1/ ��011 compressors. This collection of equipment has the potential to contribute to our understanding of mechanical P f�� ` i system development related to cold storage warehouses,Ilt and all contained within a single building. f,, lf'ii„ 1 rUF lo B. NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT ELIGIBILITY Northwest Vernacular staff evaluated the survey area for potential historic district eligibility for listing to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). No criteria considerations were applicable for the evaluation of the properties surveyed. Future research may yield information making a property eligible under other criteria. The potential historic district is recommended as eligible for NRHP listing as meeting the criteria A and C. CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION National Park Service's, National Register Bulletin No. 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation establishes the following criteria for evaluation and criteria considerations. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 35 The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and: A. That are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or The warehouses reflect an important historic trend in the development and growth of the Yakima Valley fruit and produce industry as a statewide leader, their connection with railroad and then truck transportation, and the growth of downtown Yakima. The warehouses reflect an important historic trend in the Yakima Valley's development and growth of the fruit and produce industry into a statewide leader in production, the expansion of Fruit Row to keep pace with increased fruit and produce production levels, and they types of common and cold storage warehouses used for packing and storage and their connection with statewide railroad and then truck transportation systems. The warehouses represent an important event or association through their concentrated establishment along the railroad and the development and growth of cold storage facilities in the Yakima Valley and as the largest concentration state- wide. The warehouses are associated with several key fruit packing companies and individuals within the Yakima Valley important in the local and statewide history and development of the fruit industry, and including J. M. Perry, the Yakima Fruit and Cold Storage Company, Yakima County Horticultural Union, Pacific Fruit and Produce Company, Prentice Packing and Cold Storage Company, W. E. Roche Fruit Company, and Sundquist Fruit and Cold Storage Company. B. That are associated with the lives of significant persons in our past; or C. That embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or The collection of warehouses is an important example locally and statewide of several distinctive periods of construction from the 1880s through 1960s. Collectively, these warehouses illustrate the impact of the immense fruit and produce production capacity of the Yakima Valley and the Northern Pacific Railroad for shipping fruit and produce to national markets through their scale, concentration along the railroad, and growth of cold storage warehouses. The collection of warehouses is an important example locally and statewide of several methods of construction including stone, brick, concrete and precast, as well as, the progression of ammonia cooling systems related to cold storage. These characteristics are embodied in the exterior characteristics of the warehouses and Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 36 the mechanical systems remaining in 201 North 1st Avenue. At the statewide level, the collection of warehouses is the largest known grouping within the central portion of the state that historically developed around the fruit industry with common and cold storage warehouses constructed along railroad lines to pack and store fruit for shipping. D. That have yielded or may be likely to yield, information important in history or prehistory. LEVEL AND PERIOD OF SIGNIFICANCE The potential historic district is recommended at the local and statewide level of significance. The development reflects important aspects of the Yakima Valley and the City of Yakima's growth following the establishment of the Northern Pacific Railroad through the 1960s. State-wide the historic district stands out as a unique example of extant properties in terms of demonstrating advances in common and cold storage warehouse construction, the shift in transportation methods of packed fruit and produce from railroad to semi -truck and the associated impact in design on warehouses and the district, periods of construction represented (ca. 1898 to 1968), level of ongoing original uses, number of extant warehouses and their physical concentration within a focused area; relationship with the downtown commercial core; and the variety of building materials and systems retained from stone to precast concrete and 1923 ammonia compressors. The recommended period of significance spans from 1898 to 1968, marked by construction of the first extant warehouse and construction of the first pre -cast concrete warehouse within the survey area designed by a Yakima company specializing in warehouse and cold storage design. INTEGRITY The area retains a high level of integrity, which each aspect discussed below. • Location: boundaries that historically defined the historic district remain intact along with the location of streets and the railroad right-of-way. The size and shape of the blocks and rights-of-way remain intact. • Design: the arrangement and hierarchy of streets and arrangement of blocks remain intact. The spatial organization of the blocks around the railroad remains evident through the streets and loading docks. • Setting: the corridor character along North 1st Avenue and along the railroad right-of-way remain in working common and cold storage warehouse use conveying a continuity of historic use since the historic district was established. • Materials: of the buildings, loading docks, and roadways remain. Stone, brick stucco, and concrete all support a cohesive historic character to the historic district. Most buildings retain key exterior materials related to their original construction. • Workmanship: remains evident in the concrete, brick, and stone building exteriors, loading docks, wood doors at loading doorways, and wood windows. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 37 • Feeling: remains both along North 1st Avenue and along the railroad right of way east of North 1st Avenue. The visual massing and continuity of the warehouses along with loading docks and loading doorways remains. • Association: the warehouses continue to operate as common and cold storage warehouses. The buildings convey the period when the historic district achieved importance and continue to reflect functional design principles that shaped it. CLASSIFYING CONTRIBUTING AND NONCONTRIBUTING RESOURCES The following outlines the methodology utilized in assessing surveyed properties for potential contributing and noncontributing status within the potential historic district. The following table provides a count of contributing and non-contributing status level recommendations for properties within the potential historic district. Table 6. Potential Property Status STATUS COUNT Contributing 24 Non-contributing 2 The following provides an explanation of factors considered in assigning status levels. Contributing: • Built within the recommended period of significance, and, • Remain substantially intact. This means that alterations noted under plan, cladding, windows, and other were intact to moderate, with up to one extensive level alteration. Noncontributing: • Built outside the recommended period of significance; or are, • Substantially altered. This means that at least two alterations noted under plan, cladding, windows, and other were extensive. C. YAKIMA REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES ELIGIBILITY NWV staff evaluated surveyed properties for potential eligibility for listing to the Yakima Register of Historic Places. Staff utilized the categories cited below. Chapter 11.62.045 of the City of Yakima Municipal Code establishes the following categories for evaluating local register eligibility. Any building, structure, site, object, or district may be designated for inclusion in the Yakima Register of Historic Places if it is significantly associated with the history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, or cultural heritage of the community, if it has integrity, is at least forty (40) years old, or is of lesser age and has exceptional importance, and if it falls in at least one of the following categories Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 38 (1) Is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of national, state, or local history (2) Embodies the distinctive architectural characteristics of a type, period, style, or method of design or construction, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction. (3) Is an outstanding work of a designer, builder, or architect who has made a substantial contribution to the art. (4) Exemplifies or reflects special elements of Yakima's cultural, special, economic, political, aesthetic, engineering, or architectural history (5) Is associated with the lives of persons significant in national, state, or local history (6) Has yielded or may be likely to yield important archaeological information related to history or prehistory (7) Is a building or structure removed from its original location but which is significant primarily for architectural value, or which is the only surviving structure significantly associated with an historic person or event. (8) Is a birthplace or grave of a historical figure of outstanding importance and is the only surviving structure or site associated with that person. (9) Is a cemetery which derives its primary significance from age, from distinctive design features, or from association with historic events, or cultural patterns (10) Is a creative and unique example of folk or vernacular architecture and design created by persons not formally trained in the architectural or design professions, and which does not fit into formal architectural or historical categories. Of the properties surveyed, 13 appear to have enough integrity and distinctive architectural character to be considered for YRHP listing. In general, any property recommended as appearing potentially eligible for NRHP listing was also recommended as potentially YRHP eligible. Those properties that are only recommended for consideration as YRHP eligible either lacked enough distinctive architectural character or had slight alterations that diminished their NRHP eligibility potential. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 39 Table 7 Potential Yakima Register Eligible Properties ADDRESS YEAR BUILT, CA. DESCRIPTION IMAGE 117 N 1st Ave 1910 Under categories 1 and 4, the property is significant for its association with the Helliesen Lumber Company for their operation from the building and role in supplying building materials and agricultural implements supporting the development of the city and agriculture within the Yakima Valley. Tilligillg,764"*Ttlii*Iltill 1111,11111110111110111 unoommunnuodu 61,111;;Illoolti;t1\111 IL 1'111111111112 W A ST 1923 Under category 1, the property is significant for its association with the Yakima County Horticultural Union, its functional relationship with the warehouses at 29 and 27 North 1st Avenue, and the role of truck in the shipping of fruit and produce to and from the warehouses. k' lit Nit/ / " �,/ �����'� � Ir��� J/�/�lr% /'i��,'"�ti��11.1 1 nr �fl� //�1,/ a ������t�Y?"!rl61% grli 201 N 1st Ave 1907 Under categories 1, 2, 4, and 5. Refer to the table for individual NRNP eligibility recommendations for additional////off detail. "'"�O �;/�// / //' '�tw�����'%/�� ACU �� i� �,//,/ Ivy (//7 ////), 202 N 1st Ave 1925 Under categories 1, 2, and 5, this property is significant pPacking for itsuseand development bythe Prenticeghlhgal11 Company,and as a purpose-built cold storage warehouse. 11„1 "n°11111'1'11111' ' 111 IV %'4' twti '1111111111111111111111111111111101111111 Ong on11.91 I� 11010000001111010110 111100111111111111111111111100000101011011 111111111111 �_,f Toll ,I �f r 205 N 1st Ave 1911 Under categories 1, 2, and 5, this property is significant for its use and development by the J. M. Perry and Company, and as a purpose-built cold storage warehouse.�///, yr,// (1 ), /�,�,, /,�1,,' �/��/,�' �� �r/ , ' , ,r.r, H�/�� // 7' j 1,4, 213 N 1st Ave 1923 Under categories 1, 2, and 5, this property is significant for its use and development by the J. M. Perry and Company, and as a purpose-built cold storage warehouse. cp '/„`/ /; '0”' " iii„'/ y / b/%/ to �1111 ffjyy'1y )�(W'dl':..1111111111111111111111111111 � ,//, III 0101 / y�// Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 40 ADDRESS YEAR BUILT, CA. DESCRIPTION IMAGE 215 N 1st Ave 27 N 1st Ave 1910 1927 Under category 2, this property is significant as a brick masonry common warehouse, and its subsequent role as a fruit warehouse. Under categories 1 and 2, this property is significant for its association with the Yakima County Horticultural Union and as a purpose-built brick cold storage warehouse. OPE 29 N 1st Ave 301 N 1st Ave 1922 1927 Under categories 1 and 2, this property is significant for its association with the Yakima County Horticultural Union and as a purpose-built brick cold storage warehouse. Under categories 1 and 2, this property is significant for its association with the American Fruit Growers Inc. and as a purpose-built concrete cold storage warehouse. 1111011000011 ri4 1,41 I 11 11 309 N 1st Ave 311 N 1st Ave 1898 1898 Under categories 1, 2, and 4 this property is significant for its association with the establishment of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the first common warehouses constructed along North lst Avenue, its use as a common and then a cold storage warehouse, and as a notable example within the city of a stone warehouse. Under categories 1, 2, and 4 this property is significant for its association with the establishment of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the first common warehouses constructed along North lst Avenue, and its use as a common and then a cold storage warehouse. v 11111111 i fill, ll 4,1 !,111,1'1,1,:ii,11,1111'11111111111'111111,1,,Iti Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 41 ADDRESS YEAR BUILT, CA. DESCRIPTION IMAGE 313 N 1st Ave 1898 Under categories 1, 2, and 4 this property is significant for its association with the establishment of the Northern Pacific Railroad, the first common warehouses constructed along North lst Avenue, and its use as a common and then a cold storage warehouse. rqqf D. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS The following identifies key local development trends influencing the retention of historic properties within the survey area. • Maintaining active, income producing use of the buildings is essential for their retention. Property owners have successfully adapted many of the building interiors to support changing storage uses while retaining exterior integrity and some key interior features. • Water damage to interior framing from past cold storage use will be a significant issue for several of the buildings. During the March 28, 2019 walk through, several locations were identified where water has been soaking into the floor framing, saturating the sawdust insulation and contributing to the deterioration of framing members. E. RECOMMENDATIONS Implementation of the following recommendations will support local comprehensive planning, the purpose of the city's Historic Preservation Ordinance, and the 2014-2019 Washington State Historic Preservation Plan goals. • Conduct outreach to property owners of properties recommended for NRHP eligibility to ask if they are interested in pursuing National Register designation for a historic district. This should include meetings or an informational letter clarifying what it means to be listed to the National Register. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 42 4. Bibliography Anderson, Oscar Edward, Jr. Refrigeration in America: A History of a New Technology and Its Im- pact. Princeton University: New Jersey, 1972. Artifacts Consulting, Inc. "Downtown Yakima Cultural Resource Survey." Prepared for the City of Yakima. September 2006. Becker, Paula. "Diamond Ice & Storage Company of Seattle Incorporates on November 25, 1892." HistorryLink.org the Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. April 4, 2018, https://www.historylink.org/File/20532. Accessed April 29, 2019. "Building Permits for Last Month Total $132,685." Yakima Valley Progress. Vol I., No. 2. December 1919. Central Washington State Archives Branch. Yakima County Treasurer and Assessor records includ- ing CE339-4-0-1 Real Property Tax Assessment Rolls; CE339-1-0-16 Aerial Photographs; CE339-1-0-4 Assessment Field Maps; CE339-1-0-5 Assessment Field Books; CE339-1-0-6 Assessor's Plats; CE339-1-0-11 Operating Property Record; CE339-1-0-17 Property Record Cards; CE339-1-0-1 Real Property Tax Assessment Rolls; and, CE339-1-0-12 Right of Way Maps. City of Yakima Building Permit Records for buildings along North 1st Avenue. These included an original drawing for the warehouses at 130-134 North 1st Avenue. "Cold Storage Extends Season." Appleland News. November 1948. "Cooperative Marketing, Big Factor in Handling Valley's Fruit." Yakima Valley Progress. Volume 3, No. 9, July 1922. Courtois, Shirley. "C.M. Holtzinger Fruit Company Building." National Register of Historic Places Nomination. April 1988. Department of Commerce. United States Census of Architecture 1925: Reports for States with Sta- tistics for Counties and a Summary for the United States, Part II. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. 1925. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/AgCen- suslmages/1925/01/46/1925-01-46.pdf. Department of Commerce and Labor. Thirteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910, Volume VI, Agriculture, 1909 and 1910, Reports by States, with Statistics for Counties. Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. 1913. http:// usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/AgCensuslmages/1910/07/01/1834/41033898v7ch7.pdf. "Desires a Correction." The Yakima Herald. October 3, 1906. via https://chroniclingamerica.loc. gov/Iccn/sn88085523/1906-10-03/ed-1/seq-7.pdf. Edwards, G. Thomas. "'The Early Morning of Yakima's Day of Greatness': The Yakima County Agri- cultural Boom of 1905-1911." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 73, no. 2 (April 1982): 78-89. "Fruit Growing in Yakima County." The Yakima Herald. July 3, 1907. https://chroniclingamerica.loc. gov/Iccn/sn88085523/1907-07-03/ed-1/seq-9.pdf Healy, Don. "Yakama Nation History." Yakama Nation. http://www.yakamanation-nsn.gov/history. php. Accessed April 12, 2019. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 43 History of Yakima Valley, Washington Comprising Yakima, Kittitas and Benton Counties. Volume II. The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1919. Oldham, Kit. "Northern Pacific reaches Yakima City, where it declines to build a station, on Decem- ber 17, 1884." HistoryLink.org the Free Encyclopedia of Washington State History. February 18, 2003. https://historylink.org/File/5237. Accessed March 28, 2019. "Horticultural Union's Warehouse Dedicated." The Yakima Herald. July 25, 1906: 2. https://chroni- clingamerica.loc.gov/Iccn/sn88085523/1911-08-16/ed-1/seq-3.pdf. . Interview with Will Hollingberry, March 28, 2019. "JM Perry." The Yakima Herald. October 3, 1910: 7. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/Iccn/ sn88085523/1906-10-03/ed-1/seq-7.pdf. Kershner, Jim. "Yakima — Thumbnail History." HistoryLink.org The Free Online Encyclopedia of Washington State History. October 16, 2009. https://www.historylink.org/File/9187. Ac- cessed April 23, 2019. "Palletizing Provides New Materials, Handling Economies, Speeds Shipment," Appleland News, June 1947, 20. "Produce Row Gets O.W.R.&N." The Yakima Herald. August 16, 1911: 3. Via https://chroniclingameri- ca.loc.gov/Iccn/sn88085523/1911-08-16/ed-1/seq-3.pdf. R. L. Polk & Company, Inc. Polk's Yakima (Washington) City Directory. (R. L. Polk & Company, Inc.: Seattle, 1911, 1928, 1931 through 1969). Schotzko, R. Thomas and David Granatstein. "A Brief Look at the Washington Ap- ple Industry: Past and Present." http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?- doi=10.1.1.492.6148&rep=repl&type=pdf. Accessed April 12, 2019. Strausz, R. W. "Palletized Warehouses." Appleland News. December 1947. "Stored Fruit." The Yakima Herald. November 8, 1911: 8. https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/Iccn/ sn88085523/1911-11-08/ed-1/seq-8.pdf The Gillis Group with Kenneth L. Casavant. "Transportation Needs of Eastern Washington Fruit, Vegetable and Hay Industries." Eastern Washington Intermodal Transportation Study Re- search Report Number 7. March 1995. http://ses.wsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/err7. pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1964 United States Census of Agriculture: Volume 1, Part 46. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C., 1964. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/ AgCensuslmages/1964/01/46/809/Table-13.pdf. U.S. Geological Survey. Historic aerials, 1955, 1956, 1964, and 1974. University of Washington Libraries, Special Collections. Accession No. 5154-001: Oregon-Wash- ington Railroad and Navigation Company records, circa 1900-1918. Van Lanen, Amanda L. "'We Have Grown Fine Fruit Whether We Would Or No': The History of the Washington State Apple Industry, 1880-1930." PhD diss. Washington State University, 2009. Washington State Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data. https://fortress.wa.gov/dahp/ wisaardp3/. Accessed March, 2019. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 44 Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Public Land Survey Office records, including historic plats and station maps. Washington State Department of Transportation. "A History of Highways & Transportation." 1993. https://www.wsd ot.wa.gov/N R/rdon lyres/5AA959 D8-AD8A-43 FA-87AF-F7C1 C704C329/0/ WAHighwayHistory.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. Whitnall, Rolfe. "Produce Row and Valley Storage Big Factor in Yakima's Prosperity." Yakima Valley Progress. January 1925. Volume 6, No. 3, 5. Yakima County Assessor's Office, Property Record Cards, "Parcel 181324-14407." Central Washing- ton State Archives, CE339-1-0-17. "Yakima Important Scenic and Agricultural Center." Yakima Valley Progress. January 1925. Volume 6, No. 3, 7. Yakima Valley Museum. Maps, historic photographs, newspapers, and company records archives. Yakima, Washington. Sanborn Fire Insurance Map, Sanborn Perris Map Co., 1920, 1924, 1950, and 1952. Yakima, Washington. Station Map, Lands -Tracks and Structures, Oregon -Washington Railroad and Navigation Company, ca. 1905, updated through 1993. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 45 5. Maps The following maps were developed as part of this survey. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 46 rliairtts 4$4A 11 "A8'1 e'0,1411,01111 ,1,10 ' =r Map 1. 1889 map, note the growth in railroad tracks between this map and the next. Survey area outlined in red. Source: Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Identifier wsu sc001-495-1889-northyakima. .. ,,,,IltIFil,,a7171r4 '.i,.ill! ) 't"' ' r"---4. -""' "111 1' ..... : • ..0.4.., I Map 2. 1908 map of North Yakima, Source: Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries, Identifier wsu sc001-495-1908-northyakima. Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 47 • • • „ • .••••••••nm u1,4.". 11'6 VeldP.' • • • • • ' , ' "" • ,..4":"14, 113::1111116,1011,1110"110ili, VION.44146 This is an flattened detail of the survey area from the map below with north to the right. • 91 1111111 • 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111m... Map 3. 1889 view of North Yakima published by The Spike & Arnold Map Publishing Co. Survey area outlined in red. Source: Yakima Valley Museum, Map Drawer, Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 48 D IVa` a �. n F3 c R, i i # i d L\4 fst ®1 ' a\ 1 ,ky .\\\,,,, ,,, Ili ° ° ST e w.0 313 N 911N1 f A e ,M.,. ' '3N��„�Ki, - 1-N, Ape ve Ave I e "D' it' i t IIA i, ST t WL �• n„ve • N ria Ave o a -LG--28$..14- 215 �� !-t ve ve b� a 5 t a Cy for i// ^/ ” p_ z .1 Fj fi /` X'^ V ; 2l i NN 1: Ave I r= S w rtin Luther AC ,J‘, Blvd 1 51' d AI��„ u S11I 1s • 41ve 117 N 1- iiern $ ._ 132 ..J p fi , z } N A• fi ' st A�ie (II 107 N1 ul a 3 ' ...;G' i6.• �1 2i II. we • gQkN1 T pl� B 1 2m v ti ...� '' IN �TRIi 1 a' > - Nil ?! , 29 14 27 1s , N 1st ve • ., i. /A.AvI. .560 awe f�• ` f�m N ” #, A g. oo s^I eve ! 15!W Ya 1 + - Im Ave RI RI 1rw+i f.Nt 7 f 3^n „ss W Y Mr, Ave Map 4. Ca. 1905 Station Map Overlay. ;; Survey area Surveyed properties ( Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 Ca. 1905 Oregon -Washington Railroad and Navigation Company station map. Source: Washington State Depatment of Natural Resources. nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 49 iii, i111u„ 1,18,op 110161)1 110 '111111; .1q111111,11,111,11,1111111,1,1",i(lif,II:0, 1111111111111111111111111111111,11,11, 1111111111111111111111111111101' 011111111011101111111111,11,111,11,11,11,11111,11," 11111111111:1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111rmirIIIIIII:011111011,.:„,„i,il:„, 11,111,l1. 11' ll);11 1111 1111111111111111111'11111111111 WncoInAve /7/ag11,111ffif j1111' 1;11Illk JI1.111,1 on, 117 i* 11111111111111114100011111111110010100010101h1011011011011110 1111 1000000000000000 0001 10100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1000R q0000100100T ) 111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111 11 111111111111\11111111111111111111100 illoi111111111111111111161111lilill , 1111 II 11111111, t 1111 111 47 Nis 110116000000000000600001 '1111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 111111,111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111,11,6,1'111.6 411,1,11,1,y 411111111111 „'' ••' „ 66,66.666 6,66 1666WYakl1 6611 1,1,,1111111111141111111111111111111411111' II"( ..„„... '111,11111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111100000q , 1 „"1111,111 11,1,01,111.1,11 111111„:11 Map 5. 1955 Aerial Overlay. I I Survey area Surveyed properties 1 1 Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 1955 aerial. Source: US Geological Survey. VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 50 111111111111111111 1.1•1•111.1h1'•••1,111111.11•11111' 1114,nnit1....1, 1L1111""'' 111111111111111 1 +iiiroulor 11111,11111111 ,rnouwolulumum 111111111 II viwrn , • • ••••'''.•• •WYakimaAvP'1 Map 6. 1956 Aerial Overlay. I Survey area Surveyed properties 1 1 Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 1956 aerial. Source: US Geological Survey. VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 51 01,001Street 11111000ti, ...„..„ .0,0114,10 ,,Il "4,,,,r,l'i"Xl,,J!),,.,!,,!,!,!,,,A,!,MIII,,,,,,,,,11,,„ qr,,. :."ll'' ••• „„l11 I . '"' " 1111E4, 1,1 .".4.,,,: • 1,0 0 iIi0f ,,,0•• 0„. :11.11111 1011/1.00,0'. ... .,.. , . - ,,,.• :..., . 0, 0,0. :,,.• - , • ,• 0 :,•••0WI4arnn L fretittif .J.s....41,V*1. ;,1i11,1 0 0 Yak ,1011,11:;'11 Map 7 1964 Aerial Overlay. I I Survey area Surveyed properties 1 1 Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 1964 aerial. Source: US Geological Survey. nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 52 • er: //e„„ 1110)11.: 1000000000F00004 ,ly vI 1)1i i!„)11"1"' '0000 is."N //),!!!/r// / 1 / ,Y f I1111111)11000001011100001100 10111111 P1q11 11111111111111111111111111111111111i =NH 14001 , 1 r 101101 1 1 1 11 1 1 0 y / / I I °° 11111111111111111111111111111 000 0 0 iv I I), / % 1 011111111 11 00 01101111111111111111111111111111 z j'11!1111111111 VOODOMO 001000 0 000 °loud II moll ir" 11111111 11111 looloovoy000mo 1111 loolooMp* 11:1111:1111111 4.4 f Iv( . , .:11;117,11f:1'11.1111" ,Ilool111111'1'1111'"111,/ ,,i0010000000 vvvelrvrAvvv,10111111.111111111111111:11:1 ju flf vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvI r , ) 0„. Alp,og Map 8. 1974 Aerial Overlay. I Survey area Surveyed properties 1 1 Intensive level WISAARD form completed Not surveyed, built after 1969 1974 aerial. Source: US Geological Survey. nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 53 - - ' 1111111, "Sfreet, 39X, t t 11 11 0111 4" .,..,..411111111,111 ...gENammYylmuml„ /1.11111111111!111.11111( ji ; • •'','•; ili.(11...'11KMi(i'N'Olr • • • W artin tut/tot 9(10fif Jrt 'YU TIV,Y11)/11111 (11081/4111110.111k1N/W11(0).11111 1111111j1)1}/1 PhI2 //A 111111111111,i ,, , A diddhf 11,0'n • I , Y. I . .. . 41' ' YO .„,e, • • '• W„Yaluitta /444t: Map 9. Survey area and surveyed properties. Surveyed properties ED Intensive level WISAARD form completed I I Not surveyed, built after 1969 Yakima County tax parcels Survey area VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 54 "D"Street 538795; 1 it!or Plf Ll'ncoin Ave 1.1.1,1,1,1.1.11 •o Olrioa 53 W istartin Luther KingJr Blvd /zz == W Yelkirna Ave Map 10. Previous Surveys. Previous surveys (PropertylD label) WISAARD previously surveyed properties Yakima County tax parcels [II Survey area nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 55 • . 7„7„7,7 '• - 1111,111,11(1 • 1 Etti '1111 W°E? • •• •• ••• • • • • • •iimilId:111(06101 •," •• • 4,1 •• • ' '[i•• • ' „Pi •. ,• ••, • ,..• • • • •' • "i• /r111.11111111!111.11111( ji ••,.. • • •••:'• ••'',•••:. • W rtin LuthflJrM N.1,1,11,1 '116 !QUIN (608,11A111#.04,1111011(101111 11,11 y „j hc''..dahr A NRHP historic district status recommendations El Contributing I I Non-contributing NRHP historic district boundary recommendation nw VERNACULAR Map 12. NRHP Historic District Eligibility Recommendations, Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 57 ""'I'!",•," ,,,,• ' ' W 7?,' streot ,...""":"!!"..",":"!!!'","!""..!!!!!!!!!!""!,",!"."'E!!!"'","'"."!,'"".4!"!'"'",""I",'"'":"":"..""'","""'"',"""•"'"'"Ill• ii, • 'Ill • r•,,;,""!' • , :••••••••••,••••••„„.„,"••,•,•••,,,, ,1? 1111111,, M111;10,! • , 1' 11(W ,::11111 • 11,•••1? ' 4.044ne .911111.110,,,,,,,Crl:111,1111111111t111111111 0“,,1 .1.1.1011,1,01 11,„ • • :::,',1111111//06.0.1Yar.finIW1I„, mid,IIIIIIIRMAr 'fi011/011111/IIIIIIIIIMMIall 6411111,JABAI 1,?1,, 1 ,\:Ati 27Ni'l‘ Ili hi . ili , 1111,1)1i10 '' •••••,!! g. • 11 MAI Id • • I • . ... . ,gYL 111, wyok.10:1:' • Av • Map 13. Individual YRHP Eligibility Recommendations, Individual YRHP eligibility recommendations Yes Surveyed property Survey area I I nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 58 Ave -----77mtitr tig Ave ccc rcr crcc 4#011011 Ave 1st Ave • 2 111111v 00000110001011 136 13 Ave Ave logrr ,11\11,4111'311, t4' 1411g 212SA, Ave Or. Aye 'Ave Ave 201401 tiAve W "D" Street W Lincoln Ave W kartin Luther. King Jr. Blvd Ilst Ave iff IlMii,!,.,,i Aye r A ST Aye 4 2 N' 18 Av a Ave W Yakima Ave Map 14. Development Periods. Properties by City development period 1885 to 1899 I I 11111111111, I I 1900 to 1917 1918 to 1939 1940 to 1949 1950 to 1970 1000000000000001 1971 to Present F:=1 Survey area nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 59 312 Nim *Ave 291R lst 4Y/R, 136 Ave 13 11111111 1111111 W "D" Street W Lincoln Ave W kartin Luther. King Jr. Blvd .lst Ave Pc 1110 ic 1, loo111111Oioiorooloi cic 1.11111111licili cicc. c 00111111111111111111 11111111 111111111IIIIIIIIII looloomounom 0000010,01111111111011111000001,0000;000001000:0 IIIIIIIIII 000 0 00100 0 VI 0000 00 c W Yakima Ave Map 15. Building Structures by Material. Building structure by material DDD Brick F-1 Concrete Block Poured Concrete lHI Precast Concrete moom Stone Survey area nw VERNACULAR Fruit Row Intensive Level Survey and Historic Context Northwest Vernacular 60